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5 
ESI 

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CORNELL 

UNIVERSITY 

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UNDERGRADUATE  LIBRARY 


J 


Cornell  University  Library 
AE  5.E57  1910 
V.22 
The  encyclopaedia  britannica;  a  dictfonary 


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The  original  of  this  book  is  in 
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THE 


ENCYCLOPEDIA    BRITANNICA 


ELEVENTH     EDITION 


FIRST 

edition, 

publisiied  in  three                vo 

lumes, 

1768- 

-1771. 

SECOND 

ten 

1777- 

-1784. 

THIRD 

,,               eighteen 

1788- 

-1797. 

FOURTH 

„               twenty 

1801- 

-1810. 

FIFTH 

,,               twenty 

1815- 

-1817. 

SIXTH 

,,               twenty 

1823- 

-1824. 

SEVENTH 

,,               twenty-one 

1830- 

-1842. 

EIGHTH 

„               twenty-two 

1853- 

-i860. 

NINTH 

,,              twenty-five 

187s- 

-1889. 

TENTH 

ninth  edition  and  eleven 

supplementary  volumes, 

1902- 

-1903. 

ELEVENTH 

j» 

published  in  twenty-nine  volumes. 

1910- 

-1911. 

COPYRIGHT 

in  all  countries  subscribing  to  the 

Bern  Convention 

by 
THE  CHANCELLOR,  MASTERS  AND  SCHOLARS 

of  the 

UNIVERSITY  OF  CAMBRIDGE 


All  rights  reserved 


THE 


ElkCYCLOP^DIA  BRITANNIGA 


A 


DICTIONARY 

OF 

ARTS,    SCIENCES,    LITERATURE    AND    GENERAL 

INFORMATION 

ELEVENTH    EDITION 


VOLUME  XXII 

POLL   to    REEVES 


Cambridge,  England: 

at  the  Unive-sity  Press 

^ew  York,   35  Wtst  32nd  Street 
191 1 


Copyright,  in  the  United  States  of  America,  191 1, 

by 

The  Encyclopaedia  Britinnica  Company. 


I 

t 
/ 

/ 


INITIALS  USED  IN  VOLUME  XXII.    TO    IDENTIFY    INDIVIDUAL 
CONTRIBUTORS,!    WITH  THE  HEADINGS   OF  THE 
ARTICLES    IN  THIS    VOLUME  SO    SIGNED. 


A. 

C. 

McG. 

A. 

D. 

A. 

de  W.  F 

A. 

E. 

G.* 

of|] 


A.  Bo.*  AUGTTSTE   BOTJDINHON,  D.D.,  D.C.L. 

Professor  of  Canon  Law  at  the  Catholic  University  of  Paris.     Honorary  Canon  of  -j  Pope. 
Paris.    Editor  of  the  Canoniste  Contemporain.  \_ 

A.  C.  G.  AiBERT  Charles  Lewis  Gotthile  Guenther,  M.A.,  M.D.,  Ph.D.,  F.R.S.  T 

Keeper  of  Zoological  Department,  British  Museum,  1875-1895.  Gold  Medallist,  J  t>„„  /•  j,„«*) 
Royal  Society,  1878.  Author  of  Catalogues  of  Colubrine  Snakes,  Batrachia,  |  i  \  V  >• 
Salientia  and  Fishes  in  the  British  Museum ;  &c.  >- 

Rev.  Arthur  Cushman  McGiefert,  M.A.,  Ph.D.,  D.D.  r 

Professor  of  Church  History,  Union  Theological  Seminary,  New  York.    Author  of  J  p_._u„f.  /,•„   j,„rf\ 
History  of  Chrislin.nitv  in  the  Ahnstnl-ir   Aae-  Rrr       F.rlitrir  of  thp   Histnria  F.r.rlp.sia  1  -t^repnei    \in    'pari). 
of  Eusebius. 


History  of  Christianity  in  the  Apostolic  Age;  &c.     Editor  of  the  Historia  Ecclesia  \ 


Austin  Dobson,  LL.D.,  D.C.L.  J  p^       Matthew 

See  the  biographical  article:  DoBsoN,  Henry  Austin.  \  ^™''  "^'*""B"'- 

Arthur  de  Wint  Foote.  |  Power  Transmission: 

Superintendent  of  North  Star  Mining  Company,  California.  L      Pneumatic. 

Rev.  Alfred  Ernest  Garvie,  M.A.,  D.D.  f 

Principal  of  New  College,  Hampstead.  Member  of  the  Board  of  Theology  and  J  p..j.-f:__i:n_ 
the  Board  of  Philosophy,  London  University.  Author  of  Studies  in  the  Inner  Life  |  rreaesunaiion. 
of  Jesus ;  &c.  L 

A.  E.  H.  A.  E.  Houghton.  f 

Formerly  Correspondent  of  the  Standard  in  Spain.     Author  of  Restoration  of  the<  Quesaoa  y  matneus. 
Bourbons  in  Spain.  L 

A.  E.  S.  Arthur  Everett  Shipley,  M.A.,  D.Sc,  F.R.S.  f 

Master  of  Christ's  College,  Cambridge.    Reader  in  Zoology,  Cambridge  University.  {  Priapuloidea. 
Joint-editor  of  the  Cambridge  Natural  History.  I 

A.  G.  Major  Arthur  George  Frederick  Griffiths  (d.  1908).  [ 

H.M.     Inspector  of  Prisons,   1878-1896.     Author  of  The  Chronicles  of  Newgate -A  Prison. 
Secrets  of  the  Prison  House ;  &c.  I 

A.  Ha.  Adolf  Harnack,  Ph.D.  ( Proohet  (in  i>art) 

See  the  biographical  article :  Harnack,  Adolf.  \  ^roP'iei  {in  part). 

A.  J.  G.  Riv.  Alexander  James  Grieve,  M.A.,  B.D.  ,.     ,,    ,         ,       fpreachine- 

Professor  of  New  Testament  and  Church  History,  Yorkshire  United  Independent     f,  .     .'r  ^'      ,,     ■,..„, 
College,  Bradford.     Som.etime  Registrar  of  Madras  University,  and  Member  ofl  Primitive  Methodist  Church; 
Mysore  Educational  Service.  [  Priscillian. 

A.  L.  Andrew  Lang.  r  Poltergeist;  Prometheus; 

See  the  biographical  article :  Lang,  Andrew.  "[  Psychical  Research. 

A.  McA,  Alexander  McAulay,  M.A.  _  ,  ^rr-,-     f^     x      - 

Professor  of  Mathematics  and  Physics,  University  of  Tasmania.     Author  of  Unhty  ^  Quatermons  (i«  part), 
of  Quaternions  in  Physics;  &c.  [_ 

A  M  CI  Agnes  Muriel  Clay  (Mrs  Edward  Wilde).  Tt,  vi- 

■      '  Formerly  Resident  Tutor  of  Lady  Margaret  Hall,  Oxford.     Joint-author  of  Sources  <  PUDUCam. 

of  Roman  History,  133-70  B.C.  I 


A.  N.  Alfred  Newton,  F.RiS. 

See  the  biographical  article :  Newton,  Alfred. 


Pratincole;  Quail;  Quezal; 
Rail  {in  part); 
Raven;  Razorbill; 
Redshank;  Redstart; 
Redwing. 

1 A  complete  list,  showing  all  individual  contributors,  appears  in  the  final  volume. 

V 


VI 

A.  SI. 

A.  S.  P.-P. 

A.  S.  Wo. 

A.  T.  H. 

A.  Wi.* 

A.  W.  Po. 

A.  W.  R. 

B.  B.  A. 

C.  B.* 
C.  E.  W. 

C.  F.  A. 
C.  G.  Cr. 


INITIALS  AND  HEADINGS  OF  ARTICLES 


c. 

Hi 

c. 

H. 

Ha. 

c. 

H. 

T.* 

c. 

R. 

B. 

C.  T.  J. 

D.  B.  Ma. 

D.  C.  B. 
D.  D.  A. 

D.  P.  T. 
D.  G.  H. 


Water-    Prostitution. 


Arthur  Shadwell,  M.A.,  M.D.,  LL.D. 

Member  of  Council  of  Epidemiological  Society.     Author  of  The  London 
Supply;  Industrial  Efficiency;  Drink,  Temperance  and  Legislation. 

Andrew  Seth  Pringle-Pattison,  M.A.,  LL.D.,  D.C.L.  f 

Professor  of  Logic  and  Metaphysics  in  the  University  of  Edinburgh.  Gifford  J  p„+i,n„nra<i  ^'m  *^r/") 
Lecturer  in  the  University  of  Aberdeen,  1911.  Fellow  of  the  British  Acadpmy.  1  i'yiiagoras  (.m  pari). 
Author  of  Man's  Place  in  the  Cosmos;  The  Philosophical  Radicals;  &c. 


I 


Arthur  Smith  Woodward,  LL.D.,  F.R.S.  , 

Keeper  of  Geology,  Natural  History  Museum,  South  Kensington.     Secretary  of  "j  Pterodaetyles. 
the  Geological  Society  of  London. 


Arthur  Twining  Hadley,  LL.D. 

See  the  biographical  article:  Hadley,  Arthur  Twining. 


Railways:  Economics. 


Aneurin  Williams,  M.A.  _         f 

Barrister-at-Law  of  the  Inner  Temple.  Chairman  of  Executive,  International  J  prnfif  Qharinir 
Co-operative  Alliance.  M.P.  for  Plymouth,  1910.  Author  of  Twenty-eight  Years  \^  rTOn\r%as,iia^. 
of  Co-partnership  at  Guise ;  &c.  >- 

Alfred  William  Pollard,  M.A. 

Assistant  Keeper  of  Printed  Books,  British  Museum.     Fellow  of  King's  College, 

London.     Hon.  Secretary,  Bibliographical  Society.     Editor  of  Books  about  Books -^  Polyglott. 

and  Bibliographica.     Joint-editor  of  the  Library.     Chief  Editor  of  the  "  Globe 

Chaucer. 

Alexander  Wood  Renton,  M.A.,  LL.B. 

Puisne  Judge  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  Ceylon. 
Laws  of  England. 

Braman  Blanchard  Adams. 

Associate  Editor  of  the  Railway  Age  Gazette,  New  York. 


Exiitor  of  Encyclopaedia  of  thei  Proclamation, 


i  Railways: 


Accident  Statistics. 


Charles  Bemont,  D.Litt. 

See  the  biographical  article:  Bemont, 


C. 


Quicherat. 


C.  E.  Webber,  C.B.,  M.Inst.C.E.,  M.I.E.E.  (1838-1905).  r 

Major-General,  Royal  Engineers.    Served  in  Indian  Mutiny,  1857-1860;  Egyptian  J  Railways: 
Expedition,  1882;  &c.    Founder  (with  late  Sir  Francis  Bolton)  and  Past  President!       .hart) 
of  the  Institute  of  Electrical  Engineers.  y      V      '• 

Charles  Francis  Atkinson.  [ 

Formerly  Scholar  of  Queen's  College,  Oxford.     Captain,  1st  City  of  London  (Royal  - 
Fusiliers).    Author  of  The  Wilderness  and  Cold  Harbour. 

Charles  George  Crump,  M.A. 

Balliol  College,  Oxford.     Clerk  in  H.M.  Public  Record  Office,  London.     Editor  of . 
Landor's  Works;  &c. 


Light  Railways  (in 


Ravenna:  Battle  of  1512. 


Record. 


Charles  Hiatt. 

Author  of  Picture  Posters ;  &c. 

Carlton  Huntley  Hayes,  A.M.,  Ph.D. 

Assistant  Professor  of  History  in  Columbia  University,  New  York  City, 
of  the  American  Historical  Association. 

Crawford  Howell  Toy,  A.M.,  LL.D. 

See  the  biographical  article :  Toy,  Crawford  Howell. 

Charles  Raymond  Beazley,  M.A.,  D.Litt.,  F.R.G.S.,  F.R.Hist.S. 

Professor  of  Modern  History  in  the  University  of  Birmingham.  Formerly  Fellow 
of  Merton  College,  Oxford,  and  University  Lecturer  in  the  History  of  Geography. 
Lothian  Prizeman,  Oxford,  1889.  Lowell  Lecturer,  Boston,  1908.  Author  of 
Henry  the  Navigator;  The  Dawn  of  Modern  Geography;  &c. 


Poster. 


Member-^  Purgatory. 


Proverbs,  Book  of. 

Polo,  Marco  {in  part); 
Ptolemy  {in  part); 
Pytheas  {in  part). 


Charles  T.  Jacobi.  r 

Managing  Partner  of  the  Chiswick  Press,  London.    Author  oi  Printing;  Si.c.  1  Printing. 

Duncan  Black  Macdonald,  M.A.,  D.D. 

Professor  of  Semitic  Languages,  Hartford  Theological  Seminary,  Hartford,  Conn. 

Author   of   Development   of  .Muslim    Theology,    Jurisprudence   and    Conslhutional  \  Ramadan. 

Theory;  Selections  from  Ibn  Khaldun;  Religious  Attitude  and  Life  in  Islam;  &c. 

Demetrius  Charles  Boulger.  r 

Author  of  England  and  Russia  in  Central  Asia;  History  of  China;  Life  of  Gordon- . 
India  in  the  i0th  Century;  History  of  Belgium ;  &c.  '  ' " 


Raffles,  Sir  Thomas. 


Rev.  Daniel  Dulany  Addison,  D.D.  r 

Rector  of  All  Saints'  Church,  Brookline,  Mass.     Examining  Chaplain  to  Bishop  of 
Massachusetts.    Secretary,  Cathedral  Chapter  of  Diocese  of  Massachusetts.    Author)  Protestant  Episcopal  ChUTch. 

of  The  Episcopalians ;  &c. 

Donald  Francis  Tovey. 


Author  of  Essays  in  Musical  Analysis:  comprising  The  Classical  Concerto  The 
Goldberg  Variations,  and  analyses  of  many  other  classical  works.  ' 

David  George  Hogarth,  M..^. 

Keeper  of  the  Ashmolean  Museum,  Oxford.  Fellow  of  Magdalen  College,  O.xford 
Fellow  of  the  British  Academy.  Excavated  at  Paphos,  1888;  Naucratis  1890  and 
1903;  Ephesus,  1904-1905;  Assiut,  1906-1907.  Director,  British  School  at 
Athens,  1897-1900.    Director,  Cretan  Exploration   Fund,  1899. 


Programme  Music. 


Priene; 
Pteria. 


INITIALS  AND  HEADINGS  OF  ARTICLES 


Vll 


D.  H. 

D.  H.  S. 

D.  W.  T. 

E.  A.  J. 

E.  A.  M. 
E.  Ba. 

E.Br. 
E.  B.  E. 

E.  C.  B. 

E.G. 
E.  Ga. 

E.  Gr. 
E.  G.  C. 

E.  H.  B. 
E.  J.  J. 

E.  O'N. 
E.  Pr. 

E.  Ru. 
E.  R.  B. 
P.  C.  C. 


David  Hannay.  ,  c,    -  r^- .       ^  <7    i>      ,  J  Quiberon,  Battle  of ; 

Formerly  British  Vice-Consul  at  Barcelona.    Author  of  Short  History  of  the  Royali  d„i  •  \.    e-    iir-i*  - 
Navy;  Life  of  EmilioCasklar;&c.  [  Raleigh,  Sir  Walter. 


DuKiOTiELD  Henry  Scott,  M.A.,  Ph.D.,  LL.D.,  F.R.S. 

President  of  the  Linnean  Society.    Professor  of  Botany,  Royal  College  of  Science, 
London,  1885-1892.    Author  of  Strtictural  Botany;  Studies  in  Fossil  Botany;  &c.       L 

D'Arcy  Wentworth  Thompson,  C.B.,  M.A.  f 

Professor   of   Natural   History,    University   College,    Dundee.      British  Delegate,  J  jjay 
Bering  Sea  Fisheries  and  other  Conferences.     Author  of  A  Glossary  of  Greek  Birds ;  1  ' 

&c.  L 


Fringsheim,  Nathanael. 


John. 


E.  Alfred  Jones. 

Author  of  Old  English  Gold  Plate ;  Old  Church  Plate  of  the  Isle  of  Man ;  Old  Silver 
Sacramental  Vessels  of  Foreign  Protestant  Churches  in  England ;  Illustrated  Catalogue 
of  Leopold  de  Rothschild's  Collection  of  Old  Plate ;  A  Private  Catalogue  of  the  Royal 
Plate  at  Windsor  Castle ;  &c. 


Quaich. 


Edward  Alfred  Minchin,  M.A.,  F.Z.S.  f  Polyp; 

Professor  of  Protozoology  in  the  University    of    London.     Formerly   Fellow   of  J  ProtODlasm" 
Merton  College,  Oxford,  and  Jodrell  Professor  of  Zoology  and  Comparative  Anatomy,  1  _     .  ' 

University  College,  London.  I  ProtOZOa. 

Edwin  Bale,  R.I. 

Art  Director,  Cassell  &  Company,  Ltd.    Member  of  the  Royal  Institute  of  Painters  -{  PlDCeSS. 
in  Water  Colours.     Hon.  Sec,  Artists'  Copyright  Committee. 


Ernest  Barker,  M.A. 

Fellow  and  Lecturer  in  Modern  History,  St  John's  College,  Oxford.     Formerly » 
Fellow  and  Tutor  of  Merton  College.    Craven  Scholar,  1895. 


Raymund  of  Antioch; 
Raymund  of  Toulouse; 
Raymund  of  Tripoli; 
Raynald  of  Cbatillon. 


Edward  B.  Ellington.  r 

Founder  and  Chief  Engineer  of  the  General  Hydraulic  Power  Co.,  Ltd.    Author  of  J  Power  Transmission: 
Contributions  to  Proceedings  of  Institutions  of  Civil  Engineers  and  of  Mechanical  1       Hydraulic. 
Engineers.  t 


Right  Rev.  Edward  Cuthbert  Butler,  M.A.,  O.S.B.,  Litt.D. 

Abbot  of  Downside  Abbey,  Bath,  ^uthor  of  "  The  Lausiac  History  of  Palladius  ' 
in  Cambridge  Texts  and  Studies. 


\  Premonstratensians; 
1  Ranee,  Aimand  de. 

I  Prologue;  Prose. 


Author  oi  Manual  of  l^^^^"^^^^'  ^^Sht  Railways  (in 
^  1       part). 

\  Propylaea. 


Pulley. 


Edmund  Gosse,  LL.D.,  D.C.L. 

See  the  biographical  article :  GossE,  Edmund. 

Emile  Garcke,  M.Inst.E.E. 

Managing  Director  of  British  Electric  Traction  Co.,  Ltd. 
Electrical  Undertakings;  &c. 

Ernest  Arthur  Gardner,  M.A. 

See  the  biographical  article:  Gardner,  Percy. 

Ernest  George  Coker,  M.A.,_D.Sc.,  F.R.S. (Edin.),  M.Sc.,  M.I.Mech.E. 

Professor  of  Mechanical  Engineering  in  the  City  and  Guilds  of  London  Technical . 
College.    Author  of  various  papers  in  Transactions  of  the  Royal  Societies  of  London, 
Edinburgh  and  Canada ;  &c.  L 

Sir  Edward  Herbert  Bunbury,  Bart.,  M.A.,  F.R.G.S.  (d.  1895).  f  Pompeii  {in  part); 

M. P.  for  Bury  St  Edmunds,  1847-1852.    Author  oi  A  History  of  Ancient  Geography  ;\  Ptolemy  {in  part); 
&c.  [  Pytheas  {in  part). 

Edmund  Janes  James,  A.M.,  Ph.D.,  LL.D.  C 

President  of  the  University  of  Illinois ;  President  of  American  Economic  Associa- . 
tion.     Author  of  History  of  American  Tariff  Legislation,  and  Essays  and  Mono- 
graphs on  Economic,  Financial,  Political  and  Educational  subjects. 

Elizabeth  O'Neill,  M.A.  (Mrs  H.  0.  O'Neill). 

Formerly  University  Fellow  and  Jones  Fellow  of  the  University  of  Manchester. 

Edgar  Prestage. 

Special  Lecturer  in  Portuguese  Literature  in  the  University  of  Manchester. 
Examiner  jn  Portuguese  in  the  Universities  of  London,  Manchester,  &c. 
Comraendador,  Portuguese  Order  of  S  Thiago.  Corresponding  Member  of  Lisbon 
Royal  Academy  of  Sciences,  Lisbon  Geographical  Society ;  &c.  Editor  of  Letters  of 
a  Portuguese  Nun;  Azurara's  Chronicle  of  Guinea;  &c. 

Ernest  Ruthereord,  F.R.S.,  D.Sc,  LL.D.,  Ph.D. 

Langworthy   Professor  of   Physics,   University  of   Manchester.     Nobel   Prize    for  ■ 
Chemistry,  1908.    Author  of  Radio-activity ;  Radio-active  Transformations ;  &c. 

Edwyn  Robert  Bevan,  M.A. 

New  College,  Oxford.    Author  of  The  House  of  Seleucus ;  Jerusalem  under  the  High  - 
Priests. 

Frederick  Cornwallis  Conybeare,  M.A.,  D.Th. 

Fellow  of  the  British  Academy.     Formerly  Fellow  of  University  College,  Oxford. 
Editor  of   The  Ancient  Armenian  Texts  of  Aristotle.    Author  of  Myth,  Magic  and' 
Morals ;  &c. 


Protection. 

Prebendary;  Prelate; 
Prior;  Procurator. 


Portugal:  Literature. 

Radio-activity. 
Ptolemies. 

Purification. 


Vlll 

F.  C.  S.  S. 

F.  Dr. 
F.  D.  A. 

F.  E.  W. 

F.  G.  P.* 
F.  H.  D.* 

F.  J.  H.  M. 

F.  K.* 
F.  LI.  G. 

F.  M.  L.* 

F.  P. 

F.  R.  C. 
F.  Wa. 
F.  W.  R.* 

F.  Y.  E. 

G.  A.  Gr. 

G.  C.  W. 

G.  E.* 
G.  G.  S. 
G.  J.  A. 
G.  J.  T. 


INITIALS  AND  HEADINGS  OF  ARTICLES 


Ferdinand  Canning  Scott  Schiller,  M.A.,  D.Sc. 

Fellow  and  Tutor  of  Corpus  Christi  College,  Oxford. 
Sphinx ;  Studies  in  Humanism ;  &c. 

Francis  M.  D.  Drummond. 


Author  of  Riddles  of  the  i  Pragmatism. 


Precedence  {in  part). 


Quebec  {in  part); 
Queen  Charlotte  Islands. 


Frank  Dawson  Adams,  Ph.D.,  D.Sc,  F.G.S.,  F.R.S. 

Dean  of  the  Faculty  of  Applied  Science  and  Logan  Professor  of  Geology,  McGill 
University,  Montreal ;  President  of  Canadian  Mining  Institute.    Author  of  Papers  - 
dealing  with  problems  of  Metamorphism,  &c.,  also  Researches  on  Experimental 
Geology;  &c. 

Rev.  Frederick  Edward  Warren,  M.A.,  F.S.A. 

Rector  of  Bardwell,  Bury  St  Edmunds,  and  Honorary  Canon  of  Ely.     Fellow  of 

St  John's  College,  Oxford,  1865-1882.    Author  of  The  Old  Catholic  Ritual  done  into  <  Prayer,  Book  of  Common. 

English  and  compared  with  the  Corresponding  Offices  in  the  Roman  and  Old  German 

Manuals ;  The  Liturgy  and  Ritual  of  the  Celtic  Church ;  &c. 

Frank  George  Pope. 

Lecturer  on  Chemistry,  East  London  College  (University  of  London) . 


Purln. 


Portaels,  J.  F. 


Psammetichus; 
Rameses  {in  part). 


Frank  Haigh  Dixon,  Ph.D.,  A.M. 

Professor  of  Economics,  Dartmouth  College,  Hanover,  N.H.  Member  of  the 
National  Waterways  Commission.    Author  of  Stale  Railroad  Control. 

Hon.    Frederick    James    Hamilton    Merrill,    Ph.D.,     F.G.S. (America),    M. 
American  Inst.M.E.,  &c. 

Consulting  Geologist  and  Mining  Engineer.  State  Geologist  of  New  York, 
1899-1904.  Author  of  Reports  of  New  Jersey  and  New  York  Geological  Surveys; 
&c. 

Fernand  Khnopff. 

See  the  biographical  article:  Khnopff,  F.  E.  J.  M. 

Francis  Llewellyn  Griffith,  M.A.,  Ph.D.,  F.S.A. 

Reader  in  Egyptology,  Oxford  University.  Editor  of  the  Archaeological  Survey  and 
Archaeological  Reports  of  the  Egypt  Exploration  Fund.  Fellow  of  Imperial 
German  Archaeological  Institute.  Author  of  Stories  of  the  High  Priests  of  Memphis ; 
&c. 

Francis  Manley  Lowe.  f 

Major  R.A.  (retired).     Member  of  the  Staff  of  Sir  W.  C Armstrong,  Whitworth  | 
&  Co.,  Ltd.,  Elswick  Works.    Assistant-Superintendent  of  Experiments,  Shoebury- -j  Range-finder. 
ness,    1898-1903.     Author  of  articles   in   the   Proceedings  of  the   Royal  Artillery   I 
Institution;  &c.  I 

Frank  Podmore,  M.A.  (d.  1910).  r 

Pembroke   College,   Oxford.     Author  of  Studies  in  Psychical  Research ;    Modern  J   Premonition 

tjpli'lbUlZtlSin' )  OcC>  I 

Frank  R.  Cana. 

Author  of  South  Africa  from  the  Great  Trek  to  the  Union. 

Francis  Watt,  M.A. 

Barrister-at-Law,  Middle  Temple.    Author  of  Law's  Lumber  Room. 

Frederick  William  Rudler,  I.S.O.,  F.G.S.  f  p    ■+    . 

Curator  and  Librarian  of  the  Museum  of  Practical  Geology,  London,  1 879-1902.  J   "3'^'''^^! 
President  of  the  Geologists'  Association,  1887-1889.  [  Pyrope. 

Francis  Ysidro  Edgeworth,  M.A.,  D.C.L.  r 

Professor  of  Political  Economy  in  the  University  of  Oxford.     Fellow  of  All  Souls' 
College,  Oxford,  and  of  King's  College,  London.     Editor  of  the  Economic  Journal.  \  -o    \,  i,-!-*. 
Author  of  Mathematical  Psychics,  and  numerous  papers  on  the  Calculus  of  Proba-  1   """^"Ulty. 
bilities  in  the  Philosophical  Magazine ;  &c.  I 

George  Abraham  Grierson,  CLE.,  Ph.D.,  D.Litt. 

Indian  Civil  Service,  1873-1903.     In  charge  of  Linguistic  Survey  of  India,  1898-      _, 
1902.    Gold  Medallist,  Royal  Asiatic  Society,  1909.     Vice-President  of  the  Royal  J  Prakrit; 
Asiatic  Society.    Formerly  Fellow  of  Calcutta  University.   Anthov  oi  The  Langitages\  Rajasthani. 
of  India ;  &c.  . 

George  Charles  Williamson,  Litt.D.  , 

Chevalier  of  the  Legion  of  Honour.    Author  of  Portrait  Miniatures;  Life  of  Richard 
Cosway,  R.A.;  George  Engleheart;  Portrait  Drawings;  &c.     Editor  of  New  Edition  ]  Prieur,  Pierre. 
of  Bryan's  Dictionary  of  Painters  and  Engravers.  I 

Robert  Geoffrey  Ellis. 

Peterhouse,  Cambridge.     Barrister-at-Law,  Inner  Temple.  Joint-editor  of  Eng/u;!  J  Privy  Council. 
Reports.    Author  of  Peerage  Law  and  History. 

George  Gregory  Smith,  M.A. 

Professor  of  English  Literature,  Queen's  University,  Belfast.  Author  of  The 
Days  of  James  IV.;   The  Transition  Period;  Specimens  of  Middle  Scots;  &c. 


Railways:    American  Railway 
Legislation. 


Quarrying. 


Portuguese  East  Africa; 
Rabah  Zobeir. 

Pound  {in  part). 


Ramsay,  Allan. 


George  Johnston  Allman,  M.A. ,  LL.D.,  F.R.S. ,  D.Sc.  (1824-1905).  rptolem     r  ~\ 

Professor  of  Mathematics  in  Queen's  College,  Galway,  and  in  Queen's  University  of  J  ^  *if  part) ; 

Ireland,  1853-1893.    Author  oi  Greek  Geometry  from  Thales  to  Euclid;  &c.  1  Pythagoras:  Geometry. 

George  James  Turner.  r  provision- 

Barrister-at-Law,  Lincoln's  Inn.      Editor  of  Select  Pleas  of  the  Forests  for  the  Selden  -\  r. 
Society.  [  Rape. 


[NITIALS  AND  HEADINGS  OF  ARTICLES 


IX 


G. 

Re 

G. 

Sa. 

G. 

W. 

T. 

H. 

A. 

Y. 

H. 

D. 

W. 

H. 

Fr 

H. 

F. 

G. 

H 

F. 

P. 

H 

M. 

R. 

Sir  Geor 
See 


the 


iE  Reid,  LL.D. 
biographical  article:  Reid,  Sir  George. 


{ 


Portraiture. 

Quinet;  Rabelais; 
Racine. 

Rawendis. 


George  Saintsbury,  LL.D.,  D.C.L. 

See  the  biographical  article:  Saintsbury,  George  E.  B. 

Rev.  Griifithes  Wheeler  Thatcher,  M.A.,  B.D. 

Warden  of  Camden  College,  Sydney,  N.S.W.    Formerly  Tutor  in  Hebrew  and  Old 
TestaAient  History  at  Mansfield  College,  Oxford. 

Horatio  Arthur  Yorke,  C.B. 

Lieut.-Colonel,   R.E.   (retired).     Chief  Inspecting  Officer  of  Railways 
Trade.    Served  in  Afghan  War,  1879-1880;  Nile  Expedition,  1884-1885, 

Sir  Henrt  Drummond  Wolee,  G.C.B.,  G.C.M.G.  (1830-1908).  f 

Amba^ador  Extraordinary  and  Plenipotentiary  at  Madrid,  1892-1900.     M.P.  for  J  ,,  .  , 

Christjhurch,    1874-1880;    for    Portsmouth,    1880-1885.      Author   of   A    Life    of\  *^"mrOse  League. 
Napoh  in  at  Elba ;  &c.  I 


Board  of 


Railways  :Bn7MA  Railway 
Legislation. 


Henri  FeLntz. 

Art  Cntic,  Gazette  des  beaux  arts,  Paris. 


Puvis  de  Chavannes. 


Hans  Friidrich  Gadow,  F.R.S.,  Ph.D.  f  Python; 

Strickland  Curator  and  Lecturer  on  Zoology  in  the  University  of  Cambridge.    Author  -i  Ratitae; 
of  "  Ajnphibia  and  Reptiles  "  in  the  Cambridge  Natural  History;  &c.  Rattlesnake  (in  -bart) 


Henry  Fbancis  Pelham,  LL.D.,  D.C.L. 

See  th^  biographical  article :  Pelham,  H.  F. 

Hugh  Mu^ro  Ross. 

Formerly  Exhibitioner  of  Lincoln  College,  Oxford. 
Supplement.    Author  of  British  Railways. 


[ 


Polybius  {in  part). 


H.  N.  D. 
H.  0. 
H.  R.  L. 

H.  Ti. 
H.  T.  A. 

H.  W.  C.  D. 
H.  Y. 
LA. 

J.  A.  B. 

J.  A.  Bl. 
J.  A.  H. 

J.  A.  S. 
J.  E.  S.* 


Editor  of  The  Times  Engineering  }  Ra»ways:    Introduction, 

struction,  Rolling  block. 


Con- 


Red  Sea. 


I 

Henry  Newton  Dickson,  M.A.,  D.Sc,  F.R.S.(Edin.),  F.R.G.S.  \ 

Profesior  of  Geography  at  University  College,  Reading.    Formerly  Vice-President,  , 
Royal  Meteorological  Society.    Lecturer  in  Physical  Geography,  Oxford  University.  1  ' 
Authoi  of  Meteorology ;  Elements  of  Weather  and  Climate ;  &c.  [ 

Hermann  Oelsner,  M.A.,  Ph.D. 

Taylorian  Professor  of  the  Romance  Languages  in  the  University  of  Oxford.    Mem-  j  Provenpal  Literature: 
ber  of  Council  of  the  Philological  Society.      Author  of  A  History  of  Provencal  Litera-  j       Modern, 
ture ;  &.  L 

The  Rev.!  Henry  Richards  Luard,  M.A.,  D.D.  (1825-1891). 

Registiary  of  the  University  of  Cambridge,  1862-1 891.  Formerly  Fellow,  Bursar 
and  Ltcturer  at  Trinity  College.  Honorary  Fellow  of  King's  College,  London. 
Editoii  of  the  A  nnales  Monastici ;  the  Historia  of  Matthew  Paris  and  other  works 
for  the  "  Rolls  "  Series. 

Henry  Tedemann.  r 

Londdn  Editor  of  the  Nieuwe  Rotterdamsche  Courant.   Author  of  a  Dutch  biography,  <  Potgieter. 
and  virious  pamphlets  and  travel  works,  including  Via  Flushing.  [ 

Rev.  Heibert  Thomas  Andrews.  r 

Professor  of  New  Testament  Exegesis,  New  College,  London.  Author  of  "  The  J  Polycarp; 

Commentary  on   Acts  "    in   the    Westminster   New    Testament;  Handbook   on    the  >  Presbyter, 

Apocmphal  Books  in  the  "  Century  "  Bible.  [ 

Henry  William  Carless  Davis,  M.A.  f 

Felloy  and  Tutor  of  Balliol  College,  Oxford.  Fellow  of  All  Souls'  College,  Oxford 
1895-1902.    Author  of  England  under  the  Normans  and  Angevins;  Charlemagne. 


Person  {in  part). 


Ralph  of  Coggeshall. 


Sir  Heniy  Yule,  K.C.S.I.,  C.B. 

See  tie  biographical  article:  Yule,  Sir  Henry. 


Israel  Abrahams,  M.A. 

Readfer  in  Talmudic  and  Rabbinic  Literature  in  the  University  of  Cambridge. 
ForiTterly  President,  Jewish  Historical  Society  of  England.  Author  of  A  Short 
History  of  Jewish  Literature ;  Jewish  Life  in  the  Middle  Ages ;  Judaism ;  &c. 

Sir  jERvbisE  Atheistane  Baines,  C.S.I. 

President,  Royal  Statistical  Society,  1909-1910.  Census  Commissioner  under 
the  Gpvernment  of  India,  1889-1893.  Secretary  to  Royal  Commission  on  Opium, 
1894-4895.  Author  of  Official  Reports  on  Provincial  Administration  of  Indian 
Census  Operations;  &c. 

John  A.  Black. 

Press  reader  of  the  New  Volumes  of  the  Encyclopaedia  Britannica  (loth  ed.). 


Polo,  Marco  {in  part); 
Prester  John;  Ramusio. 

Proselyte;  Qaraites;  Qaro; 
Raba  Ben  Joseph  Ben  Hama 
Rabbah  Bar  Nahmani; 
Rapoport,  Samuel; 
Rashbam;  Rashi. 


Population. 


Proof-reading  {in  part). 


John  Alien  Howe,  B.Sc. 

Curator  and  Librarian  of  the  Museum  of  Practical  Geology, 
The  C  ',ology  of  Building  Stones. 

John  Adicngton  Symonds,  LL.D. 

See  tie  biographical  article:  Symonds,  John  A. 

John  Ed\in  Sandys,  M.A.,  Litt.D.,  LL.D. 

Publii    Orator  in  the  University  of  Cambridge. 
Camh-idge.     Fellow  of  the  British  Academy. 
Scholarship;  &c. 


London.    Author  of  J  Pre-Cambrian. 


\  Pontanus,  Jovianus. 


Fellow  of  St^J^n's  College,  ]  t,.-.„„   /■     j,„,a 
Author  of  A   TJ^tory  of  Classical^  ^°^^°^  (*«  ^<'''^>- 


X 

J.  F.-K. 

J.  G.  C.  A. 
J.  G.  F. 
J.  G.  Fr. 

J.  G.  K. 

J.  G.  Se. 
J.  Hn. 

J.  H.  M. 
J.  Ja. 
J.  L.* 
J.  M. 

J.  M.  M. 
J.  P.  E. 

J.  P.  P. 


INITIALS  AND  HEADINGS  OF  ARTICLES 


J.  R.' 


J.  S.  F. 


J.  S.  R. 


J.  T.  Be. 


James^  Fitzmaurice-Kelly,  Litt.D.,  F.R.Hist.S. 

Gilmour  Professor  of  Spanish  Language  and  Literature,  Liverpool  University. 
Norman  McColl  Lecturer,  Cambridge  University.  Fellow  of  the  British  Academy. 
Member  of  the  Royal  Spanish  Academy.  Knight  Commander  of  the  Order  of 
Alphonso  XIL    Author  of  A  History  of  Spanish  Literature;  &c. 

John  George  Clark  Anderson,  M.A. 

Student,  Censor  and  Tutor  of  Christ  Church,  Oxford.  Formerly  Fellow  of  Lincoln 
College.    Craven  Fellow,  Oxford,  1896.    Conington  Prizeman,  1893. 

Sir  Joshua  Girling  Fitch,  LL.D. 

See  the  biographical  article:  Fitch,  Sir  Joshua  Girling. 

James  George  Frazer,  M.A.,  D.C.L.,  LL.D.,  Litt.D. 

Professor  of  Social  Anthropology,  Liverpool  University.  Fellow  of  Trinity  College, 
Cambridge.    Fellow  of  the  British  Academy.    Author  of  The  Golden  Bough ;  &c. 


Quevedo  y  Vlllegas. 


John  Graham  Kerr,  M.A.,  F.R.S. 

Regius  Professor  of  Zoology  in  the  University  of  Glasgow.  Formerly  Dernon- 
strator  in  Animal  Morphology  in  the  University  of  Cambridge.  Fellow  of  Christ's 
College,  Cambridge,  1898-1904.  Walsingham  Medallist,  1898.  Neill  Prizeman, 
Royal  Society  of  Edinburgh,  1904. 

Sir  James  George  Scott,  K.C.I.E. 

Superintendent  and  Political  Officer,  Southern  Shan  States. 
The  Upper  Burma  Gazetteer. 


Pontus. 

\  Polytechnic  {in  part). 

Praefect  (in  part); 
Prseneste  {in  part); 
Praetor  {in  part); 
Proserpine  {in  part); 
Province  {in  part). 


Ray  {in  part). 


Author  of  Burma;  <  Raagoon, 


University  of  Bonn.  Author  of -^  Puttkammer, 


RaphaeL 


Justus  Hashagen,  Ph.D. 

Privatdozent  in  Medieval  and  Modern  History, 
Das  Kheinland  unter  der  Franzosische  Herrschaft. 

John  Henry  Middleton,  M.A.,  Litt.D.,  F.S.A.,  D.C.L.  (1846-1 

Slade  Professor  of  Fine  Art  in  the  University  of  Cambridge,  1886-1S95.     Director 
of  the  Fitzwilliam  Museum,  Cambridge,  1889-1892.     Art  Director  of  the  South  - 
Kensington  Museum,  1892-1896.    Author  of  The  Engraved  Gems  0/  Classical  Times; 
Illuminated  Manuscripts  in  Classical  and  Mediaeval  Times. 

Joseph  Jacobs,  Litt.D. 

Professor  of  English  Literature  in  the  Jewish  Theological  Seminary,  New  York. 
Formerly  President  of  the  Jewish  Historical  Society  of  England.     Corresponding  - 
Member  of  the  Royal  Academy  of  History,  Madrid.     Author  of  Jews  oj  Angevin 
England;  Studies  in  Biblical  Archaeology;  &c.  I 

Sir  Joseph  Larmor,  M.A.,  D.Sc,  LL.D.,  F.R.S.  r 

Fellow  of  St  John's  College,  Cambridge,  and  Lucasian  Professor  of  Mathematics  in      xj-j.-i-.-    —y,  t 

the  University.    Secretary  of  the  Royal  Society.    Professor  of  Natural  Philosophy,  J  «auaUOn,   Ifleory  01; 
Queen's  College,  Galway,  1880-1885.     Author  of  Ether  and  Matter,  and  various     Radiometer. 
memoirs  on  Mathematics  and  Physics.  L 

Sir  John  Macdonell,  C.B.,  LL.D. 

Master  of  the  Supreme  Court.  Counsel  to  the  Board  of  Trade  and  London  Chamber 
of  Commerce.  Formerly  Quain  Professor  of  Comparative  Law,  University  College, 
London.  Editor  of  State  Trials;  Civil  Judicial  Statistics;  &c.  Author  of  Survey 
of  Political  Economy ;  The  Land  Question ;  &c. 


Purim. 


Protectorate. 


John  Malcolm  Mitchell. 

Sometime  Scholar  of  Queen's  College,  Oxford.     Lecturer  in  Classics,  East  London . 
College  (University  of  London).    Joint-editor  of  Crete's  History  of  Greece. 

Jean  Paul  Hippolyte  Emmanuel  Adhemar  Esmein. 

Professor  of  Law  in  the  University  of  Paris.     Officer  of  the  Legion  of  Honour. 
Member  of  the  Institute  of  France.    Author  of  Cours  Slementaire  d'histoire  du  droit ' 
frangais;  &c. 

John  Percival  Postgate,  M.A.,  Litt.D. 

Professor  of  Latin  in  the  University  of  Liverpool.     Fellow  of  Trinity  College, 
Cambridge.      Fellow    of*  the    British  Academy.    Editor  oi  the  Classical  Quarterly.  ~ 
Editor-in-chief  of  the  Corpus  Poetarum  Latinorum ;  &c. 

John  Randall. 

Formerly  Secretary  of  the  London  Association  of  Correctors  of  the  Press.     Sub- , 
editor  of  the  Athenaeum  and  Notes  and  Queries. 

John  Smith  Flett,  D.Sc,  F.G.S. 

Petrographer  to  the  Geological  Survey.     Formerly  Lecturer  on  Petrology  in  Edin- 
burgh University.      Neill  Medallist  of  the  Royal  Society  of  Edinburgh.     Bigsby ' 
Medallist  of  the  Geological  Society  of  London. 

James  Smith  Reid,  M.A.,  LL.D.,  Litt.D. 

Professor  of  Ancient  History  and  Fellow  and  Tutor  of  Gonville  and  Caius  College, 
Cambridge.      Browne's  and  Chancellor's  Medals.    Editor  of  editions  of  Cicero's ' 
Academia,  De  Amicitia;  &c. 


John  Thomas  Bealby. 

Joint-author  of  Stanford's''£'i''':''i"^-     Formerly  Editor  of  the  Scottish  Geographical. 
"  gazine.     Translator  of  Sven  '^edin's  Through  Asia,  Central  Asia  and  Tibet;  &c. 


Pomponazzi,  Pietro; 
Price,  Richard. 

Prefect; 

ProTost  {in  France). 


Propertius,  Sextus. 


Proof-reading  {in  part). 

"Porphyry;  Pumice; 
Pyroxenite; 
.  Quartzite;  Quartz-Porphyry. 

QuiaUlian. 


Poltava  {in  part); 
Pskov  {in  part); 
Radom  {in  part). 


INITIALS  AND  HEADINGS  OF  ARTICLES 


XI 


J.  T.  Cr. 

J.  W. 

J.  W.* 
J.  W.  G. 

K.  G.  J. 
K.  S. 


Queensland:  History. 


L.  Bl. 


L.  J.  S. 


L. 

Wr. 

L. 

W.  V.-H. 

M. 

Br. 

M. 

Ha. 

M. 

M.Bh. 

M.  N.  T. 


M.  0.  B.  C. 


N.  M. 


N.  W.  T. 


0.  C.  W. 


0.  H. 


P.  A.  K. 


James  Tkoubridge  Critchell. 

London  Correspondent  of  the  Australasian  Pasioralisls' Review,  North  Queensland. 

Herald;   &c.      Fellow   of   the   Royal    Colonial    Institute.      Author   of  Polynesian 
Laboif  in  Queensland ;  Guide  to  Queensland ;  &c.  *- 

James  Williams,  D.C.L.,  LL.D.  f  Possession  (law)- 

All  Souls'  Reader  in  Roman  Law  in  the  University  of  Oxford.    Fellow  of  Lincoln  1  Ti.„„„_,-_i-.„   /■    \    a 
College.    Author  of  Wills  and  Succession;  &c.  L  Prescription  (w  part). 


James  Ward,  LL.D. 

See  the  biographical  article:  Ward,  James. 

John  Walter  Gregory,  D.Sc,  F.R.S. 

Professor  of  Geology  at  the  University  of  Glasgow. 
Mineralogy  at  the  University  of  Melbourne,  1900-1904. 
of  Australia;  &c. 


Professor  of  Geology  and  _ 
Author  of  The  Dead  Heart 


KiNGSLEY  Garland  Jayne. 

Sometime  Scholar  of  Wadham  College,  Oxford. 
Author  of  Vasco  da  Gama  and  his  Successors. 


Matthew  Arnold  Prizeman,  1903. 


Kathleen  Schlesinger. 

Editor  of  the  Portfolio  of  Musical  A  rchaeology.    Author  of  The  Instruments  of  the 
Orchestra. 


Psychology, 


Queensland:  Geology. 


Portugal:  Geography  and 
History. 

"Pommer;  Portative  Organ; 
Positive  Organ;  Psaltery; 
Rackett;  Ravanastron; 
Rebab;  Rebec; 
Recorder  {music); 
Reed  Instruments. 


Prague. 


Power  Transmission: 

Electrical. 


Count  Liixzow,  Litt.D.  (Oxon.),  D.Ph.  (Prague),  F.R.G.S. 

Chamberlain  of  H.M.  the  Emperor  of  Austria,  King  of  Bohemia.     Hon.  Member 
of  the  Royal   Society  of  Literature.     Member  of  the  Bohemian  Academy,   &c.  - 
Author  of  Bohemia:   a  Historical  Sketch;    The  Historians  of  Bohemia   (Ilchester 
Lecture,  Oxford,  1904) ;  The  Life  and  Times  of  John  Hus;  &c. 

Louis  Bell,  Ph.D. 

Consulting   Engineer,    Boston,    U.S.A.      Chief   Engineer,    Electric    Power  Trans-  _ 
mission  Department,  General  Electric  Co.,  Boston.    Formerly  Editor  of  Electrical 
World,  New  York.    Author  of  Electric  Power  Transmission ;  &c. 

Leonard  James  Spencer,  M.A.    ...  f  Proustite;  Pyrargyrite; 

Assistant  in  Department  of  Mineralogy,  British  Museum.  Formerly  Scholar  of  J  b,™-!,,-;*!,.  PirrnmnrnViHo- 
Sidney  Sussex  College,  Cambridge,  and  Harkness  Scholar.  Editor  of  the  Mineral-  1  1^°/^.,  '  ^Tromorpniie, 
ogical  Magazine.  [  Pyrrhotite;  Quartz;  Realgar. 

Lewis  Wright. 

Author  of  The  Practical  Poultry  Keeper ;  The  New  Book  of  Poultry ;  &c. 

L.  W.  Vernon-Harcourt  (d.  igog). 

Barrister-at-Law.    Author  of  His  Grace  the  Steward  and  the  Trial  of  Peers. 


Formerly  Fellow  of  the  Royal . 
in   Cambridge  Natural  History; 


Margaret  Bryant. 

Marcus  Hartog,  M.A.,  D.Sc,  F.L.S. 

Professor  of  Zoology,  University  College,  Cork. 
University  of  Ireland.  Author  of  "  Protozoa  ' 
and  papers  for  various  scientific  journals. 

Sir  Mancherjee  Merwanjee  Bhownaggree,  K.C.I. E. 

Fellow  of  Bombay  University.    M.P.  for  N.E.  Bethnal  Green,  1895-1906.    Author  ■ 
of  History  of  the  Constitution  of  the  East  India  Company ;  &c. 

Marcus  Niebuhr  Tod,  M.A. 

Fellow  and  Tutor  of  Oriel  College,  Oxford.     University  Lecturer  in  Epigraphy. 
Joint-author  of  Catalogue  of  the  Sparta  Museum. 

Maximilian  Otto  Bismarck  Caspari,  M.A. 

Reader  in  Ancient  History  at  London  University. 
University,  1905-1908. 


\  Poultry  and  Poultry-farming. 
I  Reclamation  of  Land. 
\  Pope,  Alexander  {in  part) . 


Lecturer  in  Greek  at  Birmingham  ■ 


Norman  M'Lean,  M.A. 

Lecturer  in  Aramaic,  Cambridge  University.  Fellow  and  Hebrew  Lecturer,  Christ's  - 
College,  Cambridge.    Joint-editor  of  the  larger  Cambridge  Septuagint. 

NORTHCOXE  Whitridge  Thomas,  M.A. 

Government  Anthropologist  to  Southern  Nigeria.  Corresponding  Member  of  the , 
Soci6t6  d'Anthropologie  de  Paris.  Author  of  Thought  Transference;  Kinship  and' 
Marriage  in  Australia;  &c. 

Rev.  Owen  Charles  Whitehouse,  M.A.,  D.D. 

Senior  Theological  Tutor  and  Lecturer  in  Hebrew,  Cheshunt  College,  Cambridge.  _ 
Formerly  Principal  and  Professor  of  Biblical  Exegesis  and  Theology  in  the  Countess 
of  Huntingdon's  College,  Cheshunt.    Author  of  Primer  of  Hebrew  Antiquities ;  &c. 

Olaus  Magnus  Friedrich  Henrici,  Ph.D.,  LL.D.,  F.R.S. 

Professor  of  Mechanics  and  Mathematics  in  the  Central  Technical  College  of  the . 
City  and  Guilds  of  London  Institute.     Author  of  Vectors  and  Rotors;  Congruent 
Figures;  &c. 

Prince  Peter  Alexeivitch  Kropotkin. 

See  the  biographical  article:  Kropotkin,  Prince  P.  A. 


Proteomyxa; 
Radiolaria. 


Ready  money. 
Sir  Cowasji  Jehangir. 


Pylos. 

Polycrates; 
Punic  Wars, 

Rabbula. 

Possession  {Psychology). 


Priest  {in  part); 
Prophet  {in  part). 


Projection. 

Poltava  {in  part); 
Pskov  {in  part); 
Radom  {in  part). 


xii  INITIALS  AND  HEADINGS  OF  ARTICLES 

p.  C.  Y.  Philip  Chesney  Yorke    M.A  JPrynne,  WilUam  {in  part); 

Magdalen  College,  Oxford.    Editor  of  Letters  of  Princess  Elizabeth  of  England.  \  p^^    j^jjjj 

P.  G.  Percy  Gardner,  LiTT.D.,  LL.D.,  F.S.A.  f  PoIycUtus;  Polygnotus; 

See  the  biographical  article:  Gardner,  Percy.  1  prgxiteles. 

P.  Gi.  Peter  Giles,  M.A.,  LL.D.,  Litt.D.  r 

Fellow  and  Classical  Lecturer  of  Emmanuel  College,  Cambridge,  and  University!  „ 
Reader  in  Comparative  Philology.  Formerly  Secretary  of  the  Cambridge  Philological  1  Qj  "• 
Society.  L 

P.  G.  K.  Paul  George  Konody.  ( 

Art  Critic  of  the  Observer  and  the  Daily  Mail.     Formerly  Editor  of  the  Artist.  \  Potter,  Paul. 
Author  of  The  Art  of  Walter  Crane;  Velasquez,  Life  and  Work;  &c.  I 

P.  G.  T.  Peter  Guthrie  Tait,  LL.D.  J  Quaternions  {in  part). 

See  the  biographical  article:  Tait,  Peter  Guthrie.  t 

P.  M.  Paul  Meyer.  f  Provencal  Language; 

See  the  biographical  article:  Meyer,  Paul  Hyacinthe.  iProvenQal  Literature  {in  part). 

P.  McC.  Primrose  McConnell,  F.G.S.  [ 

Member  of  the  Royal  Agricultural  Society.    Author  of  Diary  of  a  Working  Farmer ;  -j  Reaping. 
&c.  [ 

R.  H.  K.  Rev.  Robert  Hatch  Kennett,  M.A.,  D.D.  f 

Regius  Professor  of  Hebrew,  Cambridge,  and  Canon  of  Ely.    Formerly  Fellow  and  J  Psalms    Book  of  {in  iiari) 
Lecturer  in  Hebrew  and  Syriac,    Queens'    College,   and   University    Lecturer  in  j  '  ^       y       ■ 

Aramaic.    Author  of  A  Short  Account  of  the  Hebrew  Tenses;  In  our  Tongues;  &c.        L 

R.  \.  P.  Reginald  Innes  Pocock,  F.Z.S.  j  Pycnogonida. 

Superintendent  of  the  Zoological  Gardens,  London. 

R.  J.  M.  Ronald  John  McNeill,  M.A.  J 

Christ  Church,  Oxford.     Barrister-at-Law.     Formerly  Editor  of  the  St  James's]^  KacquetS. 

Gazette,  London.  L 

f  Porcupine  {in  part); 
R.  L.*  Richard  Lydekker,  F.R.S.,  F.Z.S. ,  F.G.S. 

Member  of  the  Staff  of  the  Geological  Survey  of  India,   1874-1882.     Author  of 

Catalogues  of  Fossil  Mammals,  Reptiles  and  Birds  in  the  British  Museum ;  The  Deer 

of  all  La?ids;  &c. 


R.  R 

.M 

R.  S. 

C. 

stc. 

S.  F. 

H. 

StG. 

M. 

S.  R. 

G. 

Porpoise;  Primates; 
Proboscidea;  Prongbuck; 
Rabbit  {in  part); 
i^Rat;  Ratel. 


R.  Mo.  Ray  Morris,  M.A.  1  Tjniiwnvc-     r         J     ^i  r  '■ 

Formerly  Managing  Editor,  Railway  Age  Gazette,  New  York.     Author  of  Railroad  \  «3.liways_.     uenerai     ^tatiMcs 
Administration.  I      «w^  Financial  Organization. 

R.  M.  L.  Robert  Murray  Leslie,  M.A.,  M.D.,  M.R.C.P.  r 

Senior    Physician,    Prince  of  Wales's    General    Hospital,    London.     Lecturer   on  J 
Medicine,   London   Post-Graduate  College.     Author  of   Clinical   Types  of  Pneu- 1  Pygmy- 
monia ;  &c.  L 

R.  M.  W.  R.  Mortimer  Wheeler.  |  Punch. 

r  Poniatowski,  Joseph  A.; 
R.  N.  B.  Robert  Nisbet  Bain  (d.  1909).  Potemkin,  Prince; 

Assistant   Librarian,    British   Museum,    1883-1909.     Author  of   Scandinavia:   the     PotocM    Ignatv' 
Political  History  of  Denmark,  Norway  and  Sweden,  1513-1900;  The  First  Romanovs,  1  p  i     1."'  ct        i'       v 
1613-1723;  Slavonic  Europe:  the  Political  History  of  Poland  and  Russia  from  1460     '^"tOCKl,  btaiUSiaw  *.; 
to  i7g6;  &c.  Prokopovich;  Pugachev; 

y  Rakoczy;  Razin. 
R.  Po.  Rene  Poupardin,  D.-es-L.  r 

Secretary  of  the  ficole  des  Chartes.     Honorary  Librarian  at  the   Bibliotheque  J  Provence; 

Nationale,  Paris.    Author  of  Le  Royaume  de  Provence  sous  les  Carolingiens ;  Recueil]  QnierTV    ranitiilarv  nf 

des  chartes  de  Saint-Germain;  &c.  ^  M"iciijr,  vapiiuiaijr   ui. 

R.  P.  S.  R.  Phene  Spiers,  F.S.A. ,  F.R.I.B.A. 

Formerly  Master  of  the  Architectural  School,   Royal  Academy,   London.     Past 
President  of  Architectural  Association.     Associate  and  Fellow  of  King's  College,  ~   Porch. 
London.    Corresponding  Member  of  the  Institute  of  France.    Editor  of  Fergusson's 
History  of  Architecture.    Author  of  Architecture:  East  and  West;  &c.  l 


Robert  Ranule  Marett,  M.A.  r 

Reader  in  Social  Anthropology,  Oxford  University,  and  Fellow  and  Tutor  of  Exeter  -'  Praver 
College.    Author  oi  The  Threshold  of  Religion.  I 

Robert  Seymour  Conway,  M.A. ,  D.Litt.  r  Pnmnoii-  n^        t       -m- 

Professor  of  Latin  and  Indo-European  Philology  in  the  Universitv  of  Manchester    i  ^"™P^";  ^5"*^  inscriptions: 
Formeriy  Professor  of  Latin  in  University  College,  Cardiff;  and  Fellow  of  Gonville  1  ^^''^^'^^Ste   {m  part); 
and  Caius  College,  Cambridge.    Author  of  The  Italic  Dialects.  [  Praetuttii. 

Viscount  St  Gyres.  C  Quesnel,  Pasquier; 

See  the  biographical  article:  Iddesleigh,  ist  Earl  of.  -i  Quietism 

Sidney  Frederic  Harmer,  D.Sc,  F.R.S.,  F.Z.S.  r 

Keeper   of   Zoology,    Natural    History    Departments,    British    Museum.      Fellow,      Polyzoa; 
formeriy  Tutor  ana   Lecturer,    King's  College,    Cambridge.    Joint-editor  of    The  1  Pfprnhrn'n<.y,!Q 
Cambridge  Natural  History.  [  *'ierODrancnia. 

St  George  Jackson  Mivart,  M.D.,  F.R.S.  ft?  *ti 

See  the  biographical  article:  Mivart,  St  George  Jackson.  ■!  Rattlesnake  {in  part). 

Samuel  Rawson  Gardiner,  LL.D.,  D.C.L.  r_ 

See  the  biographical  article:  Gardiner,  S.  R.  Wynne,  William  {m  part). 


Initials  and  headings  of  articles 


Xlll 


T.  As. 


T.  A.  C. 

T.  A.  I. 
T.  Ba. 

T.  F.  D. 

T.  H. 
T.  H.  H.* 

T.  L.  H. 

T.  Se. 

T.  Wo. 
W.  A.  B.  C. 

W.  A.  L. 
W.  A.  P. 
W.  Ba. 
W.  B.  P. 
W.  E.  D. 

W.  F.  C. 
W.  G. 

W.  H.  P. 
W.  H.  L. 


Thomas  Ashby,  M.A.,  D.Litt. 

Director  of  British  School  of  Archaeology  at  Rome.  Formerly  Scholar  of  Christ 
Churcii,  Oxford.  Craven  Fellow,  1897.  Conington  Prizeman,  1906.  Member  of 
the  Wperial  German  Archaeological  Institute.  Author  of  The  Classical  Topo- 
graphy 0}  the  Roman  Campagna. 


Timothy  Atigustine  Coghlan,  I.S.O. 

Agent-Gineral  for  New  South  Wales.    Government  Statistician,  New  South  Wales, 
1886-19^.     Honorary  Fellow  of  the  Royal  Statistical  Society.     Author  of  Wealth' 
and  Progiess  of  New  South  Wales;  Statistical  Account  of  Australia  and  New  Zealand; 
&c. 


Thomas  Allan  Ingram,  M.A.,  LL.D. 
Trinity  College,  Dublin. 

Sir  Thomas  Iarclay. 


Pompeii  (in  part); 
Pomposa;  Pomptine  Marshes; 
Popilia,  Via;  Portus; 
Postumia,  Via; 
Praeneste  (in  part); 
Praenestina,  Via; 
Puteoli;  Pyrgi; 
Ravenna  (in  part). 

Queensland:  Geography  and 
Statistics. 

r  Post  and  Postal  Service; 
I  Pound  (in  part); 
•-  Praemunire. 


Thomas  Iarclay.  f  Privateer* 

Member  o|  the  Institute  of  International  Law.     Officer  of  the  Legion  of  Honour.  )  p  .     .   p/' 
Author   oi, Problems   of   International   Practice   and   Diplomacy;    &c.     M.P.    for"!   "I''^^-    W ly, 


Blackliurn,  1910. 


[  Raid;  Rebellion. 


Thomas  F.  DAe,  M.A.  r 

Queenls  Colege,  Oxford.     Steward  and  Member  of  the  Council  of  the  Polo  and  -    Polo. 
Riding  PonJ  Society.    Author  of  Polo,  Past  and  Present ;  &c.  [ 


Thomas  Hodgkin,  D.C.L.,  Litt.D. 

See  tie  biographical  article :  HoDGKiN,  Thomas. 


Ravenna  (in  part). 


Sir  ThokIas  Hungeeford  Holdich,  K.C.M.G.,  K.C.I.E.,  D.Sc.  f 

SupeJntendent,    Frontier  Surveys,    India,    1892-1898.      Gold    Medallist,    R.G.S.,J  Qnetta 
London,   1887;     Author  of   The  Indian  Borderland;   The  Countries  of  the  King's  |  " 
Awari;  India;  Tibet.  L 

Sir  Thosas  Little  Heath,  K.C.B.,  Sc.D.  f 

Assisant-Secretary  to  the  Treasury,  London.    Fellow  of  Trinity  College,  Cambridge.  ^ 
Autlpr  of  A  pdlonius  of  Perga ;    Treatise  on  Conic  Sections ;  The  Thirteen  Books  of 
EucM's  Elements ;  &c. 


Porism. 


Thomas 
Ball 
Uni 


Seccombe,  M.A.  r 

Ballol  College,  Oxford.    Lecturer  in  History,  East  London  and  Birkbeck  Colleges,  J  tjoovo    Honrw 

ersity  of  London.     Stanhope  Prizeman,  Oxford,   1887.     Assistant  Editor  of  |  "^^*^'  nenry. 
Diclonary  of  National  Biography,  1891-1901.    Author  of  The  Age  of  Johnson;  &c.  L 


Thomas  Woodhouse. 

Hej  1  of  the  Weaving  and  Textile  Designing  Department,  Technical  College,  Dundee. 

Rev.  Wlliam  Augustus  Brevoort  Coolidge,  M.A.,  F.R.G.S.,  Ph.D. 

Felpw  of  Magdalen  College,  Oxford.  Professor  of  English  History,  St  David's 
Colege,  Lampeter,  1880-1881.  Author  of  Guide  du  Haul  Dauphine;  The  Range  of 
thaTodi;  Guide  to  Grindelwald;  Guide  to  Svjitzerland;  The  Alps  in  Nature  and 
in  listory;  &c.    Editor  of  the  Alpine  Journal,  1880-1881 ;  &c. 

WiLLWi  Alexander  Lindsay,  K.C,  M.A.,  J. P.,  D.L.,  F.S.A. 

W  idsor  Herald.  Bencher  of  the  Middle  Temple.  Peerage  Counsel.  Author  of  The 
Rual  Household,  1837-1897;  &c. 

Walti:  Alison  Phillips,  M.A. 

F(  merly  Exhibitioner  of  Merton  College  and  Senior  Scholar  of  St  John's  College, 
O:  ord.    Author  of  Modern  Europe;  &c. 

Wilhe  m  Backer,  Ph.D. 

Pifessor  at  the  Rabbinical  Seminary,   Budapest. 
Auhor  of  Die  Agada  der  Tannaiten;  &c. 


Ramie. 


Ragatz;  Rambert. 


I  Precedence  (in  part). 

i  Prince; 

[  Provost  (in  part). 


Knight  of  the   Iron  Crown.  <!  Rabbi. 


L 


Railways: 

ways. 


WiLLLi  Barclay  Parsons,  C.E.,  LL.D. 

F<  merly   Chief   Engineer,    Rapid   Transit   Commission,    New   York.      Advisory - 
Ejineer,  Royal  Commission  on  London  Traffic.     Author  of  Track;  Turnouts;  &c. 

Willi II  Ernest  Dalby,  M.A.,  M.Inst.C.E.  r 

Pifessor  of  Civil  and  Mechanical  Engineering  at  the  City  and  Guilds  of  London     Power    Transmission:    Intro- 
Iititute   Central   Technical   College,    South   Kensington.  _    Formerly   University  J       ductory  and  Mechanical; 
E  monstrator    in    the    Engineering    Department,    Cambridge.      Author    of    The     Railwavs" 
3  ancing  of  Engines;  Valves  and  Valve-Gear  Mechanism;  &c.  L  «<*y». 


Sir\\ 

s 


B 

Willi  si  Feilden  Craies,  M.A. 

B  rister-at-Law,    Inner  Temple.      Lecturer   on   Criminal   Law,    King's   College, 
L  idon.    Editor  of  Archbold's  Criminal  Pleading  (23rd  edition). 

Willi  I  Garnett,  M.A.,  D.C.L. 

Eicational    Adviser   to   the   London    County    Council.      Formerly   Fellow    and 
L  turer  of  St  John's  College,  Cambridge.    Principal  and  Professor  of  Mathematics, , 
Erham  College  of  Science,  Newcastle-on-Tyne.    Author  of  Elementary  Dynamics 
& 


Inlra-Urban  Rail- 


Locomotive  Power. 


Quarter  Sessions,  Court  of; 
Recognizance. 


Polytechnic  (in  part). 


LiAM  Henry  Flower,  F.R.S. 

the  biographical  article :  Flower,  Sir  W.  H. 


WiLLin  H.  Lang,  M.B.,  D.Sc. 

^■ker  Professor  of  Cryptogamic  Botany,  University  of  Manchester. 


r  Porcupine  (in  part) ; 
1  Rabbit  (in  part). 

\  Pteridophyta. 


XIV 


INITIALS  AND  HEADINGS  OF  ARTICLES 


W.  L.  G. 

W.  M. 

W.  M.  F.  P. 

W.  0.  B. 

W.  R.  M. 

W.  R.  S. 

W.  W.  F.* 

W.  Y. 


Pyramid. 


William  Lawson  Grant,  M.A.  f  Prince  Edward  Island; 

Professor  at  Queen's  University,  Kingston,  Canada.  Formerly  Beit  Lecturer  in  J  Q,,.i,pp.  Prnmnrr  (■in  ■hart')- 
Colonial  History  at  Oxford  University,  mitor  oi  Acts  of  the  Privy  Council  {ColoniaX]  !^"\"  ;  ■^/.^^^"''^^  >■*"  P'^"' ' 
Series) ;  Canadian  Constitutional  Development  (in  collaboration).  L  Queoec.  Lity. 

William  Minto,  M.A.,  LL.D. 

See  the  biographical  article:  Minto,  William. 

William  Matthew  Flinders  Petrie,  F.R.S.,  D.C.L.,  Litt.D. 
See  the  biographical  article:  Petrie,  W.  M.  F. 

Ven.  Winfrid  Oldfield  Burrows,  M.A.  f 

Archdeacon  of  Birmingham.  Student  and  Tutor  of  Christ  Church,  Oxford,  1884- J  D-ovprc!  fnr  fJio  naaH 
1891.  Principal  of  Leeds  Clergy  School,  1891-1900.  Author  of  The  Mystery  of  the]  ^^r^J"''"  ^"'^  '"^  ^*"'"- 
Cross,  I 

William  Richard  Morfill,  M.A.  (d.  1910). 

Formerly  Professor  of  Russian  and  the  other  Slavonic  Languages  in  the  University 
of  Oxford.     Curator  of  the  Taylorian   Institution,  Oxford.     Author  of  Russia;' 
Slavonic  Literature ;  &c. 


j  Pope,  Alexander  {in  part). 

[ 


Pushkin. 


William  Robertson  Smith,  LL.D. 

See  the  biographical  article:  Smith,  William  Robertson. 


(Priest  {in  pari); 
Propliet  {in  part); 
Psalms,  Book  of  {in  part); 
Rameses  {in  part). 


William  Warde  Fowler,  M.A. 

Fellow  of  Lincoln  College,   Oxford.     Sub-Rector,    1881-1904.     Gifford  Lecturer,  J  Pontifex. 
Edinburgh  University,  1908.     Author  of  The  City-State  of  the  Greeks  and  Romans;  \ 
The  Roman  Festivals  of  the  Republican  Period ;  &c.  [ 

Rev.  William  Young.  f 

Minister,  Higher   Broughton   Presbyterian   Church,    Manchester,    1877-1901,   and  J  Presbyterianism. 
Association  Secretary  for  the  Religious  Tract  Society  in  the  North  of  England.  L 


PRINCIPAL   UNSIGNED  ARTICLES 


Pollination. 

Potentiometer. 

Prussia  Acid. 

Polygon. 

Prerogative. 

Public  Health 

Polyhedron. 

Press  Laws. 

Publishing. 

Polynesia. 

Primrose. 

Puffin. 

Pomegranate. 

Primulaceae. 

Pugilism. 

Pomerania. 

Princeton  University. 

Pump. 

Pontoon. 

Principal  and  Agent. 

Punjab. 

Poor  Law. 

Probate. 

Pyrazoles. 

Poplar. 

Procession. 

Pyrenees. 

Porto  Rico. 

Proctor. 

Pyridine. 

Portuguese  Guinea. 

Prohibition. 

Pyrones. 

Potassium. 

Protestant. 

Quarantine. 

Potato. 

Prussia. 

Quinine. 

Quinoline. 

Quinones. 

Radium. 

Rainbow. 

Ranunculaceae. 

Rare  Earths. 

Raspberry. 

Rationalism. 

Ravenna,  Exarchate  o£ 

Real  Property. 

Red  River. 


ENCYCLOPEDIA    BRITANNICA 


ELEV 


LNTH    EDITION 


POLL,  strictly  the  hea 


'  the  poll,"  the  voting, 


VOLUME  XXII 


in  men  or  animals.    SI  at  connects 


the  word  with  O.  Swed.  iMe  (inittal  p  and  k  being 

able)  and  considers  a  Cel.c  origin  probable  ;cf.  Iris 

col,  peak,  summit.     "  PU  "  is  cihiefly  used  in  v 

derived  from  that  of  a  mit  in  an  enumeration 

things,  e.g.  poll-tax  {q.v.)  or  "  challenge  to  the  poUi  __ 

of  a  jury  {q.v).    The   lost  familiar  derivative  i  is  are  those 

connected   with   voting  at    parliamentary  or  otl  r  elections 

thus  "to. poll  "  is  to vqe  or  to  secure  a  number 


he  number  of  votes  cast  or  the  time 


nterchange- 
coll,  Welsh 

ious  senses 
persons  or 
in  the  case 


votes,  and 


during"  which  voting  ties  place.  The  verb  ":  t^  poll  "  also 
means  to  clip,  or  shear  ie  top  of  anything;  hencejpoUed  "  of 
hornless  cattle,  or  "d(d-poU"  {i.e.  a  deed  wit  smooth  or 
unindented  edges,  as  istinguished  from  an  .  "[denture "). 
A  tree  which  has  been  Soiled,"  or  cut  back  closan  order  to 
induce  it  to  make  shorlbushy  growtk,  is  Called  ;"  pollard." 
At  the  university  of  (mbridge,  a  "pass"  degrees  known  as 
"  poll-degree."  This  generally  expained  as  frol  the  Greek 
E  TToXXoi,  the  many,  the  c  nmon  people.  , 

POLLACK  {Gadus  poickius),  a  fish  of  the  fanv  Gadidae, 
abundant  on  rocky  coas,  of  northern  Eirope,  and  tending  as 
far  south  as  the  westei,  parts  of  the  Mediterraikn,  where, 
however,  it  is  much  sea  er  and  does  not  attain  to  tfe  same  size 
as  in  its'  real  northern  ome.  In  ScotUnd  and  soje  parts  of 
Ireland  it  is  called  lytb  It  is  distinguis'ied  from  aer  species 
of  the  genus  Gadus  byts  long  pointe4  snout,  whk  is  twice 
as  long  as  the  eye,  wil  projecting  lowg"  jaw,  andvithoul  a 
barbel  at  the  chin.  Tl  vent  is  below  the  anterior  alf  of  the 
first  dorsal  fin.  A  bla  spot  above  the  base  of  tl  pectoial 
fin  is  another  distinguisng  mark.  Althoigh  polladare  wel. 
flavoured  fish,  and  smler  individuals  (rom  12  16  in) 
excellent  eating,  they  (not  form  any  Goisiderabl4rticle  of 
trade  and  are  not  presved,  the  majority  being  coAimed  hf 
the  captors.  Specimen  )f  12  ft  are  comnon,  but  fe  specie 
is  said  to  attain  occasic  ,lly  as  much  as  24  b  in  wei^.     (Se 

also  COALFISH.)       ':  c  ^-u     u  ^i,         „^    - 

POLLAIUOLO,  the  po  ilar  name  of  the  brrthers  Artnio  anc 
Piero  di  Jacobo  Benci  rlorentines  who  coitributedhuch  tc 
Italian  art  in  the  i5tlientury.  They  we^t  called  Mlaiuok 
because  their  father  w;  a  poulterer.,  The  .ncknameyas  also 
extended  to  Simone,  tl  nephew  of  Antonia. 

Antonio  (1429-1498  distinguished  himsel  as  a  tulptor, 
ieweller  painter  and  graver,  and  didvaliable  sWe  in 
perfecting  the  art  of  en:  elling.    His  pamtmg  ehibits  i  excess 

XXII.  I 


of  brutality,  of  which  the  characteristics  can  be  studied  in  the 
"Saint  Sebastian,"  painted  in  147s,  and  now  in  the  National 
Gallery,  London.  A  "  St  Christopher  and  the  Infant  Christ  " 
is  in  the  Metropolitan  Museum,  New  York.  But  it  was  as  a 
sculptor  and  metal-worker  that  he  achieved  his  greatest  suc- 
cesses. The  exact  ascription  of  his  works  is  doubtful,  as  his 
brother  Piero  did  much  in  collaboration  with  him.  The  museum 
of  Florence  contains  the  bronze  group  "  Hercules  strangling 
Cacus  "  and  the  terra-cotta  bust  "  The  Young  Warrior  ";  and 
in  the  South  Kensington  Museum,  London,  is  a  bas-reh'ef 
representing  a  contest  between  naked  men.  In  1489  Antonio 
took  up  his  residence  iri  Rome,  where, he  executed  the  tomb  of 
Sixtus  IV.  (1493),  a  composition  in  which  he  again  manifested  the 
quality  of  exaggeration  in  the  anatomical  features  of  the  figures. 
In  1496  he  went  to  Florence  in  order  to  put  the  finishing  touches 
to  the  work  already  begun  in  the  sacristy  of  Santo  Spirito.  He 
died  in  1498,  having  just  finished  his  mausoleum  of  Inno- 
cent VIII.,  and  was  buried  in  the  church  of  San  Pietro  in 
Vincula,  where  a  monument  was  raised  to  him  near  that  of 
his    brother. 

Piero  (1443-1496)  was  a  painter,,  and  his  principal  works 
were  his  "  Coronation  of  the  Virgin,"  an  altar-piece  painted 
in  1483,  in  the  choir  of  the  cathedral  at  San  Gimignano;  his 
"  Three  Saints,"  an  altar-piece,  and  "  Prudence  "  are  both  at 
the  Uffizi  Gallery. 

Simone  (1457-1508),  nephew  of  Antonio  Pollaiuolo,  a  cele- 
brated architect,  was  born  in  Florence  and  went  to  Rome  in 
1484;  there  he  entered  his  uncle's  studio  and  studied  architecture. 
On  his  return  to  Florence  he  was  entrusted  with  the  completion 
of  the  Strozzi  palace  begun  by  Benedetto  de  Maiano,  apd  the 
cornice  on  the  facade  has  earned  him  lasting  fame.  His  highly 
coloured  accounts  of  Rome  earned  for  him  the  nickname  of  il 
Cronaca  (chronicler).  About  1498  he  built  the  church  of  San 
Francesco  at  Monte  and  the  vestibule  of  the  sacristy  of  Santo 
Spirito.  In  collaboration  with  Guiliano  da  Sangallo  he  designed 
the  great  hall  in  the  Palazzo  Vecchio.  He  was  a  close  friend 
and  adherent  of  Savonarola. 

See  also  Maud  Cruttwell,  Antonio  Pollaiuolo  (1907). 

POLLAN  {Coregonus  pollan),  the  name  given  to  a  species  of 
the  Salmonoid  genus  Coregonus  (whitefish)  which  has  been  found 
in  the  large  and;  deep  loughs  of  Ireland  only.  A  full  account  of 
the  fish  by  its  first  describer,  W.  Thompson,  may  be  found  in  his 
Natural  History  of  Ireland,  iv.  168. 

3 


POLLARD— POLLINATION 


POLLARD,  EDWARD  ALBERT  (1828-1872),  American 
journalist,  was  born  in  Nelson  county,  Virginia,  on  the  27th  of 
February  1828.  He  graduated  at  the  university  of  Virginia  in 
1849,  studied  law  at  the  College  of  William  and  Mary,  and  in 
Baltimore  (where  he  was  admitted  to  the  bar),  and  was  engaged 
in  newspaper  work  in  CaHfornia  until  1855.  In  1857-1861  he 
was  clerk  of  the  judiciary  committee  of  the  National  House  of 
Representatives.  By  1859  he  had  become  an  outspoken 
Secessionist,  and  during  the  CivR  War  he  was  one  of  the  principal 
editors  of  the  Richmond  Examiner,  which  supported  the  Con- 
federacy but  was  hostile  to  President  Jefferson  Davis.  In  1864 
Pollard  sailed  for  England,  but  the  vessel  on  which  he  sailed 
was  captured  as  a  blockade  runner,  and  he  was  confined  in  Fort 
Warren  in  Boston  Harbour  from  the  29th  of  May  until  the  12th 
of  August,  when  he  was  paroled.  In  December  he  was  placed 
in  close  confinement  at  Fort  Monroe  by  order  of  Secretary 
Stanton,  but  was  soon  again  paroled  by  General  B.  F.  Butler, 
and  in  January  proceeded  to  Richmond  to  be  exchanged  there 
for  Albert  D.  Richardson  (1833-1869),  a  well-known  corre- 
spondent of  the  New  York  Tribune,  who,  however,  had  escaped 
before  Pollard  arrived.  In  1867-1869  Pollard  edited  a  weekly 
paper  at  Richmond,  and  he  conducted  the  Political  Pamphlet 
there  during  the  presidential  campaign  of  1868. 

His  publications  include  Black  Diamonds  Gathered  in  the  Darkey 
Homes  of  the  South  (1859),  in  which  he  advocated  a  reopening  of 
the  slave  trade ;  The  Southern  History  of  the  War  (3  vols. :  First 
Year  of  the  War,  with  B.  M.  DeWitt,  1862;  Second  Year  of  the  War, 
1864;  Third  Year  of  the  War,  1864);  Observations  in  the  North: 
Eight  Months  in  Prison  and  on  Parole  (1865) ;  The  Lost  Cause  (1866) ; 
Lee  and  His  Lieutenants  (1867);  The  Lost  Cause  Regained  (1868), 
a  southern  view  of  reconstruction  urging  the  necessity  of  white 
supremacy;  The  Life  of  Jefferson  Davis  (1869),  an  arraignment  of 
the  Confederate  president;   and  The  Virginia  Tourist  (1870). 

POLLENTIA  (mod.  Pollenzo),  an  ancient  town  of  Liguria, 
Italy,  10  m.  to  the  north  of  Augusta  Bagiennorum,  on  the  left 
bank  of  the  Tanarus  (mod.  Tanaro).  Its  position  on  the  road 
from  Augusta  Taurinorum  to  the  coast  at  Vada  Sabatia,  at  the 
point  of  divergence  of  a  road  to  Hasta  (Asti)  gave  it  military 
importance.  Decimus  Brutus  managed  to  occupy  it  an  hour 
before  Mark  Antony  in  43  B.C.;  and  it  was  here  that  Stilicho 
on  the  29th  of  March  403  fought  the  battle  with  Alaric 
which  though  undecided  led  the  Goths  to  evacuate  Italy. 
The  place  was  famous  for  its  brown  wool,  and  for  its  pottery. 
Considerable  remains  of  ancient  buildings,  an  amphitheatre,  a 
theatre  and  a  temple  still  exist.  The  so-called  temple  of  Diana 
is  more  probably  a  tomb. 

See  G.  Franchi-Pont  in  AUi  delV  accademia  di  Tornio  (1805- 
1808),  p.  321  sqq. 

POLLINATION,  in  botany,  the  transference  of  the  poUen  from 
the  stamen  to  the  receptive  surface,  or  stigma,  of  the  pistil  of  a 
flower.  The  great  variety  in  the  form,  colour  and  scent  of 
flowers  (see  Flower)  is  intimately  associated  with  pollination 
which  is  effected  by  aid  of  wind,  insects  and  other  agencies. 
Pollen  may  be  transferred  to  the  stigma  of  the  same  flower- 
self-pollination  (or  auto  gamy),  or  to  the  stigma  of  another  flower 
on  the  same  plant  or  another  plant  of  the  same  species — cross- 
poUination  (or  allogamy).  Effective  pollination  may  also  occur 
between  flowers  of  different  species,  or  occasionally,  as  in  the 
case  of  several  orchids,  of  different  genera — ^this  is  known  as 
hybridization. 

The  method  of  pollination  is  to  some  extent  governed  by  the 
distribution  of  the  stamens  and  pistil.  In  the  case  of  unisexual 
flowers,  whether  monoecious,  that  is,  with  staminate  and  pistillate 
flowers  on  one  and  the  same  plant,  such  as  many  of  our  native 
trees— oak,  beech,  birch,  alder,  &c.,  or  dioecious  with  staminate 
and  pistillate  flowers  on  different  plants,  as  in  willows  and  pop- 
lars, cross  pollination  only  is  possible.  In  bisexual  or  herma- 
phrodite flowers,  that  is,  those  in  which  both  stamens  and  pistil 
are  present,  though  self-pollination  might  seem  the  obvious 
course,  this  is  often  prevented  or  hindered  by  various  arrange- 
ments which  favour  cross-pollination.  Thus  the  anthers  and 
stigmas  in  any  given  flower  are  often  mature  at  different  times; 
this  condition,   which  is  known  as  dichogamy  and  was  first 


pointed  out  by  Sprengel,  may  be  so  well  marked  that  the  stigma 
has  ceased  to  be  receptive  before  the  anthers  open,  or  the  anthers 
have  withered  before  the  stigma  becomes  receptive,  when  cross- 
pollination  only  is  possible,  or  the  stages  of  maturity  in  the  two 
organs  are  not  so  distinct,  when  self-pollination  becomes  possible 
later  on.  The  flower  is  termed  proterandrous  or  proterogynous 
according  as  anthers  or  stigmas  mature  first.  The  term 
homogamy  is  apphed  to  the  simultaneous  maturity  of  stigma  and 
anthers.  Spontaneous  self-poUination  is  rendered  impossible 
in  some  homogamous  flowers  in  consequence  of  the  relative 
position  of  the  anthers  and  stigma — this  condition  has  been 
termed  herkogamy.  Flowers  in  which  the  relative  position  of 
the  organs,  allows  of  spontaneous  self-pollination  may  be  all 
alike  as  regards  length  of  style  and  stamens  {homopiorphy  or 
homostyly),  or  differ  in  this  respect  (heteromorphy)  the  styles 


(From  Strasburger's  Leitrbuch  der  Botanik,  by  permission  of  Gustav  Fischer.) 

Fig.  I. — Long-styled,  L,  and  short-styled,  K,  flowers  of  Primula 
sinensis. 

G,  Level  of  stigma ;  S,  level  of  anthers ;  P,  N,  pollen  grains  and 
stigmatic  papillae  of  long-styled  form ;  p,  n,  ditto  of  short-styled  form. 

and  stamens  being  of  different  lengths  in  different  flowers 
(heterostyly)  or  the  stamens  only  are  of  different  lengths  (heter- 
anthery).  Flowers  which  are  closed  at  the  time  of  maturity  of 
anthers  and  stigmas  are  termed  cleistogamous. 

Self-pollination  is  effected  in  very  various  ways.  In  the 
simplest  case  the  anthers  are  close  to  the  stigmas,  covering  these 
with  poUen  when  they  open;  this  occurs  in  a  number  of  small 
annual  plants,  also  in  Narcissus,  Crocus,  &c.  In  snowdrop  and 
other  pendulous  flowers  the  anthers  form  a  cone  around  the  style 
and  the  pollen  falls  on  to  the  underlying  stigmas,  or  in  erect 
flowers  the  pollen  may  fall  on  to  the  stigmas  which  lie  directly 
beneath  the  opening  anthers  {e.g.  Narthecium).  In  very  many 
cases  the  pallen  is  carried  to  the  stigma  by  elongation,  curvature 
or  some  otker  movement  of  the  filament,  the  style  or  stigma,  or 
corolla  or  iome  other  part  of  the  flower,  or  by  correlated  move- 
ments of  Iwo  or  more  parts.  For  instance,  in  many  flowers 
the  filameits  are  at  first  directed  outwards  so  that  self-pollina- 
tion is  nol  possible,  but  later  incline  towards  the  stigmas  and 
pollinate  hem  {e.g.  numerous  Saxifragaceae,  Cruciferae  and 
others),  o  the  style,  which  first  projects  beyond  the  anthers, 
shortens  liter  on  so  that  the  anthers  come  into  contact  with  the 
stigmas  (eg.  species  of  Cactaceae),  or  the  style  bends  so  that  the 
stigma  is  brought  within  the  range  of  the  pollen  {e.g.  species  of 
Oenothera  Epilobium,  most  Malvaceae,  &c.>.  In  Mirabilis  Jala  pa 
and  othes  the  filaments  and  style  finally  become  intertwined, 
so  that  wUen  is  brought  in  contact  with  the  stigma.  Self- 
pbllinatioi  frequently  becomes  possible  towards  the  end  of  the 
life  of  a  lower  which  during  its  earher  stages  has  been  capable 
only  of  coss-poUination.  This  is  associated  with  the  fact,  so 
ably  denonstrated  by  Darwin,  that,  at'  any  rate  in  a 
lb,rge  nunber  of  cases,  cross-polhnation  yields  better  results,  as 
fneasurei  by  the  number  of  seeds  produced  and  the  strength  of 
the  offsring,  than  self-pollination;  the  latter  is,  however, 
preferalle  to  absence  of  pollination.  In  many  cases  pollen  has 
(no  effec  on  the  stigma  of  the  same  flower,  the  plants  are  self- 
sterile,  n  other  cjlses  external  pollen  is  more  effective  {pre-patent) 
than  pdlen  from/  the  same  flower;  but  in  a  very  large  number  of 
cases  e;periment  has  shown  that  there  is  little  or  no  difference 


POLLINATION 


between  the  effects  of  external  pollen  and  that  from  the  same 
flower. 

Cross-pollination  may  occur  between  two  flowers  on  the  same 
plant  (geitonogamy)  or  between  flowers  on  distinct  plants 
(^xenogamy).  The  former,  which  is  a  somewhat  less  favourable 
njethod  than  the  latter,  ;  is  efiected  by  air-currents,  insect 
agency,  the  actual  contact  between  stigmas  and  anthers  in 
neighbouring  flowers,  where,  as  in  the  family  Compositae, 
flowers  are  closely  crowded,  or  by  the  fall  of  the  pollen  from  a 


(From  Darwin's  Dijferent  Forms  of'Fltmers  by  permission.) 

Fig.  2. — Diagram  of  the  flowers,  of  the  three  forms  of  Lythrum 
salicaria  in  their  natural  position,  with  the  petals  and  calyx 
removed  on  the  near  side.     (X  6  times.) 

The  dotted  lines  with  the  arrow  show  the  directions  in  which 
pollen  must  be  carried  to  each  stigma  to  ensure  full  fertility. 

higher  on  to  the  stigmas  of  a  lower  flower.  Anton  Kerner  has 
shown  that  crowded  inflorescences  such  as  those  of  Compositae 
and  Umbelliferae  are  especially  adapted  for  geitonogamy. 
Xenogamy  is  of  course  the  only  possible  method  in  diclinous 
plants;  it  is  also  the  usual  method  in  monoclinous  plants,  owing 
to  the  fact  that  stamens  and  carpels  often  mature  .at  different 
times  {dichogamy) ,  the  plants  being  proterandrous  or  protero- 
gynous.'  Even  in  homogamous  flowers  cross-pollination  is  in  a 
large  proportion  of  cases  the  effective  method,  at  any  rate  at 
first,  owing  to  the  relative  position  of  anther  and  stigma  or  the 
fact  that  the  plant  is  self-sterile. 

The  subject  of  heterostyly  was  investigated  by  Darwin  (see 
his  FormS'  of  Flowers)  and  later  by  Hildebrand.  In'  the  case  of  a 
dimorphic  flower,  such  as  Primula,  four  modes  of  polUnation 
are  possible,  two  distinguished' by  Darwin  as  legitimate,  between 
anthers  and  stigmas  on  corresponding  levels,  and  two  so-called 
illegitimate  unions,  between :  anthers  and  stigmas  at  different 
leyels '(cf.  fig.  i).  In  a  trimorphic  flower  such  as  Lythrum 
salicaria  there  are  six  possible  legitimate  unions  and  twelve 
illegitimate  (see  fig.  2).  Experiment  showed  that  legitimate 
unions  yield. a  larger  quantity  of  seed  than  illegitimate.  ■ 


Many  plants  produce,  in  addition  to  ordinary  open  flowers, 
so-called  cleistogamous  flowers,  which  remain  permanently 
closed  but  which  notwithstanding 
produce  fruit;  in  these  the  corolla  is 
inconspicuous  or  absent  and  the  pollen 
grows  from  the  anther  on  to  the 
stigma  of  the  same  flower.  Species  of 
Viola  (see  fig.'  3),  Oxalis  acetosella 
(wood  sorrel)  '  and  Lamium  amplexi- 
caule  are  commonly  occurring  in- 
stances. The  cleistogamous  flowers 
are  developed  before  or  after  the 
normal  open  flowers  at  seasons  less 
favourable  for  cross-pollination.  In 
some  cases  flowers,  which  open  under 
normal  circumstanceSj  remain  closed 
owing    to  unfavourable   circumstances, 

and  self-poUination  occurs  as  in  a  Fig.  3.— Cleistogamous 
typical  cleistogamous  flower — these  flower  oi  Viola  sylvatica. 
have  been  distinguished  as  pseudo-  i,  flower  X  4- 
cleistogamous.  Instances  occur  in  ^.^'SU^c^t'ofelT 
water  plants,  where  flowers  are  un- a,  anther;  s,  pistil; 
able  to  reach  the  surface  (e.g.  Alisma  st,  style;  v,  stigmatic 
natans,  water  buttercup,  &c.)  or  surface, 
where  flowers  remain  closed  in  dull  or  cold  weather. 

Systems  of  classification  of  flowers  according  to  the  agency  by 
which  pollination  is  effected .  have  been  proposed  by  Delpino, 
H.  Miiller  and  other  workers  on  the  subject.  Knuth  suggests 
the  following,  which  is  a  modification  of  the  systems  proposed  by 
Delpino  and  Miiller. 

A.   Water-pollinated  plants,  Hydrophilae.     A  small   group   which  is 
subdivided  thus: — 

a.  Pollinated  under  the  water;  e.g.  Najas  where  the  pollen  grains 

are  rather  heavier  than  water,  and  sinking  down  are  caught 
by  the  stigmas  of  the  extremely  simple  female  flowers. 

b.  Pollination  on  the  surface,  a  more  frequent  occurrence  than 

(o).  In  these  the  pollen  floats  on  the  surface  and  reaches 
the  stigmas  of  the  female  flowers  as  in  Callitriche,  Ruppia, 
Zostera,  Elodea.  In  Vallisneria  (fig.  4)  the  male  flowers 
become  detached  and  float  on  the  surface  of  the  water; 
the  anthers  arfe  thus  brought  in  contact  with  the  stigmas 
.  of  the  female  flowers. 
Wind-pollinated  plants,  AnemopMlae. — In  these  the  pollen 
grains  are  smooth  and  light  so  as  tO'  be  easily  blown  about, 
and  are  produced  in  great  quantity;  the  stigmas  are  brush- 
like or  feathery,  and  usually  long  and  protruding  so  as  readily 
to  catch  the  pollen.  As  no  means  of  attraction  are  required 
the  flowers  are  inconspicuous  and  without  scent  or  nectar. 
The  male  inflorescence  is  often  a  pendulous  catkin,  as  in  hazel 
and  many  native  English  trees  (fig.  5);  or  the  anthers  are 
loosely  fixed  on  long  thread-like  filaments  as  in  grasses  (fig.  6). 


B 


^1:4^^ 


Fig.  4. —  Vallisneria  spiralis. 

A,  female  flower;  i,  stigmas. 

B,  male  flowers;  i  before;  2,  after  spreading  of  the  petals.  A 
male  flower  has  floated  alongside  a  female  and  one  of  its 
anthers,  which  have  opened  to  set  free  the  pollen,  is  in  contact 
with  a  stigma,    a,  anther. 

C.  Anim'al-pollinated  plants,  Zoidiophilae,  are  subdivided  according 

to   the   kind   of  animal   by   agency   of   which   pollination  is 

effected,  thus: — 

a.  Bat-pollinated,     Chiropterophilae. — A     Freycinetia,     native    of 

Java,  and  a  species  of  Bauhinia  in  Trinidad  are  visited  by 

bats. which  transfer  the  pollen. 


POLLINATION 


b.  Bird-pollinated,  Ornithophilae. — Humming-birds  and  honey- 
suckers  are  agents  of  pollination  in  certain  tropical  plants; 
they  visit  the  generally  large  and  brightly-coloured  flowers 
either_  for  the  honey  which  is'  secreted  in  considerable 
quantity  or  for  the  insects  which  have  been  attracted  by 
the  honey  (fig.  7). 


Fig. 


5.  —  Catkin    of 
Flowers  of  Hazel. 


Male 


Fig.  6. — Grass  Flower  show- 
ing p£:ndulous  anthers  and  pro- 
truding hairy  stigmas. 
Snail  or  slug-pollinated  flowers,  Malacophilae. — In  sniall 
flowers  which  are  crowded  at  the  same  level  or  in  flat 
flowers  in  which  the  stigmas  and  anthers  project  but  little, 
slugs  or  snails  creeping  over  their  surface  may  transfer  to 
the  stigma  the  pollen  which  clings  to  the  slimy  foot.  Such 
a  transfer  has  been  described  in  various  Aroids,  Rohdea 
japonica  (Liliaceae) ,  and  other  plants. 


(From  a  drawing  in  the  Botanical  Gallery  at  the  British  Museum.) 

Fig.  7. — Flower  of  Datura  sanguinea  visited  by  humming-bird 
Docimastes  ensiferus.     (About  J  nat.  size.) 

d.  Insect-pollinated,  Entomophilae,  a  very 
large  class  characterized  by  sticky 
pollen  grains,  the  surface  of  Tvhich  bears 
spines,  warts  or  other  projections  (fig.  8) 
which  facilitate  adhesion  to  some  part 
of  the  insect's  body,  and  a  relatively 
small  stigma  with  a  sticky  surface. 
The  flowers  have  an  attractive  floral 
envelope,  are  scented  and  often  contain 
honey  or  a  large  amount  of  pollen; 
by  these  means  the  insect  is  enticed 
to  visit  it.  The  form,  colour  and 
scent  of  the  flower  vary  widely, 
according  to  the  class  of  insect  whose 


Fig.  8. — i,  anther;  2, 
pollen  grain  of  Hollyhock 
(Althaea  rosea)  enlarged. 
The  pollen  grain  bears 
numerous  spines,  the 
dark  spots  indicate  thin 
places  in  the  outer  wall. 


aid  is  sought,  and  there  are  also  numerous  devices  for  pro- 
tecting the  pollen  and  nectar  from  rain  and  dew  or 
from  the  visits  of  those  insects  which  would  not  serve 
the  purpose  of  pollen-transference  (unbidden  guests).'  The 
following  subdivisions  have  been  suggested 

A.  Pollen  Flowers. — These  offer  only  pollen  to  their  visitors, 

as  species  of  anemone,  poppy,  rose,  tulip,  &c.  They 
are  simple  in  structure  and  regular  in  form,  and  the 
generally  abundant  pollen  is  usually  freely  exposed. 

B.  Nectar    Flowers. — These   contain    nectar    and    include    the 

following  groups : — 

1.  Flowers  with  exposed  nectar,  readily  visible  and  accessible 

to  all  visitors.  These  are  very  simple,  open  and  gener- 
ally regular  flowers,  white,  greenish-yellow  or  yellow 
in  colour  and  are  chiefly  visited  by  insects  with'  a 
short  proboscis,  such  as  short-tongued  wasps  and  flies, 
also  beetles  and  more  rarely  bees.  Examples  are 
Umbelliferae  as  a  family,  saxifrages,  holly,  Acer, 
Rhamnus,  Euonymus,  Euphorbia,  &c. 

2.  Flowers  with  nectar  partly  concealed  and  visible  only  in 

bright  sunshine.  The  generally  regular  flowers  are 
completely  open  only  in  bright  sunshine,  closing  up 
into  cups  at  other  times.  Such  are  most  Cruciferae, 
iDuttercups,  king-cup  (Caltha),  Potentilla.  White  and 
yellow  colours  predominate  and  insects  with  a  pro- 
boscis of  medium  length  are  the  common  pollinating 
agents,  such  as  short-tongued  bees. 

3.  Flowers    with    nectar    concealed    by    pouches,    hairs,    &c. 

Regular  flowers  predominate,  e.g.  Geranium,  Cardamine 
pratensis,  mallows,  Rubus,  Oxalis,  Epilobium,  &c.,  but 
many  species  show  more  or  less  well-marked  median 
symmetry  (zygoraorphism)  as  Euphrasia,  Orchis,  thyme, 
&c.,  and  red,  blue  and  violet  are  the  usual  colours. 
Long-tongued  insects  such  as  the  honey-bee  are  the 
most  frequent  visitors. 

4.  Social  flowers ,  whose  nectar  is  concealed  as  in  (3),  but  the 

flowers  are  grouped  in  heads  which  render  them 
strikingly  conspicuous,  and  several  flowers  can  be  simul- 
taneously pollinated.  Such  are  Compositae  as  a  class, 
also  Scabiosa,  Armeria  (sea-pink)  and  others. 

5.  Hymenopterid  flowers,  which  fall  into  the  following  groups : 

Bee-flowers  proper,  humble-bee  flowers  requiring  a 
longer  proboscis  to  reach  the  nectar,  wasp-flowers  such 
as  fig-wort  {Scrophularia  nodosa)  and  ichneumon 
flowers  such  as  tway-blade  (Listera  ovata). 

The  shapes  and  colours  are  extremely  varied ;  bilater- 
ally symmetrical  forms  are  most  frequent  with  red, 
blue  or  violet  colours.  Such  are  Papilionaceous 
flowers,  Violaceae,  many  Labiatae,  Scrophulariaceae 
and  others.  Many  are  highly  specialized  so  that 
pollination  can  be  effected  by  a  few  species  only. 
Examples  of  more  special  mechanisms  are  illustrated 
by  Salvia  (fig.  9).  The  long  connective  of  the  single 
stamen  is  hinged  to  the  short  filament  and  has  a  shorter 
arm  ending  in  a  blunt  process  and  a  longer  arm  bearing 
a  half-anther.  A  large  bee  in  probing  for  honey  comes 
in  contact  with  the  end  of  the  short  arm  of  the  lever 
and  causes  the  longer  arm  to  descend  and  the  pollen 
is  deposited  on  the  back  of  the  insect  (fig.  9,  i).  In  a 
later  stage  (fig.  9,  2)  the  style  elongates  and  the  forked 
stigma  occupies  the  same  position  as  the  anther  in 
fig.  9,  I- 


(From  Strasburger's  Lehrbuch  der  Botanik ,  by 
Fig.  9. — Pollination 

1,  Flower  visited  by  a  humble- 
bee,  showing  the  projection  of 
the  curved  connective  bearing 
the  anther  from  the  helmet- 
shaped  upper  lip  and  the  depo- 
sition of  the  pollen  on  the  back 
of  the  humble-bee. 

2,  Older  flower,  with  connective 
drawn  back,  and  elongated  style. 


permission  of  Gustav  Fischer.) 
of  Salvia  pratensis. 

4,  The  staminal  apparatus  at 
rest,  with  connective  enclosed 
within  the  upper  lip. 

3,  The  same,  when  disturbed 
by  the  entrance  of  the  proboscis 
of  the  bee  in  the  direction  of  the 
arrow;/,  filament;  c,  connective; 
s,  the  obstructing  half  of  the 
anther. 


'See  A.  Kerner,  Plants  and  their  Unbidden  Guests. 


POLLIO 


In  Broom  there  is  an  explosive  machanism;  the 
pressure  of  the  insect  visitor  on  the  keel  of  the  corqlla 
causes  a  sudden  release  of  the  stamens  and  the  scatter- 
ing of  a  cloud  of  pollen  over  its  body. 
Lepidopterid  flowers,  visited  chiefly  by  Lepidoptera, 
which  are  able  to  reach  the  nectar  concealed  in  deep, 
narrow  tubes  or  spurs  by  means 
of  their  long  slender  proboscis. 
Such  are :  (a)  Butterfly-flowers, 
usually  red  in  colour,  as 
Dianthus  carthusianorum;  (b) 
Moth-flowers,  white  or  whitish, 
as  honeysuckle  (Lonicera 
periclymenum). 

Fly  flowers,  chiefly  visited  by 
Diptera,  and  including  very 
different  types: — 
Nauseous  flowers,  dull  and 
yellowish  and  dark  purple  in 
colour  and  often  spotted,  with 
a  smell  attractive  to  carrion 
flies  and  dung  flies,  e.g.  species 
of  Saxifraga. 

Pitfall  flowers  such  as  Asarum, 
Aristolochia  and  Arum  macu- 
latum,  when  the  insect  is 
caught  and_  detained  until 
pollination  is  effected  (fig. 
lo). 

Pinch-trap  flowers,  as  m  the 
family  Asclepiadaceae,  where 
the  proboscis,  claw  or  bristle 
of  the  insect  is  caught  in  the 
clip  to  which  the  pairs  of 
polHnia  are  attached.  Bees, 
wasps  and  larger  insects  serve 
as  pollinating  agents 


Fig.  10. — Spadix  of  Arum 
maculatum  from  which  the 
greater  part  of  the  spathe  has 
been  cut  away. 

p.  Pistillate,  s,  staminate 
flowers ;  h,  sterile  flowers  form- 
ing a  circlet  of  stiff  hairs  closing 
the  mouth  of  the  chamber 
formed  by  the  lower  part  of 
the  spathe. 


Fig.  II. — Grass  of  Parnassus  (Parnassia  palustris).    Half  nat.  size. 
I,  One  of  the  scales  which  form  the  coronet  in  the  flower,  enlarged. 


d.  Deceptive  flowers  such  as  Parnassia,  where  the  conspicuous 

coronet  of  glistening  yellow  balls  suggests  a  plentiful 
supply  of  nectar  drops  (fig.  ii). 

e.  Hoverfly  flowers,  small  flowers  which  are  beautifully  coloured 

with   radiating   streaks  pointing  to   a   sharply-defined 
centre  in  which  is  the  nectar,  as  m  Veronica  chamaedrys 
(fig.  12). 
Literature. — Joseph  Gottlieb  Kolreuter  ^  (d.  1806)  was  the  first 

to  study  the  pollination  of  flowers  and  to  draw  attention  to  the 

necessity  of  insect  visits  in  many  cases ;    he 

gave  a  clear  account   of  cross-pollination 

by  insect  aid.    He  was  followed  by  Christian 

Konrad  Sprengel,  whose  work  Das  entdeckie 

Geheimniss  der  Natur  im.  Ban  und  in  der 

Bejriichtung    der    Blumen    (Berlin,     1793), 

contains  a  description  of  floral  adaptations 

to   insect  visits   in   nearly   500   species   of 

plants.       Sprengel     came     very     near     to 

appreciating  the  meaning  of  cross-pollina- 
tion in  the  lite  of  plants  when  he  states 

that   "  it  seems  that  Nature  is  unwilling 

that  any  flower  should  be  fertilized  by  its 

own    pollen."      In    1799    an    Englishman, 

Thomas  Andrew  Knight,  after  experiments 
the    cross-fertilization     of    cultivated 


(From  Vines's   Text  Book  (^ 
Botany,  by  permission.) 

Fig.     12.  —  Flower  of 

Veronica. 
k.   Calyx. 


plants,  formulated  the  conclusion  that  no 
plant  fertilizes  itself  through  many  genera- 
tions. Sprengel's  work,  which  had  been  u,  u,  u,  The  three  lobes 
almost  forgotten,  was  taken  up  again  by  of  the  lower  lip  of 
Charles  Darwin,  who  concluded  that  no  the  rotate  corolla, 
organic  being  can  fertilize  itself  through  o.  The  upper  lip. 
an  unlimited  number  of  generations;  but  s,  s.  The  two  stamens, 
a  cross  with  other  individuals  is  occasion-  n,  The  stigma, 
ally — perhaps  at  very  long  intervals — indis- 
pensable. Darwin's  works  on  dimorphic  flowers  and  the  fertiliza- 
tion of  orchids  gave  powerful  support  to  this  statement.  The 
study  of  the  fertilization,  or  as  it  is  now  generally  called  "  pollina- 
tion," of  flowers,  was  continued  by  Darwin  and  taken  up  by  other 
workers,  notably  Friedrich  Hildebrand,  Federico  Delpino  and  the 
brothers  Fritz  and  Hermann  Muller.  Hermann  Mtiller's  work  on 
The  Fertilisation  of  Flowers  by  Insects  and  their  Reciprocal  Adapta- 
tions (1873),  followed  by  subsequent  works  on  the  same  lines,  brought 
together  a  great  number  of  observations  on  floral  mechanisms  and 
their  relation  to  insect-visits.  Muller  also  suggested  a  modification 
of  the  Knight-Darwin  law,  which  had  left  unexplained  the  numer- 
ous instances  of  continued  successful  self-pollination,  and  restated 
it  on  these  terms:  "  Whenever  offspring  resulting  from  crossing 
comes  into  serious  conflict  with  offspring  resulting  from  self- 
fertilization,  the  former  is  victorious.  Only  where  there  is  no 
such  struggle  for  existence  does  self-fertilization  often  prove  satis- 
factory for  many  generations."  An  increasing  number  of  workers 
in  this  field  of  plant  biology  in  England,  on  the  Continent  and  in 
America  has  produced  a  great  mass  of  observations,  which  have 
recently  been  brought  together  in  Dr  Paul  Knuth's  classic  work. 
Handbook  of  Flower  Pollination,  an  English  translation  of  which 
has  been  published  (1908)  by  the  Clarendon  Press. 

POLLIO,  GAIUS  ASINIUS  (76  b.c.-a.d.  5 ;  according  to  some, 
75  B.C.-A.D.  4),  Roman  orator,  poet  and  historian.  In  54  he 
impeached  unsuccessfully  C.  Porcius  Cato,  who  in  his  tribunate 
(56)  had  acted  as  the  tool  of  the  triumvirs.  In  the  civil  war 
between  Caesar  and  Pompey  Pollio  sided  with  Caesar,  was 
present  at  the  battle  of  Pharsalus  (48) ,  and  commanded  against 
Sextus  Pompeius  in  Spain,  where  he  was  at  the  time  of  Caesar's 
assassination.  He  subsequently  threw  in  his  lot  with  M. 
Antonius.  In  the  division  of  the  provinces,  Gaul  fell  to  Antony, 
who  entrusted  Pollio  with  the  administration  of  GaUia  Trans- 
padana.  In  superintending  the  distribution  of  the  Mantuan 
territory  amongst  the  veterans,  he  used  his  influence  to  save 
from  confiscation  the  property  of  the  poet  Virgil.  In  40  he 
helped  to  arrange  the  peace  of  Brundisium  by  which  Octavian 
(Augustus)  and  Antonius  were  for  a  time  reconciled.  In  the 
same  year  PoUio  entered  upon  his  consulship,  which  had  been 
promised  him  in  43.  It  was  at  this  time  that  Virgil  addressed 
the  famous  fourth  eclogue  to  him.  Next  year  Pollio  conducted 
a  successful  campaign  against  the  Parthini,  an  Illyrian  people 
who  adhered  to  Brutus,  and  celebrated  a  triumph  on  the  25th 
of  October.  The  eighth  eclogue  of  Virgil  was  addressed  to 
Pollio  while  engaged  in  this  campaign.  From  the  spoils  of  the 
war  he  constructed  the  first  public  library  at  Rome,  in  the 
Atrium  Libertatis,  also  erected  by  him  (Pliny,  Nat.  hist.  xxxv. 
10),  which  he  adorned  with  statues  of  the  most  celebrated 

^  Vorlaujige  Nachricht  von  einigen  das  Geschlecht  der  Pflanzen 
betreffenden  Versuchen  und  Beobachtungen,  3,  4,  6  (Leipzig,  1761). 


POLLNITZ— POLL-TAX 


authors,  both  Greek  and  Roman.  Thenceforward  he  withdrew 
from  active  Hfe  and  devoted  himself  to  literature.  He  seems  to 
have  maintained  to  a  certain  degree  an  attitude  of  independence, 
if  not  of  opposition,  towards  Augustus.  He  died  in  his  villa  at 
Tusculum,  regretted  and  esteemed  by  all. 

Pollio  was  a  distinguished  orator;  his  speeches  showed  ingenuity 
and  care,  but  were  marred  by  an  affected  archaism  (Quintilian, 
Inst.  X.  I,  113;  Seneca,  Ep.  100).  He  wrote  tragedies  also,  which 
Virgil  {Ed.  viii.  10)  declared  to  be  worthy  of  Sophocles,  and  a  prose 
history  of  the  civil  wars  of  his  time  from  the  first  triumvirate  (60) 
down  to  the  death  of  Cicero  (43)  or  later.  This  history,  in  the 
composition  of  which  Pollio  received  assistance  from  the  grammarian 
Ateius  Praetextatus,  was  used  as  an  authority  by  Plutarch  and 
Appian  (Horace,  Odes,  ii.  i ;  Tacitus,  Annals,  iv.  34).  As  a  literary 
critic  Pollio  was  very  severe.  He  censured  Sallust  (Suetonius, 
Gram.  10)  and  Cicero  (Quintilian,  Inst.  xii.  i,  22)  and  professed 
to  detect  in  Livy's  style  certain  provincialisms  of  his  native  Padua 
(Quintilian,  i.  5,  56,  viii.  i,  3);  he  attacked  the  Commentaries  of 
Julius  Caesar,  accusing  their  author  of  carelessness  and  credulity, 
if  not  of  deliberate  falsification  (Suet.  Caesar,  56).  Pollio  was  the 
first  Roman  author  who  recited  his  writings  to  an  audience  of  his 
friends,  a  practice  which  afterwards  became  common  at  Rome. 
The  theory  that  Pollio  was  the  author  of  the  Bellum  africanum, 
one  of  the  supplements  to  Caesar's  Commentarii,  has  met  with  little 
support.  All  his  writings  are  lost  except  a  few  fragments  of  his 
speeches  (H.  Meyer,  Orat.  rom.  frag.,  1842),  and  three  letters 
addressed  to  Cicero  (Ad.  Fam.  x.  31-33). 

See  Plutarch,  Caesar,  Pompey;  Veil.  Pat.  ii.  36,  63,  73,  76; 
Florus  iv.  12,  II;  Dio  Cassius  xlv.  10,  xlviii.  15;  Appian,  Bell, 
civ. ;  V.  Gardthausen,  Augustus  und  seine  Zeit  (1891),  i. ;  P.  Groebe,  in 
Pauly-Wissowa's  Realencyclopddie  (1896),  ii.  pt.  2 ;  Teuffel-Schwaben, 
Hist,  of  Roman  Literature  (Eng.  trans.),  §  221 ;  M.  Schanz,  Geschichte 
der  romischen  Litteratur,  pt.  2,  p.  20  (2nd  ed.,  1899);  Cicero,  Letters, 
ed.  Tyrrell  and  Purser,  vi.  introd.  p.  80. 

POLLNITZ,  KARL  LUDWIG,  Freiherr  von  (1692-1775), 
German  adventurer  and  writer,  was  born  at  Issum  on  the  25th 
of  February  1692.  His  father,  Wilhelm  Ludwig  von  Pbllnitz 
(d.  1693),  was  in  the  military  service  of  the  elector  of  Branden- 
burg, and  much  of  his  son's  youth  was  passed  at  the  electoral 
court  in  Berlin.  He  was  a  man  of  restless  and  adventurous 
disposition,  unscrupulous  even  for  the  age  in  which  he  lived, 
visited  many  of  the  European  courts,  and  served  as  a  soldier  in 
Austria,  Italy  and  Spain.  Returning  to  Berlin  in  1735  he 
obtained  a  position  in  the  household  of  King  Frederick  William  I. 
and  afterwards  in  that  of  Frederick  the  Great,  with  whom  he 
appears  to  have  been  a  great  favourite;  and  he  died  in  Berlin  on 
the  23rd  of  June  1775. 

Pollnitz's  Memoires  (Lilge,  1734),  which  were  translated  into 
German  (Frankfort,  1735),  give  interesting  glimpses  of  his  life  and 
the  people  whom  he  met,  but  they  are  very  untrustworthy.  He 
also  wrote  Nouveaux  memoires  (Amsterdam,  1737);  £,tat  abrege  de 
la  cour  de  Saxe  sous  le  regne  d'Auguste  III.  (Frankfort,  1734;  Ger. 
trans.,  Breslau,  1736);  and  Memoires  pour  servir  d  I'histoire  des 
quatres  derniers  souverains  de  la  maison  de  Brandenhourg,  published 
by  F.  L.  Brunn  (Berlin,  1791;  Ger.  trans.,  Beriin,  1791).  Per- 
haps his  most  popular  works  are  La  Saxe  galante  (Amsterdam, 
1734),  an  account  of  the  private  life  of  Augustus  the  Strong,  elector 
of  Saxony  and  king  of  Poland;  and  Histoire  secrete  de  la  duchesse 
d'Hanovre,  epouse  de  Georges  I.  (London,  1732).  There  is  an 
English  translation  of  the  Memoires  (London,  1738-1739).  See 
P.  von  Pollnitz,  Stammtafeln  der  Familie  von  Pollnitz  (Berlin, 
1894);  and  J.  G.  Droysen,  Geschichte  der  preussischen  Politik,  pt.  iv. 
(Leipzig,  1870). 

POLLOCK,  the  name  of  an  English  fam.ily 'which  has  con- 
tributed many  important  members  to  the  legal  and  other  profes- 
sions. David  Pollock,  who  was  the  son  of  a  Scotsman  and  built 
up  a  prosperous  business  in  London  as  a  saddler,  had  three  distin- 
guished sons:  Sir  David  Pollock  (i 780-1847),  chief  justice  of 
Bombay;  Sir  Jonathan  Frederick  PoUock,  Bart.  (1783-1870), 
chief  baron  of  the  exchequer;  and  Sir  George  Pollock,  Bart. 
(1786-1872),  field-marshal.  Of  these  the  more  famous  were 
the  two  last.  Field  Marshal  Sir  George  Pollock,  who  rendered 
valuable  military  service  in  India,  and  especially  in  Afghanistan 
in  1841-1843,  ended  his  days  as  constable  of  the  Tower  of  London, 
and  was  buried  in  Westminster  Abbey;  his  baronetcy,  created  in 
1872,  descended  to  his  son  Frederick  (d.  1874),  who  assumed 
the  name  of  Montagu-Pollock,  and  so  to  his  heirs.  Chief  Baron 
Sir  J.  Frederick  Pollock,  who  had  been  senior  wrangler  at  Cam- 
bridge, and  became  F.R.S.  in  1816,  was  raised  to  the  bench  in 
1844,  and  created  a  baronet  in  1866.     He  was  twice  married 


and  had  eight  sons  and  ten  daughters,  his  numerous  descendants 
being  prominent  in  many  fields.  The  chief  baron's  eldest  son. 
Sir  William  Frederick  Pollock,  2nd  Bart.  (1815-1888),  became  a 
master  of  the  Supreme  Court  (1846)  and  queen's  remembrancer 
(1874);  his  eldest  son,  Sir  Frederick  Pollock,  3rd  Bart.  (b.  1845), 
being  the  well-known  jurist  and  legal  historian,  fellow  of  Trinity 
College,  Cambridge,  and  Corpus  professor  of  jurisprudence  at 
Oxford  (1883-1903),  and  the  second  son,  Walter  Herries  Pollock 
(b.  1850),  being  a  well-known  author  and  editor  of  the  Saturday 
Review  from  1883  to  1894.  The  chief  baron's  third  son,  George 
Frederick  Pollock  (b.  1821),  became  a  master  of  the  Supreme 
Court  in  1851,  and  succeeded  his  brother  as  queen's  (king's) 
remembrancer  in  1886;  among  his  sons  were  Dr  W.  Rivers 
Pollock  (1859-1909),  Ernest  Murry  Pollock,  K.C.  (b.  1861), 
and  the  Rt.  Rev.  Bertram  Pollock  (b.  1863),  bishop  of  Norwich, 
and  previously  head  master  of  Wellington  College  from  1893  till 
1910.  The  chief  baron's  fourth  son,  Sir  Charles  Edward  Pollock 
(1823-1897),  had  a  successful  career  at  the  bar  and  in  1873 
became  a  judge,  being  the  last  survivor  of  the  old  barons  of  the 
exchequer;  he  was  thrice  married  and  had  issue  by  each  wife. 

POLLOK,  ROBERT  (1798-1827),  Scottish  poet,  son  of  a  small 
farmer,  was  born  at  North  Moorhouse,  Renfrewshire,  on  the  19th 
of  October  1798.  He  was  trained  as  a  cabinet-maker  and  after- 
wards worlved  on  his  father's  farm,  but,  having  prepared  himself 
for  the  university,  he  took  his  degree  at  Glasgow,  and  studied  for 
the  ministry  of  the  United  Secession  Church.  He  published 
Tales  of  the  Covenanters  while  he  was  a  divinity  student,  and 
planned  and  completed  a  strongly  Calvinistic  poem  on  the  spiri- 
tual life  and  destiny  of  man.  This  was  the  Course  of  Time  (1827), 
which  passed  through  many  editions  and  became  a  favourite 
in  serious  households  in  Scotland.  It  was  written  in  blank 
verse,  in  ten  books,  in  the  poetic  diction  of  the  i8th  century,  but 
with  abundance  of  enthusiasm,  impassioned  elevation  of  feeling 
and  copious  force  of  words  and  images.  The  poem  at  once 
became  popular,  but  within  six  months  of  its  publication,  on  the 
18th  of  September  1827,  its  author  died  of  consumption. 

POLLOKSHAWS,  a  pohce  burgh  and  burgh  of  barony  of 
Renfrewshire,  Scotland,  on  the  White  Cart,  now  virtually  a 
suburb  of  Glasgow,  with  which  it  is  connected  by  electric 
tramway  and  the  Glasgow  &  South-Western  and  Caledonian 
railways.  Pop.  (1901),  11,183.  It  is  named  from  the  shaws 
or  woods  (and  is  locally  styled  "  the  Shaws  ")  and  the  lands  of 
Pollok,  which  have  been  held  by  the  Maxwells  since  the  13th 
century.  The  family  is  now  called  Stirling-MaxweU,  the  estate 
and  baronetcy  having  devolved  in  1865  upon  Sir  William 
Stirling  of  Keir,  who  then  assumed  the  surname  of  Maxwell. 
Pollok  House  adjoins  the  town  on  the  west.  The  staple  indus- 
tries are  cotton-spinning  and  weaving,  silk-weaving,  dyeing, 
bleaching,  calico-printing  and  the  manufacture  of  chenille  and 
tapestry,  besides  paper  mills,  potteries  and  large  engineering 
works.  Pollokshaws  was  created  a  burgh  of  barony  in  1S13, 
and  is  governed  by  a  council  and  provost.  About  2  m.  south- 
west is  the  thriving  town  of  Thornliebank  (pop.  2452),  which 
owes  its  existence  to  the  cotton-works  established  towards  the 
end  of  the  i8th  century. 

POLL-TAX,  a  tax  levied  on  the  individual,  and  not  on 
property  or  on  articles  of  merchandise,  so-called  from  the  old 
English  poll,  a  head.  Raised  thus  per  capita,  it  is  sometimes 
called  a  capitation  tax.  The  most  famous  poll-tax  in  English 
history  is  the  one  levied  in  1380,  which  led  to  the  revolt  of  the 
peasants  under  Wat  Tyler  in  1381,  but  the  first  instance  of  the 
kind  was  in  1377,  when  a  tax  of  a  groat  a  head  was  voted  by  both 
clergy  and  laity.  In  1379  the  tax  was  again  levied,  but  on  a 
graduated  scale.  John  of  Gaunt,  duke  of  Lancaster,  paid  ten 
marks,  and  the  scale  descended  from  him  to  the  peasants,  who 
paid  one  groat  each,  every  person  over  sixteen  years  of  age  being 
liable.  In  1380  the  tax  was  also  graduated,  but  less  steeply. 
For  some  years  after  the  rising  of  1381  money  was  only  raised 
in  this  way  from  ahens,  but  in  1513  a  general  poll  tax  was 
imposed.  This,  however,  only  produced  about  £50,000,  instead 
of  £160,000  as  was  expected,  but  a  poll-tax  levied  in  1641 
resulted  in  a  revenue  of  about  £400,600.     During  the  reign  of 


POLLUX,  JULIUS— POLO,  MARCO 


Charles  II.  money  was  obtained  in  this  way  on  several  occasions, 
although  in  1676-1677  especially  there  was  a  good  deal  of 
resentment  against  the  tax.  For  some  years  after  1688  poll- 
taxes  were  a  favourite  means  of  raising  money  for  the 
prosecution  of  the  war  with  France.  Sometimes  a  single 
payment  was  asked  for  the  year;  at  other  times  quarterly 
payments  were  required.  The  poll-tax  of  1697  included  a 
weekly  tax  of  one  penny  from  all  persons  not  receiving  alms. 
In  1698  a  quarterly  poll-tax  produced  £321,397.  Nothing 
was  required  from  the  poor,  and  those  who  were  liable  may  be 
divided  roughly  into  three  classes.  Persons  worth  less  than  £300 
paid  one  shilling;  those  worth  £300,  including  the  gentry  and 
the  professional  classes,  paid  twenty  shillings;  while  tradesmen 
and  shopkeepers  paid  ten  shillings.  Non-jurors  were  charged 
double  these  rates.  Like  previous  poll-taxes,  the  tax  of  1698 
did  not  produce  as  much  as  was  anticipated,  and  it  was  the  last 
of  its  kind  in  England. 

Many  of  the  states  of  the  United  States  of  America  raise 
money  by  levying  poll-taxes,  or,  as  they  are  usually  called, 
capitation  taxes,  the  payment  of  this  tax  being  a  necessary 
preliminary  to  the  exercise  of  the  suffrage. 

See  S.  Dowell,  History  of  Taxation  and  Taxes  in  England  (1888), 
vol.  iii. ;  and  W.  Stubbs,  Constitutional  History  (1896),  vol.  ii. 

POLLUX,  JULIUS,  of  Naucratis  in  Eg3^t,  Greek  grammarian 
and  sophist  of  the  2nd  century  a.d.  He  taught  at  Athens, 
where,  according  to  PhUostratus  {Vit.  Soph.),  he  was  appointed 
to  the  professorship  of  rhetoric  by  the  emperor  Commodus  on 
account  of  his  melodious  voice.  Suidas  gives  a  list  of  his 
rhetorical  works,  none  of  which  has  survived.  Philostratus 
recognizes  his  natural  abilities,  but  speaks  of  his  rhetoric  in  very 
moderate  terms,  Pollux  is  probably  the  person  attacked  by 
Luciah  in  the  Lexiphanes  and  Teacher  of  Rhetoricians.  In  the 
Teacher  of  Rhetoricians  Lucian  satirizes  a  worthless  and  igrlorant 
person  who  gains  a  reputation  as  an  orator  by  sheer  effrontery;  the 
Lexiphanes,  a  satire  upon  the  use  of  obscure  and  obsolete  words, 
may  conceivably  have  been  directed  against  Pollux  as  the  author 
of  the  Onomasticon.  This  work,  which  we  stiU  possess,  is  a 
Greek  dictionary  in  ten  books,  each  dedicated  to  Commodus, 
and  arranged  not  alphabetically  but  according  to  subject-matter. 
Though  mainly  a  dictionary  of  synonyms  and  phrases,  chiefly 
intended  to  furnish  the  reader  with  the  Attic  names  for  indi- 
vidual things,  it  supplies  much  rare  and  valuable  information  on 
many  points  of  classical  antiquity.  It  also  contains  numerous 
fragments  of  writers  now  lost.  The  chief  authorities  used  were 
the  lexicological  works  of  Didymus,  Tryphon,  and  Pamphilus; 
in  the  second  book  the  extant  treatise  of  Rufus  of  Ephesus 
On  the  Names  of  the  Parts  of  the  Human  Body  was  specially 
consulted. 

The  chief  editions  of  the  Onomasticon  are  those  of  W.  Dindorf 
(1824),  with  the  notes  of  previous  commentators,  I.  Bekker  (1846), 
containing  the  Greek  text  only,  and  Bethe  (1900).  There  are  mono- 
graphs on  special  portions  of  the  vocabulary;  by  E.  Rohde  (on 
the  theatrical  terms,  1870),  and  F.  von  Stojentin  (on  constitutional 
antiquities,  1875). 

POLLUX,  or  POLLUCITE,  a  rare  mineral,  consisting  of  hydrous 
caesium  and  aluminium  silicate,  H2Cs4Al4(Si03)9.  Caesium 
oxide  (CS2O)  is  present  to  the  extent  of  30-36  %,  the 
amount  varying  sorriewhat  owing  to  partial  replacement  by 
other  alkaUs,  chiefly  sodium.  The  mineral  crystallizes  in  the 
cubic  system..  It  is  colourless  and  transparent,  and  has  a 
vitreous  lustre.  There  is  no  distinct  cleavage  and  the  fracture 
is  conchoidal.  The  hardness  is  6J  and  the  specific  gravity  2-90. 
It  occurs  sparingly,  together  with  the  mineral  "castor"  (see 
Petalite),  in  cavities  in  the  granite  of  the  island  of  Elba,  and 
with  beryl  in  pegmatite  veins  at  Rumford  and  Hebron  in  Maine. 

PO^O,  GASPAR  GIL  (?iS30-iS9i),  Spanish  novelist  and 
poet,  was  born  at  Valencia  about  1530.  He  is  often  confused 
with  Gil  Polo,  professor  of  Greek  at  Valencia  University  between 
1566  and  1573;  but  this  professor  was  not  named  Caspar.  He 
is  also  confused  with  his  own  son,  Caspar  Gil  Polo,  the  author 
of  De  origine  et  progressu  juris  romani  (1615)  and  other 
legal  treatises,  who  pleaded  before  the  Cortes  as  late  as  1626. 
A  notary  by  profession.  Polo  was  attached  to  the  treasury 


7 

commission  which  visited  Valencia  in  1571,  became  coadjutor  to 
the  chief  accountant  in  1572,  went  on  a  special  mission  to 
Barcelona  in  1580,  and  died  there  in  1591-  Timoneda,  in  the 
Sarao  de  amor  (1561),  alludes  to  him  as  a  poet  of  repute;  but  of 
his  miscellaneous  verses  only  two  conventional,  eulogistic  sonnets 
and  a  song  survive.  Polo  finds  a  place  in  the  history  of  the  novel 
as  the  author  of  La  Diana  enamorada,  a  continuation  of  Monte- 
mayor's  Diana,  and  perhaps  the  most  successful  continuation 
ever  written  by  another  hand.  Cervantes,  punning  on  the 
writer's  name,  recommended  that  "  the  Diana  enamorada  should 
be  guarded  as  carefully  as  though  it  were  by  Apollo  himself  "; 
the  hyperbole  is  not  wholly,  nor  even  mainly,  ironical. 

The  book  is  one  of  the  most  agreeable  of  Spanish  pastorals; 
interesting  in  incident,  written  in  fluent  prose,  and  embellished 
with  melodious  poems,  it  was  constantly  reprinted,  was  imitated 
by  Cervantes  in  the  Canto  de  Caliope,  and  was  translated  into 
English,  French,  German  and  Latin.  The  English  version  of 
Bartholomew  Young,  published  in  1598  but  current  in  manu- 
script fifteen  years  earlier,  is  said  to  have  suggested  the  Felismena 
episode  in  the  Two  Gentlemen  of  Verona;  the  Latin  version  of 
Caspar  Barth,  entitled  Erotodidascalus  (Hanover,  1625),  is  a  per- 
formance of  uncommon  merit  as  well  as  a  bibliographical  curiosity. 

POLO,  MARCO  (c.  1254-1324),  the  Venetian,  greatest  of 
medieval  travellers.  Venetian  genealogies  and  traditions  of 
uncertain  value  trace  the  Polo  family  to  Sebenico  in  Dalmatia, 
and  before  the  end  of  the  nth  century  one  Domenico  Polo  is 
found  in  the  great  council  of  the  repubUc  (1094).  But  the 
ascertained  Mne  of  the  traveller  begins  only  with  his  grandfather. 
Andrea  Polo  of  S.  Felice  was  the  father  of  three  sons,  Marco, 
Nicolo  and  Mafifeo,  of  whom  the  second  was  the  father  of  the 
subject  of  this  article.  They  were  presumably  "  noble,"  H.e. 
belonging  to  the  families  who  had  seats  in  the  great  council, 
and  were  enrolled  in  the  Libro  d'  Oro;  for  we  know  that  Marco 
the  traveller  is  officially  so  styled  {nohilis  vir).  The  three 
brothers  were  engaged  in  commerce;  the  elder  Marco,  resident 
apparently  in  Constantinople  and  in  the  Crimea  (especially  at 
Sudak),  suggests,  by  his  celebrated  will,  a  long  business 
partnership  with  Nicolo  and  Maffeo. 

About  1260,  and  even  perhaps  as  early  as  1250,  we  find  Nicolo 
and  Maffeo  at  Constantinople.  Nicolo  was  married  and  had  left 
his  wife  there.  The  two  brothers  went  on  a  speculation  to  the 
Crimea,  whence  a  succession  of  chances  and  openings  carried 
them  to  the  court  of  Barka  Khan  at  Sarai,  further  north  up  to 
Bolghar  (Kazan),  and  eventually  across  the  steppes  to  Bokhara. 
Here  they  fell  in  with  certain  envoys  who  had  been  on  a  mission 
from  the  great  Khan  Kublai  to  his  brother  Hulagu  in  Persia, 
and  by  them  were  persuaded  to  make  the  journ^jL  to  Cathay  in 
their  company.  Under  the  heading  China  thecircumstances 
are  noticed  which  in  the  last  half  of  the  13th  century  and  first 
half  of  the  14th  threw  Asia  open  to  Western  travellers  to  a  degree 
unknown  before  and  since — until  the  19th  century.  Thus  began 
the  medieval  period  of  intercourse  between  China  and  catholic 
Europe.  Kublai,  when  the  Polos  reached  his  court,  was  either 
at  Cambaluc  {Khanbaligh,  the  Khan's  city),  i.e.  Peking,  which  he 
had  just  rebuilt,  or  at  his  summer  seat  at  Shangtu  in  the  country 
north  of  the  Great  Wall.  It  was  the  first  time  that  the  khan,  a 
man  full  of  energy  and  intelKgence,  had  fallen  in  with  European 
gentlemen.  He  was  delighted  with  the  Venetian  brothers, 
listened  eagerly  to  all  they  had  to  tell  of  the  Latin  world,  and 
decided  to  send  them  back  as  his  envoys  to  the  pope,  with  letters 
requesting  the  despatch  of  a  large  body  of  educated  men  to 
instruct  his  people  in  Christianity  and  the  liberal  arts.  With 
Kublai,  as  with  his  predecessors,  religion  was  chiefly  a  political 
engine.  Kublai,  the  first  of  his  house  to  rise  above  the  essential 
barbarism  of  the  Mongols,  had  perhaps  discerned  that  the 
Christian  Church  could  afford  the  aid  he  desired  in  taming  his 
countrymen.  It  was  only  when  Rome  had  failed  to  meet  his 
advance  that  he  fell  back  upon  Buddhism  as  his  chief  civilizing 
instrument. 

The  brothers  arrived  at  Acre  in  April  1269.  They  learned 
that  Clement  IV.  had  died  the  year  before,  and  no  new  pope  had 
yet  been  chosen.  So  they  took  counsel  with  an  eminent  church- 
man, Tedaldo,  archdeacon  of  Liege  and  papal  legate  for  the 


8 


POLO,  MARCO 


whole  realm  of  Egypt,  and,  being  advised  by  him  to  wait 
patiently,  went  home  to  Venice,  where  they  found  that  Nicolo's 
wife  was  dead,  but  had  left  a  son  Marco,  now  fifteen.  The  papal  in- 
terregnum was  the  longest  that  had  been  known,  at  least  since  the 
dark  ages.  After  the  Polos  had  spent  two  years  at  home  there  was 
still  no  pope,  and  the  brothers  resolved  on  starting  again  for  the 
East,  taking  young  Marco  with  them.  At  Acre  they  again  saw 
Tedaldo,  and  were  furnished  by  him  with  letters  to  authenticate 
the  causes  that  had  hindered  their  mission.  They  had  not  yet  left 
Lajazzo,  Layas,  or  Ayas  on  the  CiUcian  coast  (then  one  of  the 
chief  points  for  the  arrival  and  departure  of  the  land  trade  of 
Asia),  when  they  heard  that  Tedaldo  had  been  elected  pope. 
They  hastened  back  to  Acre,  and  at  last  were  able  to  execute 
Kublai's  mission,  and  to  obtain  a  papal  reply.  But,  instead  of 
the  hundred  teachers  asked  for  by  the  Great  Khan,  the  new  pope 
(styled  Gregory  X.)  could  supply  but  two  Dominicans;  and  these 
lost  heart  and  turned  back,  when  they  had  barely  taken  the  first 
step  of  their  journey. 

The  second  start  from  Acre  must  have  taken  place  about 
November  1271;  and  from  a  consideration  of  the  indications 
and  succession  of  chapters  in  Polo's  book,  it  would  seem  that  the 
party  proceeded  from  Lajazzo  to  Sivas  and  Tabriz,  and  thence 
by  Yezd  and  Kirman  down  to  Hormuz  (Hurmuz)  at  the  mouth 
of  the  Persian  Gulf,  with  the  purpose  of  going  on  to  China  by  sea; 
but  that,  abandoning  their  naval  plans  (perhaps  from  fear  of  the 
flimsy  vessels  employed  on  this  navigation  from  the  Gulf  east- 
wards), they  returned  northward  through  Persia.  Traversing 
Kirman  and  Khorasan  they  went  on  to  Balkh  and  Badakshan, 
in  which  last  country  young  Marco  recovered  from  illness.  In 
a  passage  touching  on  the  climate  of  the  Badakshan  hills, 
Marco  breaks  into  an  enthusiasm  which  he  rarely  betrays,  but 
which  is  easily  understood  by  those  who  have  known  what 
it  is,  with  fever  in  the  blood,  to  escape  to  the  exhilarating 
mountain  air  and  fragrant  pine-groves.  They  then  ascended 
the  upper  Oxus  through  Wakhan  to  the  plateau  of  Pamir 
(a  name  first  heard  in  Marco's  book).  These  regions  were 
hardly  described  again  by  any  European  traveller  (save  Benedict 
Goes)  till  the  expedition  in  1838  of  Lieut.  John  Wood  of  the 
Indian  navy,  whose  narrative  abounds  in  incidental  illustration 
of  Marco  Polo.  Crossing  the  Pamir  the  travellers  descended 
upon  Kashgar,  Yarkand  and  Khotan  (Khutan).  These  are 
regions  which  remained  almost  absolutely  closed  to  our  know- 
ledge tiU  after  i860,  when  the  temporary  overthrow  of  the 
Chinese  power,  and  the  enterprise  of  British,  Russian  and  other 
explorers,  again  made  them  known. 

From  Khotan  the  Polos  passed  on  to  the  vicinity  of  Lop-Nor, 
reached  for  the  first  time  since  Polo's  journey  by  Prjevalsky 
in  1871.  Thence  the  great  desert  of  Gobi  was  crossed  to 
Tangut,  as  the  region  at  the  extreme  north-west  of  China,  both 
within  and  without  the  Wall,  was  then  called. 

In  his  account  of  the  Gobi,  or  desert  of  Lop,  as  he  calls  it. 
Polo  gives  some  description  of  the  terrors  and  superstitions  of 
the  waste,  a  description  which  strikingly  reproduces  that  of 
the  Chinese  pilgrim  Suan  T'sang,  in  passing  the  same  desert  in 
the  contrary  direction  six  hundred  years  before. 

The  Venetians,  in  their  further  journey,  were  met  and 
welcomed  by  the  Great  Khan's  people,  and  at  last  reached  his 
presence  at  Shangtu,  in  the  spring  of  1275.  Kublai  received 
them  with  great  cordiality,  and  took  kindly  to  young  Marco,  by 
this  time  about  twenty-one  years  old.  The  "  young  bachelor," 
as  the  book  calls  him,  applied  himself  diligently  to  the  acquisi- 
tion of  the  divers  languages  and  written  characters  chiefly  in  use 
among  the  multifarious  nationalities  subject  to  the  Khan;  and 
Kublai,  seeing  that  he  was  both  clever  and  discreet,  soon 
began  to  employ  him  in  the  public  service.  G.  Pauthier  found 
in  the  Chinese  annals  a  record  that  in  the  year  1277  a  certain  Polo 
was  nominated  as  a  second-class  commissioner  or  agent  attached 
to  the  imperial  council,  a  passage  which  we  may  apply  to  the 
young  Venetian.  Among  his  pubhc  missions  was  one  which 
carried  him  through  the  provinces  of  Shansi,  Shensi,  and 
Szechuen,  and  the  wild  country  on  the  borders  of  Tibet,  to  the 
remote  province  of  Yunnan,  called  by  the  Mongols  Karajang, 


and  into  northern  Burma  (Mien).  Marco,  during  his  stay  at 
court,  had  observed  the  Khan's  delight  in  hearing  of  strange 
countries,  of  their  manners,  marvels,  and  oddities,  and  had 
heard  his  frank  expressions  of  disgust  at  the  stupidity  of  envoys 
and  commissioners  who  could  tell  of  nothing  but  their  official 
business.  He  took  care  to  store  his  memory  or  his  note-book 
with  curious  facts  Hkely  to  interest  Kublai,  which,  on  his  return 
to  court,  he  related.  This  south-western  journey  led  him 
through  a  country  which  till  about  i860  was  almost  a  terra 
incognita— though  since  the  middle  of  the  19th  century  we  have 
learned  much  regarding  it  through  the  journeys  of  Cooper, 
Garnier,  Richthofen,  Gill,  Baber  and  others.  In  this  region 
there  existed  and  still  exists  in  the  deep  valleys  of  the  great 
rivers,  and  in  the  alpine  regions  which  border  them,  a  vast 
ethnological  garden,  as  it  were,  of  tribes  of  various  origin,  and 
in  every  stage  of  semi-civihzation  or  barbarism;  these  afforded 
many  strange  products  and  eccentric  traits  to  entertain  Kublai. 

Marco  rose  rapidly  in  favour  and  was  often  employed  on 
distant  missions  as  well  as  in  domestic  administration;  but  we 
gather  few  details  of  his  employment.  He  held  for  three  years 
the  government  of  the  great  city  of  Yangchow;  on  another 
occasion  he  seems  to  have  visited  Kangchow,  the  capital  of 
Tangut,  just  within  the  Great  Wall,  and  perhaps  Karakorum  on 
the  north  of  the  Gobi,  the  former  residence  of  the  Great  Khans: 
again  we  find  him  in  Ciampa,  or  southern  Cochin-China;  and 
perhaps,  once  more,  on  a  separate  mission  to  the  southern  states 
of  India.  We  are  not  informed  whether  his  father  and  uncle 
shared  in  such  employments,  though  they  are  mentioned  as 
having  rendered  material  service  to  the  Khan,  in  forwarding 
the  capture  of  Siang-yang  (on  the  Han  river)  during  the  war 
against  southern  China,  by  the  construction  of  powerful 
artillery  engines — a  story,  however,  perplexed  by  chronological 
difficulties. 

All  the  Polos  were  gathering  wealth  which  they  longed  to  carry 
back  to  their  home,  and  after  their  exile  they  began  to  dread 
what  might  follow  Kublai's  death.  The  Khan,  however,  was 
deaf  to  suggestions  of  departure  and  the  opportunity  only 
came  by  chance. 

Arghun,  khan  of  Persia,  the  grandson  of  Kublai's  brother 
Hulagu,  lost  in  1286  his  favourite  wife,  called  by  Polo  Balgana 
{i.e.  Bulughan  or  "  Sable  ").  Her  dying  injunction  was  that  her 
place  should  be  fiUed  only  by  a  lady  of  her  own  Mongol  tribe. 
Ambassadors  were  despatched  to  the  court  of  Peking  to  obtain 
such  a  bride.  The  message  was  courteously  received,  and 
the  choice  fell  on  the  lady  Cocacin  (Kukachin),  a  maiden  of 
seventeen.  The  overland  road  from  Peking  to  Tabriz  was  then 
imperilled  by  war,  so  Arghun's  envoys  proposed  to  return  by 
sea.  Having  made  acquaintance  with  the  Venetians,  and  eager 
to  profit  by  their  experience,  especially  by  that  of  Marco,  who 
had  just  returned  from  a  mission  to  the  Indies,  they  begged  the 
Khan  to  send  the  Franks  in  their  company.  He  consented  with 
reluctance,  but  fitted  out  the  party  nobly  for  the  voyage,  charging 
them  with  friendly  messages  to  the  potentates  of  Christendom, 
including  the  pope,  and  the  kings  of  France,  Spain  and  England. 
They  sailed  from  Zaiton  or  Amoy  Harbour  in  Fukien  (a  town 
corresponding  either  to  the  modern  Changchow  or  less  probably 
toTswanchoworChinchew),thenoneof  the  chief  Chinese  havens 
for  foreign  trade,  in  the  beginning  of  1292.  The  voyage  in- 
volved long  detention  on  the  coast  of  Sumatra,  and  in  south 
India,  and  two  years  or  more  passed  before  they  arrived  in 
Persia.  Two  of  the  three  envoys. and  a  vast  proportion  of  their 
suite  perished  by  the  way;  but  the  three  Venetians  survived  all 
perils,  and  so  did  the  young  lady,  who  had  come  to  look  on  them 
with  filial  regard.  Arghun  Khan  had  died  even  before  they 
quitted  China;  his  brother  reigned  in  his  stead;  and  his  son 
Ghazan  succeeded  to  the  lady's  hand.  The  Polos  went  on 
(apparently  by  Tabriz,  Trebizond,  Constantinople  and  Negro- 
pont)  to  Venice,  which  they  seem  to  have  reached  about  the  end 
of  1295. 

The  first  biographer  of  Marco  Polo  was  the  famous  geo- 
graphical collector  John  Baptist  Ramusio,  who  wrote  more  than 
two  centuries  after   the  traveller's  death.     Facts  and   dates 


POLO,  MARCO 


sometimes  contradict  his  statements,  but  he  often  adds  detail, 
evidently  authentic,  of  great  interest  and  value,  and  we  need  not 
hesitate  to  accept  as  a  genuine  tradition  the  substance  of  his 
story  of  the  Polos'  arrival  at  their  family  mansion  in  St  John 
Chrysbstom  parish  in  worn  and  outlandish  garb,  of  the  scornful 
denial  of  their  identity,  and  the  stratagem  by  which  they  secured 
acknowledgment  from  Venetian  society. 

We  next  hear  of  Marco  Polo  in  a  militant  capacity.  Jealousies 
had  been  growing  in  bitterness  between  Venice  and  Genoa 
throughout  the  13th  century.  In  1298  the  Genoese  prepared 
to  strike  at  their  rivals  on  their  own  ground,  and  a  powerful  fleet 
under  Lamba  Doria  made  for  the  Adriatic.  Venice,  on  hearing 
of  the  Genoese  armament,  equipped  a  fleet  still  rnore  numerous, 
and  placed  it  under  Andrea  Dandolo.  The  crew  of  a  Venetian 
galley  at  this  time  amounted,  aU  told,  to  250  men,  under  a 
comito  or  master,  but  besides  this  ofi&cer  each  galley  carried  a 
sopr'acomito  or  gentleman-commander,  usually  a  noble.  On  one 
of  the  galleys  of  Dandolo's  fleet  Marco  Polo  seems  to  have  gone 
in  this  last  capacity.  The  hostile  fleets  met  before  Curzola 
Island  on  the  6th  of  September,  and  engaged  next  morning. 
The  battle  ended  in  a  complete  victory  for  Genoa,  the  details 
of  which  may  still  be  read  on  the  fagade  of  St  Matthew's  church 
in  that  city.  Sixty-six  Venetian  galleys  were  burnt  in 
Curzola  Bay,  and  eighteen  were  carried  to  Genoa,  with  7000 
prisoners,  one  of  whom  was  Marco  Polo.  The  captivity  was  of 
less  than  a  year's  duration;  by  the  mediation  of  Milan  peace 
was  made,  on  honourable  terms  ,f,or  both  republics,  by  July 
1299;  and  Marco  was  probably  restored  to  his  family  during 
that  or  the  following  month. 

But  his  captivity  was  memorable  as  the  immediate  cause  of 
his  Book.  Up  to  this  time  he  had  doubtless  often  related  his 
experiences  among  his  friends;  and  from  these  stories,  and  the 
frequent  employment  in  them  (as  it  would  seem)  of  grand 
numerical  expressions,  he  had  acquired  the  nickname  of  Marco 
Millioni.  Yet  it  would  seem  that  he  had  committed  nothing 
to  writing.  The  narratives  not  only  of  Marco  Polo  but  of 
several  other  famous  medieval  travellers  (e.g.  Ibn  Batuta, 
Friar  Odoric,  Nicolo  Conti)  seem  to  have  been  extorted  from 
them  by  a  kind  of  pressure,  and  committed  to  paper  by  other 
hands.  Examples,  perhaps,  of  that  intense  dislike  to  the  use  of 
pen  and  ink  which  still  prevails  among'  ordinary  respectable 
folk  on  the  shores  of  the  Mediterranean. 

In  the  prison  of  Genoa  Marco  Polo  fell  in  with  a  certain  person 
of  writing  propensities,  Rusticiano  or  Rustichello  of  Pisa,  also  a 
captive  of  the  Genoese.  -His  name  is  otherwise, known  as  that 
of  a  respectable  literary  hack,  who  abridged  and  recast  several 
of  the  French  romances  of  the  Arthurian  cycle,  then  in  fashion. 
He  wrote  down  Marco's  experiences  at  his  dictation. 

We  learn  httle  of  Marco  Polo's  personal  or  family  history 
after  this  captivity;  but  we  know  that  at  his  death  he 
left  a  wife,  Donata  (perhaps  of  the  Loredano  family,  but 
this  is  uncertain),  and  three  daughters,  Fantina  and  Bellela 
(married,  the  former  to  Marco  Bragadino),  and  Moreta 
(then  a  spinster,  but  married  at  a  later  date  to  Ranuzzo 
Dolfino).  One  last  glimpse  of  the  traveller  is  gathered  from 
his  will,  now  in  St  Mark's  library. .  On  the  9th  of  January 
1324  the  traveller,  in  his  seventieth  year,  sent  for  a  neighbouring 
priest  and  notary  to  make  his  testament.  We  do  not  know  the 
exact  time  of  his  death,  but  it  fell  almost  certainly  within  the 
year  1324,  for  we  know  from  a  scanty  series  of  documents, 
beginning  in  June  1325,  that  he  had  at  the  latter  date  been 
some  time  dead.  He  was  buried,  in  accordance  with  his  will, 
in  the  Church  of  St  Lorenzo,  where  the  family  burying-place 
was  marked  by  a  sarcophagus,  erected  by  his  filial  care  for  his 
father  Nicolo,  which  existed  till  near  the  end  of  the  i6th  century. 
On  the  renewal  of  the  church  in  1592  this  seems  to  have 
disappeared. 

The  archives  of  Venice  have  yielded  a  few  trices  of  our  tra- 
veller. Besides  his  own  will  just  alluded  to,  there  are  the  wills  of 
his  uncle  Marco  and  of  his  younger  brother  Maffeo;  a  few  legal 
documents  connected  with  the  house  property  in  St  John 
Chrysostom,    and   other   papers   of    similar    character;    and 


two  or  three  entries  in  the  record  of  the  Maggior  Con- 
siglio.  We  have  mentioned  the  sobriquet  of  Marco  Millioni. 
Ramusio  tells  us  that  he  had  himself  noted  the  use  of  this  name 
in  the  public  books  of  the  commonwealth,  and  this  statement 
has  been  verified  in  an  entry  in  the  books  of  the  Great  Council 
(dated  April  10,  1305),  which  records  as  one  of  the  securities 
in  a  certain  case  the  "  Nobilis  vir  Marchus  Paulo  Milton." 
It  is  alleged  that  long  after  the  traveller's  death  there  was 
always  in  the  Venetian  masques  one  individual  who  assumed 
the  character  of  Marco  MiUioni,  and  told  Munchausen-like 
stories  to  divert  the  vulgar.  There  is  also  a  record  (March  9, 
1311)  of  the  judgment  of  the  court  of  requests  (Curia  Peti- 
tionum)  upon  a  suit  brought  by  the  "  Nobilis  vir  Marcus  Polo  " 
against  Paulo  Girardo,  who  had  been  an  agent  of  his,  to  recover 
the  value  of  a  certain  quantity  of  musk  for  which  Girardo  had 
not  accounted.  Another  document  is  a  catalogue  of  certain 
curiosities  and  valuables  which  were  collected  in  the  house  of 
Marino  Faliero,  and  this  catalogue  comprises  several  objects 
that  Marco  Polo  had  given  to  one  of  the  Faliero  family. 

The  most  tangible  record  of  Polo's  memory  in  Venice  is  a 
portion  of  the  Ca'  Polo — the  mansion  (there  is  reason  to  believe) 
where  the  three  travellers,  after  their  long  absence,  were  denied 
entrance.  The  court  in  which  it  stands  was  known  in  Ramusio's 
time  as  the  Corte  del  millioni,  and  now  is  called  Corte  Sabbionera. 
That  which  remains  of  the  ancient  edifice  is  a  passage  with  a 
decorated  archway  of  Italo-Byzantine  character  pertaining  to 
the  13th  century. 

No  genuine  portrait  of  Marco  Polo  exists.  There  is  a  medallion 
portrait  on  the  wall  of  the  Sala  dello  Scudo  in  the  ducal  palace, 
which  has  become  a  kind  of  type;  but  it  is  a  work  of  imagination 
no  older  than  1761.  The  oldest  professed  portrait  is  one  in  the 
gallery  of  Monsignor  Badia  at  Rome,  which  is  inscribed  Marcus 
Polus  venetus  totius  orbis  et  Indie  peregraior  primus.  It  is 
a  good  picture,  but  evidently  of  the  i6th  century  at  earhest. 
The  Europeans  at  Canton  have  absurdly  attached  the  name  of 
Marco  Polo  to  a  figure  in  a  Buddhist  temple  there  containing  a 
gallery  of  "  Arhans  "  or  Buddhist  saints,  and  popularly  known 
as  the  "  ternple  of  the  five  hundred  gods."  The  Venetian 
municipality  obtained  a  copy  of  this  on  the  occasion  of  the 
geographical  congress  at  Venice  in  1881. 

The  book  indited  by  Rusticiano  is  in  two  parts.  The  first,  or 
prologue,  as  it  is  termed,  is  unfortunately  the  only  part  whi'ch  con- 
sists of  actual  personal  narrative.  It  relates  in  an  interesting 
though  extremely  brief  fashion  the  circumstances  which  led  the 
two,  elder  Polos  to  the  Khan's  court,  together  with  those  of  their 
second  journey  (when  accompanied  by  Marco),  and  of  the  return 
to  the  west  by  the  Indian  seas  and  Persia.  The  second  and  staple 
part  consists  of  a  series  of  chapters  of  unequal  length  and  unsystem- 
atic structure,  descriptive  of  the  different  states  and  provinces  of 
Asia  (certain  African  islands  and  regions  included),,  with  occasional 
notices  of  their  sights  and  products,  of  curious  manners  and  re- 
markable events,  and  especially  regarding  the  Emperor  Kublai, 
his  court,  wars  and  administration.  A  series  of  chapters  near 
the  close  treats  of  sundry  wars  that  took  place  between  various 
branches  of,  the  house  of,  Jenghiz  in  the  latter  half  of  the  13  th 
century.  This  last  series  is  either  omitted  or  greatly  curtailed  in 
all  the  MS.  copies  and  versions  except  one  (Paris,  National  Library, 
Fonds  Fr.  1 116). 

It  was  long  doubtful  in  what  language  the  work  was  originally 
written.  That  this  had  been  some  dialect  of  Italian  was  a  natural 
presumption,  and  a  contemporary  statement  could  be  alleged  in 
its  favour.  But  there  is  now  no  doubt  that  the  original  was  French. 
This  was  first  indicated  by  Count  Baldelli-Boni,  who  published  an 
elaborate  edition  of  two  of  the  Italian  texts  at  Florence  in  1827, 
and  who  found  in  the  oldest  of  these  indisputable  signs  that  it  was 
a  translation  from  the  French.  The  argument  has  since  been 
followed  up  by  others;  and  a  manuscript  in  rude  and  peculiar 
French,  belonging  to  the  National  Library  of  Paris  (Fonds  Fr. 
Iii5),  which  was  printed  by  the  Societe  de  geographie  in  1824,  is 
evidently  either  the  original  or  a  close  transcript  of  the  original 
dictation.  A  variety  of  its  characteristics  are  strikingly  indicative 
of  the  unrevised  product  of  dictation,  and  are  such  as  would 
necessarily  have  disappeared  either  in  a  translation  or  in  a  revised 
copy.  Many  illustrations  could  be  adduced  of  the  fact  that  the  use 
of  French  was  not  a  circumstance  of  surprising  or  unusual  nature; 
for  the  language  had  at  that  time,  in  some  points  of  view,  even  a 
wider  difl'usion  than  at  present,  and  examples  of  its  literary  em- 
ployment by  writers  who  were  not  Frenchmen  (like  Rusticiano 
himself,  a  compiler  of  French  romances)  are  very  numerous. 


lO 


POLO,  MARCO 


Eighty-five  MSS.  of  the  book  are  known,  and  their  texts  exhibit 
considerable  differences.  These  fall  under  four  principal  types. 
Of  these,  type  i.  is  found  completely  only  in  that  old  French  codex 
which  has  been  mentioned  (Paris,  National  Library,  Fr.  1116). 
Type  ii.  is  shown  by  several  valuable  MSS.  in  purer  French  (Paris, 
Nat.  Libr.,  Fr.  2810;  Fr.  5631;  Fr.  5649;  Bern,  Canton  Library, 
125),  which  formed  the  basis  of  the  edition  prepared  by  the  late 
M.  Pauthier  in  1865.  It  exhibits  a  text  condensed  and  revised 
from  the  rude  original,  but  without  any  exactness,  though  perhaps 
under  some  general  direction  by  Marco  Polo  himself,  for  an  inscrip- 
tion prefixed  to  certain  MSS.  (Bern,  Canton  Libr.  125;  Paris, 
Nat.  Libr.,  Fr.  5649)  records  the  presentation  of  a  copy  by  the  tra- 
veller himself  to  the  Seigneur  Thi^bault  de  Cipoy,  a  distinguished 
Frenchman  known  to  history,  at  Venice  in  the  year  1306.  Type 
iii.  is  that  of  a  Latin  version  prepared  in  Marco  Polo's  lifetime, 
though  without  any  sign  of  his  cognisance,  by  Francesco  Pipino, 
a  Dominican  of  Bologna,  and  translated  from  an  Italian  copy. 
In  this,  condensation  and  curtailment  are  carried  a  good  deal  further 
than  in  type  ii.  Some  of  the  forms  under  which  this  type  appears 
curiously  illustrate  the  effects  of  absence  of  effective  publication, 
not  only  before  the  invention  of  the  press,  but  in  its  early  days. 
Thus  the  Latin  version  published  by  Grynaeus  at  Basel  in  the 
Novus  Orbis  (1532)  is  different  in  its  language  from  Pipino's,  and 
yet  is  clearly  traceable  to  that  as  its  foundation.  In  fact  it  is  a 
retranslation  into  Latin  from  some  version  of  Pipino  (Marsden 
thinks  the  Portuguese  printed  one  of  1502).  It  introduces  changes 
of  its  own,  and  is  worthless  as  a  text;  yet  Andreas  Miiller,  who  in 
the  17th  century  took  so  much  trouble  with  Polo,  unfortunately 
chose  as  his  text  this  fifth-hand  version.  The  French  editions 
published  in  the  middle  of  the  i6th  century  were  translations 
from  Grynaeus's  Latin.  Hence  they  complete  this  curious  and  vicious 
circle  of  transmission — French,  Italian,  Pipino's  Latin,  Portuguese, 
Grynaeus's  Latin,  French. 

Type  iv.  deviates  largely  from  those  already  mentioned;  its 
history  and  true  character  are  involved  in  obscurity.  It  is  only 
represented  by  the  Italian  version  prepared  for  the  press  by  John 
Baptist  Ramusio,  with  interesting  preliminary  dissertations,  and 
published  at  Venice  two  years  after  his  death,  in  the  second  volume 
of  the  Navigationi  e  viaggi.  Its  peculiarities  are  great.  Ramusio 
seems  to  imply  that  he  made  some  use  of  Pipino's  Latin,  and  various 
passages  confirm  this.  But  many  new  circumstances,  and  anec- 
dotes occurring  in  no  other  copy,  are  introduced;  many  names 
assume  a  new  shape;  the  whole  style  is  more  copious  and  literary 
than  that  of  any  other  version.  While  a  few  of  the  changes  and 
interpolations  seem  to  carry  us  farther  from  the  truth,  others 
contain  facts  of  Asiatic  nature  or  history,  as  well  as  of  Polo's 
alleged  experiences,  which  it  is  difficult  to  ascribe  to  any  hand 
but  the  traveller's  ov/n. 

We  recognize  to  a  certain  extent  tampering  with  the  text,  as  in 
cases  where  Polo's  proper  names  have  been  identified,  and  more 
modern  forms  substituted.  In  some  other  cases  the  editorial 
spirit  has  gone  astray.  Thus  the  age  of  young  Marco  has  been 
altered  to  correspond  with  a  date  which  is  itself  erroneous.  Ormuz 
is  described  as  an  island,  contrary  to  the  old  texts,  and  to  the  fact 
in  Polo's  time.  In  speaking  of  the  oil-springs  of  Caucasus  the 
phrase  "  camel-loads  "  has  been  substituted  for  "  ship-loads," 
in  ignorance  that  the  site  was  Baku  on  the  Caspian. 

But,  on  the  other  hand,  there  are  a  number  of  new  circumstances 
certainly  genuine,  which  can  hardly  be  ascribed  to  any  one  but 
Polo  himself.  Such  is  the  account  which  Ramusio's  version  gives 
of  the  oppressions  exercised  by  Kublai's  Mahommedan  minister 
Ahmad,  telling  how  the  Cathayans  rose  against  him  and  murdered 
him,  with  the  addition  that  Messer  Marco  was  on  the  spot  when 
all  this  happened.  Not  only  is  the  whole  story  in  substantial 
accordance  with  the  Chinese  annals,  even  to  the  name  of  the  chief 
conspiratol'  {Vanchu  in  Ramusio,  Wangcheu  in  the  Chinese  records), 
but  the  annals  also  tell  of  the  frankness  of  "  Polo,  assessor  of  the 
privy  council,"  in  opening  Kublai's  eyes  to  the  iniquities  of  his 
agent. 

Polo  was  the  first  traveller  to  trace  a  route,  across  the  whole 
longitude  of  Asia,  naming  and  describing  kingdom  after  kingdom 
which  he  had  seen ;  the  first  to  speak  of  the  new  and  brilliant  court 
which  had  been  established  at  Peking;  the  first  to  reveal  China  in 
all  its  wealth  and  vastness,  and  to  tell  of  the  nations  on  its  borders; 
the  first  to  tell  more  of  Tibet  than  its  name,  to  speak  of  Burma, 
of  Laos,  of  Siam,  of  Cochin-China,  of  Japan,  of  Java,  of  Sumatra 
and  of  other  islands  of  the  archipelago,  of  the  Nicobar  and  Andaman 
Islands,  of  Ceylon  and  its  sacred  peak,  of  India  but  as  a  country 
seen  and  partially  explored;  the  first  in  medieval  times  to  give 
any  distinct  account  of  the  secluded  Christian  Empire  of  Abyssinia, 
and  of  the  semi-Christian  island  of  Sokotra,  and  to  speak,  however 
dimly,  of  Zanzibar,  and  of  the  vast  and  distant  Madagascar;  whilst 
he  carries  us  also  to  the  remotely  opposite  region  of  Siberia  and  the 
Arctic  shores,  to  speak  of  dog-sledges,  white  bears  and  reindeer- 
riding  Tunguses. 

The  diffusion  of  the  book  was  hardly  so  rapid  as  has  been  some- 
times alleged.  We  know  from  Gilles  Mallet's  catalogue  of  the  books 
collected  in  the  Louvre  by  Charles  V.,  dating  c.  1370-1375,  that 
five  copies  of  Marco  Polo's  work  were  then  in  the  collection ;  but  on 
the  other  hand,  the  202  known  MSS.  and  the  numerous  early  printed 


editions  of  "  Mandeville, ' '  with  his  lying  wonders,  indicates  a  much 
greater  popularity.  Dante,  who  lived  twenty-three  years  after 
the  book  was  dictated,  and  who  touches  so  many  things  in  the  seen 
and  unseen  worlds,  never  alludes  to  Polo,  nor,  we  believe,  to  any- 
thing that  can  be  connected  with  him;  nor  can  any  trace  of  Polo 
be  discovered  in  the  book  of  his  contemporary,  Manno  Sanudo 
the  Elder,  though  this  worthy  is  well  acquainted  with  the  work, 
later  by  some  years,  of  Hayton  the  Armenian,  and  though  many 
of  the  subjects  on  which  he  writes  in  his  own  book  (Secreta  Fidehum 
Crucis^)  challenge  a  reference  to  Polo's  experiences.  "  Mande- 
ville  "  himself,  who  plundered  right  and  left,  hardly  ever  plunders 
Polo  (see  one  example  in  Dawn  of  Modern  Geography,  111.  323,  note). 
The  only  literary  works  we  know  of  the  14th  century  which' show 
acquaintance  with  Polo's  book  or  achievements  are  Pipino's 
Chronicle,  Villani's  Florentine  History,  Pietro  d'Abano's  Conciliator, 
the  Chronicle  of  John  of  Ypres,  and  the  poetical  romance  of  Baudouin 
de  Sebourc,  which  last  borrows  themes  largely  from  Polo.      -  - 

Within  the  traveller's  own  lifetime  we  find  the  earliest  examples 
of  the  practical  and  truly  scientific  coast-charts  {Portolani),  based 
upon  the  experience  of  pilots,  mariners,  merchants,  &c.  In  two  of 
the  most  famous  of  the  14th  century  Portolani,  we  trace  Marco 
Polo's  influence — first,  very  slightly  in  the  Laurentian  or  Medicean 
Portolano  of  1351  (at  Florence),  but  afterwards  with  clearness 
and  in  remarkable  detail  in  the  Catalan  Atlas  of  1375  (now  at 
Paris).  Both  of  these  represent  a  very  advanced  stage  of  medieval 
knowledge,  a  careful  attempt  to  represent  the  known  world  on  the 
basis  of  collected  fact,  and  a  disregard  for  theological  or  pseudo- 
scientific  theory;  in  the  Catalan  Atlas,  as  regards  Central  and 
Further  Asia,  and  partially  as  regards  India,  Marco  Polo's  Booh  is 
the  basis  of  the  map.  His  names  are  often  much  perverted,  and  it 
is  not  always  easy  to  understand  the  view  that  the  compiler  took 
of  his  itineraries.  Still  we  have  Cathay  placed  in  the  true  position 
of  China,  as  a  great  empire  filling  the  south-east  of  Asia.  The 
trans-Gangetic  peninsula  is  absent,  but  that  of  India  proper  is, 
for  the  first  time  in  the  history  of  geography,  represented  with  a 
fair  approximation  to  correct  form  and  position. 

It  is  curious  that,  in  the  following  age,  owing  partly  to  his  un- 
happy reversion  to  the  fancy  of  a  circular  disk,  the  map  of  Fra 
Mauro  (1459),  one  of  the  greatest  map-making  enterprises  in  history, 
and  the  result  of  immense  labour  in  the  collection  of  facts  and  the 
endeavour  to  combine  them,  gives  a  much  less  accurate  idea  of 
Asia  than  the  Carta  catalana.  Columbus  possessed  a  printed 
copy  of  the  Latin  version  of  Polo's  book  made  by  Pipino,  and  on 
more  than  seventy  pages  of  this  there  are  manuscript  notes  in  the 
admiral's  handwriting,  testifying,  what  is  sufficiently  evident  from 
the  whole  history  of  the  Columbian  voyages,  to  the  inmiense  in- 
fluence of  the  work  of  the  Venetian  merchant  upon  the  discoverer 
of  the  new  world. 

When,  in  the  l6th  century,  attempts  were  made  to  combine 
new  and  old  knowledge,  the  results  were  unhappy.  The  earliest 
of  such  combinations  tried  to  realize  Columbus's  ideas  regarding 
the  identity  of  his  discoveries  with  the  Great  Khan's  dominions; 
but  even  after  America  had  vindicated  its  independent  existence, 
and  the  new  knowledge  of  the  Portuguese  had  named  China  where 
the  Catalan  map  had  spoken  of  Cathay,  the  latter  country,  with 
the  whole  of  Polo's  nomenclature,  was  shunted  to  the  north,  forming 
a  separate  system.  Henceforward  the  influence  of  Polo's  work 
on  maps  was  simply  injurious;  and  when  to  his  names  was  added 
a  sprinkling  of  Ptolemy's,  as  was  usual  throughout  the  16th  century, 
the  result  was  a  hotchpotch  conveying  no  approximation  to  facts 
(see  further  Map). 

As  to  the  alleged  introduction  of  important  inventions  into 
Europe  by  Polo — although  the  striking  resemblance  of  early  Euro- 
pean block-books  to  those  of  China  seems  clearly  to  indicate  the 
derivation  of  the  art  from  that  country,  there  is  no  reason  for 
connecting  this  introduction  (any  more  than  that  of  gunpowder 
or  the  mariner's  compass)  with  the  name  of  Marco.  In  the  14th 
century  not  only  were  missions  of  the  Roman  Church  established  in 
some  of  the  chief  cities  of  eastern  China,  but  a  regular  overland 
trade  was  carried  on  between  Italy  and  China,  by  way  of  Tana 
(Azov),  Astrakhan,  Otrar,  Kamul  (Hami)  and  Kanchow.  Many 
a  traveller  other  than  Marco  Polo  might  have  brought  home  the 
block-books,  and  some  might  have  witnessed  the  process  of  making 
them.  This  is  the  less  to  be  ascribed  to  Polo,  because  he  so  curiously 
omits  to_  speak  of  the  process  of  printing,  when,  in  describing  the 
block-printed  paper-money  of  China,  his  subject  seems  absolutely 
to  challenge  a  description  of  the  art. 

See  the  Recueil  of  the  Paris  Geographical  Society  (1824),  vol.  i., 
giving  the  text  of  the  fundamental  MS.  (Nat.  Libr.  Paris,  Fr. 
1 1 16;  see  above),  as  well  as  that  of  the  oldest  Latin  version;  G. 
Pauthier's  edition,  Livre  .  .  de  Marco  Polo  .  .  (Paris,  1865), 
based  mainly  upon  the  three  Paris  MSS.  (Nat.  Libr.  Fr.  2810; 
Fr.  5631;  Fr.  5649;  see  above)  and  accompanied  by  a  commentary 
of  great  value;  Baldelli-Boni's  Italian  edition,  gi\ing  the  oldest 
Italian  version  (Florence,  1827);  Sir  Henr\'  Yule's  edition,  which 
in  its  final  shape,  as  revised  and  augmented  by  Henri  Cordier 
(.  Marco    Polo    .  .  .    London,    1903),     is   the   most   complete 

1  Printed  by  Bongars  in  the  collection  called  Gesta  Dei  per  Fra7icos 
(1611),  ii.  1-281. 


POLO 


II 


History, 


storehouse  of  Polo  learning  in  existence,  embodying  the  labours 
of  all  the  best  students  of  the  subject,  and  giving  the  essence  of 
such  works  as  those  of  Major  P.  Molesworth  Sykes  {Ten  Thousand 
Miles  in  Persia,  &c.)  so  far  as  these  touch  MarCo  Polo;  the 
Archimandrite  Palladius  Katharov's  "  Elucidations  of  Marco  Polo  " 
(from  vol.  X.  of  the  Journal  of  the  North  China  Branch  of  the 
Royal  Asiatic  Society  (1876),  pp.  1-54;  F.  von  Richthofen,  Letters 
to  Shangai  Chamber  of  Commerce;  E.  C.  Baber,  Travels  ,  .  .  in 
Western  China ;  G.  Phillips,  Identity  of  .  .  .  Zaitun  with  Chang- 
chau  in  T'oung  Pao  (Oct.  1890),  and  other  studies  in  T'oung-Pao 
(Dec.  1895  and  July  1896).  There  are  in  all  10  French  editions 
of  Polo  as  well  as  4  Latin  editions,  27  Italian,  9  German,  4  Spanish, 
I  Portuguese,' 12  EngUsh,  2  Russian,  i  Dutch,  i  Bohemian  (Chekh), 
I  Danish  and  i  Swedish.  See  also  E.  Bretschneider,  Mediaeval 
Researches  from  Eastern  Asiatic  Sources,  i.  239,  167;  ii.  8,  71,  81-84, 
184;  L6on  Cahun,  Introduction  ct  I'histoire  de  I'Asie,  339,  386; 
C.  Raymond  Beazley,  Dawn  of  Modern  Geography,  iii.  15-160, 
545-547.554.556-563.  (H.  Y.;  C.  R.  B.) 

POLO  (Tibetan  pulu,  ball),  the  most  ancient  of  games  with 
stick  and  ball.  Hockey,  the  Irish  national  game  of  hurling 
(and  possibly  golf  and  cricket)  are  derived  from  polo. 
The  latter  was  called  hockey  or  hurling  on  horse- 
back in  England  and  Ireland  respectively,  but  historically 
hockey  and  hurling  are  polo  on  foot. 

The  earliest  records  of  polo  are  Persian.  From  Persia  the 
game  spread  westward  to  Constantinople,  eastwards  through 
Turkestan  to  Tibet,  China  and  Japan.  From  Tibet  polo  travelled 
to  Gilgit  and  Chitral,  possibly  also  to  Manipur.  Polo  also  flourished 
in  India  in  the  16th  century.  Then  for  200  years  its  records  in 
India  cease,  till  in  1854  polo  came  into  Bengal  from  Manipur  by 
way  of  Cachar  and  in  1862  the  game  was  played  in  the  Punjab. 

There  have  been  twelve  varieties  of  the  game  during  its 
existence  of  at  least  2000  years,  (i)  A  primitive  form 
consisting  of  feats  of  horsemanship  and  of  skill  with  stick  and 
ball.  (2)  Early  Persian,  described  in  Shahnama,  a  highly 
organized  game  with  rules,  played  four  aside.  (3)  Later 
Persian,  i6th  century,  the  grounds  300  by  1 70  yds.  Sir  Anthony 
Shirley  says  the  game  tesembled  the  rough  football  of  the  same 
period  in  England.  (4)  The  game  in  the  1,7th  century  in  Persia. 
A  more  highly  organized  game  than  No.  3,  as  described  by 
Chardin.  (s)  The  Byzantine  form  played  at  Constantinople 
in  the  12th  century.  A  leathern  ball  the  size  of  an  apple  and 
a  racquet  were  used.  (6)  The  Chinese  game,  about  a.d.  600 
played  with  a  light  wooden  ball.  The  goal  was  formed  by 
two  posts  with  a  boarding  between,  in  the  latter  a  hole  being 
cut  and  a  net  attached  to  it  in  the  form  of  a  bag.  The  side 
which  hit  the  ball  into  the  bag  were  the  winners.  Another 
Chinese  form  was  two  teams  ranged  on  opposite  sides  of 
the  ground,  each  defending  its  own  goal.  The  object  of  the 
game  was  to  drive  the  ball  through  the  enemy's  goal.  (7)  The 
Japanese  game,  popular  in  feudal  times,  still  survives  under 
the  name  of  Dakiu,  or  ball  match.  The  Japanese  game 
has  a  boarded  goal;  5  ft.  from  the  ground  is  a  circular  hole 
I  ft.  2  in.  in  diameter  with  a  bag  behind.  The  balls  are  of 
paper  with  a  cover  of  pebbles  or  bamboo  fibre,  diameter 
1-7  in.,  weight  i|  oz.  The  sticks  are  racket  shaped.  The 
object  is  to  lift  over  or  carry  the  ball  with  the  racket  and 
place  it  in  the  bag.  (8)  Called  rol,  played  with  a  long  stick 
with  which  the  ball  was  dribbled  along  the  ground.  (9)  Another 
ancient  Indian  form  in  which  the  sides  ranged  up  on  opposite 
sides  of  the  ground  and  the  ball  was  thrown  in.  This  is 
probably  the  form  of  the  game  which  reached  India  from 
Persia  and  is  represented  at  the  present  day  by  Manipur  and 
Gilgit  polo,  though  these  forms  are  probably  rougher  than  the 
old  Indian  game.  (10)  Modern  English  with  heavy  ball  and 
sticks,  played  in  England  and  the  colonies  and  wherever  polo 
is  played  in  Europe.  Its  characteristics  are:  offside;  severe 
penalties  for  breach  of  the  rules;  close  combination;  rather 
short  passing;  low  scoring,  and  a  strong  defence.  (11)  Indian 
polo  has  a  lighter  ball,  no  boards  to  the  grounds,  which  are 
usually  full-sized;  a  modified  offside-rule,  but  the  same  system  of 
penalties.  It  is  a  quicker  game  than  the  English.  (12)  The 
American  game  has  no  offside  and  no  penalties,  in  the  English 
sense.  The  attack  is  stronger,  the  passing  longer,  the  pace 
greater  and  more  sustained.    American  players  are  more  certain 


goal-hitters  and  their  scoring  is  higher.  They  defeated  the 
English  players  in  1909  with  ease. 

Polo  was  first  played  in  England  by  the  loth  Hussars  in  1869. 
The  game  spread  rapidly  and  some  good  play  was  seen  at  Lillie 
Bridge.  But  the  organization  of  polo  in  England  dates  from 
its  adoption  by  the  Hurlingham  Club  in  1873.  The  ground 
was  boarded  along  the  sides,  and  this  device,  which  was  employed 
as  a  remedy  for  the  irregular  shape  of  the  Hurlingham  ground, 
has  become  almost  universal  and  has  greatly  affected  the  develop- 
ment of  the  game.  The  club  committee,  in  1874,  drew  up  the  first 
code  of  rules,  which  reduced  the  number  of  players  to  five  a  side 
and  included  offside.  The  next  step  was  the  foundation  of  the 
Champion  Cup,  in  1877.  Then  came  the  rule  dividing  the  game 
into  periods  of  ten  minutes,  with  intervals  of  two  minutes  for 
changing  ponies  after  each  period,  and  five  minutes  at  half- 
time.  The  height  of  ponies  was  fixed  at  i4'2,  and  a  little  later 
an  official  measurer  was  appointed,  no  pony  being  allowed  to 
play  unless  registered  at  Hurlingham.  The  next  change  was 
the  present  scale  of  penalties  for  offside,  foul  riding  or  dangerous 
play.  A  short  tima  after,  the  crooking  of  the  adversary's  stick, 
unless  in  the  act  of  hitting  the  ball,  was  forbidden.  The  game 
grew  faster,  partly  as  the  result  of  these  rules.  Then  the  ten 
minutes'  rule  was  revised.  The  period  did  not  close  until  the 
ball  went  over  the  boundary.  Thus  the  period  might  be  ex- 
tended to  twelve  or  thirteen  minutes,  and  although  this  time 
was  deducted  from  the  next  period  the  strain  of  the  extra 
minutes  was  too  great  on  men  and  ponies.  It  was  therefore 
laid  down  that  the  ball  should  go  out  of  play  on  going  out  of 
bounds  or  striking  the  board,  whichever  happened  first.  In  1910 
a  polo  handicap  was  established,  based  on  the  American  system 
of  estimating  the  number  of  goals  a  player  was  worth  to  his 
side.  This  was  modified  in  the  English  handicap  by  assigning 
to  each  player  a  handicap  number  as  at  golf.  The  highest 
number  is  ten,  the  lowest  one.  The  Hurlingham  handicap  is 
revised  during  the  winter,  again  in  May,  June  and  July,  each 
handicap  coming  into  force  one  month  after  the  date  of  issue. 
In  tournaments  under  handicap  the  individual  handicap  numbers 
are  added  together,  and  the  team  with  the  higher  aggregate 
concedes  goals  to  that  with  the  lower,  according  to  the  con- 
ditions of  the  tournament.  The  handicap  serves,  to  divide 
second  from  first  class  tournaments,  for  the  former  teams  must 
not  have  an  aggregate  over  25. 

The  size  of  the  polo  ground  is  300  yds.  in  length  and  from 
160  to  200  yds.  in  width.  The  larger  size  is  only  found  now 
where  boards  are  not  used.  The  ball  is  made  of  willow  root,  is 
3 J  in.  in  diameter,  weight  not  over  si  oz.  The  polo  stick  has 
no  standard  size  or  weight,  and  square  or  cigar-shaped  heads 
are  used  at  the  discretion  of  the  player.  On  soft  grounds,  the 
former,  on  hard  grounds  the  latter  are  the  better,  but  Indian 
and  American  players  nearly  always  prefer  the  cigar  shape. 

The  goal  posts,  now  generally  made  of  papier  mache,  are 
8  yds.  apart.  This  is  the  goal  line.  Thirty  yards  from  the  goal 
line  a  line  is  marked  out,  nearer  than  which  to  the  goal  no  one 
of  a  fouled  side  may  be  when  the  side  fouling  has  to  hit  out, 
as  a  penalty  from  behind  the'  back  line,  which  is  the  goal  line 
produced.  At  50  yds.  from  each  goal  there  is  generally  a  mark 
to  guide  the  man  who  takes  a  free  hit  as  a  penalty. 

Penalties  are  awarded  by  the  umpires,  who  should  be  two  in 
number,  well  mounted,  and  with  a  good  knowledge  of  the  rules 
of  the  game.  The  Hurlingham  and  Ranelagh  clubs  appoint 
official  umpires.  There  should  also  be  a  referee  in  case  of 
disagreement  between  the  umpires,  and  it  is  usual  to  have  a 
man  with  a  flag  behind  each  goal  to  signal  when  a  goal  is 
scored.  The  HurHngham  club  makes  and  revises  the  rules  of 
the  game,  and  its  code  is,  with  some  local  modifications,  in  force 
in  the  United  Kingdom,  English-speaking  colonies,  the  Argentine 
Republic,  California,  and  throughout  Europe.  America  and 
India  are  governed  by  their  own  polo  associations. 

The  American  rules  have  no  oft'side,  and  their  penalties  consist 
of  subtracting  a  goal  or  the  fraction  of  a  goal,  according  to  the 
offence,  from  the  side  which  has  incurred  a  penalty  for  fouling. 
The   differences   between   the   Hurlingham   and    Indian    rules 


12 


POLONAISE— POLONNARUWA 


are  very  slight,  and  they  tend  to  assimilate  more  as  time 
goes  on. 

Polo  in  the  army  is  governed  by  an  army  polo  committee, 
which  fixes  the  date  of  the  inter-regimental,  tournament.  The 
semi-finals  and  finals  are  played  at  Hurlingham.  The  earlier 
ties  take  place  at  centres  arranged  by  the  army  polo  committee, 
who  are  charged  by  the  mihtary  authorities  with  the  duty  of 
checking  the  expenditure  of  ofiicers  on  the  game.  The  value  of 
polo  as  a  military  exercise  is  now  fuUy  recognized,  and  with  the 
co-operation  of  Hurlingham,  Ranelagh  and  Roehampton  the 
expenses  of  inter-regimental  tournaments  have  been  regulated 
and  restrained. 

The  County  Polo  Association  has  affiliated  to  it  all  the  county 
clubs.  It  is  a  powerful  body,  arranging  the  conditions  of  county 
tournaments,  constructing  the  handicaps  for  county  players,  and 
in  conjunction  with  the  Ranelagh  club  holding  a  polo  week  for 
county  players  in  London.  The  London  clubs  are  three — 
Hurlingham,  Ranelagh  and  Roehampton.  Except  that  they  use 
Hurlingham  rules  the  clubs  are  independent,  and  arrange  the  con- 
ditions and  fix  the  dates  of  their  own  tournaments.  Ranelagh 
has  four,  Roehampton  three  and  Hurlingham  two  polo  grounds. 
There  are  about  400  matches  played  at  these  clubs,  besides 
members'  games  from  May  to  Jxily  during  the  London  season. 
At  present  the  Meadowbrook  still  hold  the  cup  which  was  won 
Inter-  by  an  English  team  in  1886.    In  1902  an  American 

national  team  made  an  attempt  to  recover  it  and  failed. 
Polo.  They  lacked  ponies  and  combination;  but  they  bought 

the  first  and  learned  the  second,  and  tried  again  successfully 
in  1909,  thus  depriving  English  polo  of  the  championship  of 
the  world. 

Polo  in  England  has  passed  through  several  stages.  It  was 
always  a  game  of  skill.  The  cavalry  regiments  in  India  in  early 
7 be  Game  P°^°  days,  the  5th,  9th,  12th  and  17th  Lancers,  the 
'  loth  Hussars  and  the  13th  Hussars,  had  all  learned  the 
value  of  combination.  In  very  early  days  regimental  players  had 
learned  the  value  of  the  backhanded  stroke,  placing  the  ball  so  as 
to  give  opportunities  to  their  own  side.  The  duty  of  support- 
ing the  other  members  of  the  team  and  riding  off  opponents 
so  as  to  clear  the  way  for  players  on  the  same  side  was 
understood.  This  combination  was  made  easier  when  the 
teams  were  reduced  from  five  a  side  to  four.  Great  stress 
was  laid  on  each  man  keeping  his  place,  but  a  more 
flexible  style  of  play  existed  from  early  days  in  the  17  th  Lancers 
and  was  improved  and  perfected  at  the  Rugby  Club  by  the  late 
Colonel  Gordon  Renton  and.  Captain  E.  D.  Miller,  who  had 
belonged  to  that  regiment.  For  a  long  time  the  Rugby  style 
of  play,  with  its  close  combination,  short  passes  and  steady 
defence,  was  the  model  on  which  other  teams  formed  themselves. 
The  secret  of  the  success  of  Rugby  was  the  close  and  unselfish 
combination  and  the  hard  work  done  by  every  member  of  the 
team.  After  the  American  victories  of  1909  a  bolder,  harder 
hitting  style  was  adopted,  and  the  work  of  the  forwards  became 
more  important,  and  longer  passes  are  now  the  rule.  But  the 
main  principles  are  the  same.  The  forwards  lead  the  attack  and 
are  supported  by  the  half-back  and  back  when  playing  towards 
the  adversaries'  goal.  In  defence  the  forwards  hamper  the 
opposing  No.  3  and  No.  4  and  endeavour  to  4ear  the  way  for 
their  own  No.  3  and  No.  4,  who  are  trying  not  merely  to  keep  the 
ball  out  of  their  own  goal  but  to  turn  defence  into  attack.  Each 
individual  player  'must  be  a  good  horseman,  able  to  make  a  pony 
gallop,  must  have  a  control  of  the  ball,  hitting  hard  and  clean 
and  in  the  direction  he  wishes  it  to  go.  He  must  keep  his  eye 
on  the  ball  and  yet  know  where  the  goal-posts  are,  must  be 
careful  not  to  incur  penalties  and  quick  to  take  advantage  of  an 
opportunity.  Polo  gives  no  time  for  second  thoughts.  A  polo 
player  must  not  be  in  a  hurry,  but  he  must  never  be  slow  nor 
dwell  on  his  stroke.  He  must  be  able  to  hit  when  galloping  his 
best  pace  on  to  the  ball  and  able  to  use  the  speed  of  his  pony 
in  order  to  get  pace.  He  must  be  able  to  hit  a  backhander  or 
to  meet  a  ball  coming  to  him,  as  the  tactics  of  the  game  require. 

Polo  has  given  rise  to  a  new  type  of  horse,  an  animal  of 
14  hands  2  in.  with  the  power  of  a  hunter,  the  courage  of  a 


racehorse  and  the  docility  of  a  pony.  At  first  the  ponies  were 
small,  but  now  each  pony  must  pass  the  Hurlingham  official 
measurer  and  be  entered  on  the  register.  The  EngHsh  The  Polo 
system  of  measurement  is  the  fairest  and  most  P<"'y- 
humane  possible.  The  pony  stripped  of  his  clothing  is  led  by 
an  attendant,  not  his  own  groom,  into  a  box  with  a  perfectly 
level  floor  and  shut  off  from  every  distraction.  A  veterinary 
surgeon  examines  to  see  that  the  pony  is  neither  drugged  nor 
in  any  way  improperly  prepared.  The  pony  is  allowed  to 
stand  easOy,  and  a  measuring  standard  with  a  spirit-level  is 
then  placed  on  the  highest  point  of  the  wither,  and  if  the  pony 
measures  14-2  and  is  five  years  old  it  is  registered  for  life.  Ponies 
are  of  many  breeds.  There  are  Arabs,  Argentines,  Americans, 
Irish  and  English  ponies,  the  last  two  being  the  best.  The  Polo 
and  Riding  Pony  Society,  with  headquarters  at  12  Hanover 
Square,  looks  after  the  interests  of  the  EngKsh  and  Irish  pony 
and  encourages  their  breeders.  The  English  ponies  are  now 
bred  largely  for  the  game  and  are  a  blend  of  thoroughbred 
blood  (the  best  are  always  the  race-winning  strains)  or  Arab  and 
of  the  English  native  pony. 

Authorities. — Polo  in  England:  J.  Moray  Brown,  Riding  and 
Polo,  Badminton  Library,  revised  and  brought  up  to  date  by 
T.  F.  Dale  (Longmans,  1899) ;  Captain  Younghusband,  Polo  in  India, 
(11. d.);  J.  Moray  Brown,  Polo  (Vinton,  1896);  T.  F.  Dale,  The  Game 
of  Polo  (A.  Constable  &  Co.,  1897) ;  Captain  Younghusband,  Tourna- 
ment Polo  (1897) ;  Captain  de  Lisle,  Durham  Light  Infantry,  Hints 
to  Polo  Players  in  India  (1897);  T.  B.  Drybrough,  Polo  (Vinton, 
1898;  revised,  Longmans,  1906);  Captain  E.  D.  Miller,  Modern 
Polo  (1903) ;  H.  L.  Fitzpatrick,  Equestrian  Polo,  in  Spalding's 
Athletic  Library  (1904);  Major  G.  J.  Younghusband,  Tournament 
Polo  (1904);  T.  F.  Dale  "  Polo,  Past  and  Present,"  Country  Life; 
Walter  Buckmaster,  "  Hints  on  Polo  Combination,"  Library  of 
Sport  (George  Newnes  Ltd.,  1905 ;  Vinton  &  Co.,  1909) ;  Hurlingham 
Club,  Rules  of  Polo,  Register  of  Ponies;  Polo  and  Riding  Pony 
Society  Stud  Book  (12  vols.,  12  Hanover  Square).  Annuals:  American 
Polo  Association,  143  Liberty  Street,  New  York;  Indian  Polo 
Association,  Lucknow,  N.  P.;  Captain  E.  D.  Miller,  D.S.O.,  The 
Polo  Players'  Guide  and  Almanack;  The  Polo  Annual,  ed.  by  L.  V.  L. 
Simmonds.  Monthlies:  Bailey's  Magazine  (Vinton  &  Co.);  The 
Polo  Monthly  (Craven  House,  Kingsway,  London). 

Polo  in  Persia:  Firdousi's  Shahnama,  translated  as  Le  Livre 
des  rois  by  J.  Mohl,  with  notes  and  comm. ;  Sir  Anthony 
Shirley,  Travels  in  Persia  (1569);  Sir  John  Chardin,  Voyages  en 
Perse  (1686),  ed.  aug.  de  notes,  &c.  par  L.  Langles,  1811 ;  Sir  William 
Ouseley,  Travels  in  Various  Countries  of  the  East,  particularly  Persia 
(1810). 

There  are  many  allusions  to  polo  in  the  poets,  notably  Nizami, 
Jami  and  Omar  Khayyam. 

Polo  in  Constantinople:  Cinnamus  Joannes  epitome  rerum  ab 
loanne  et  Alexia  Commenis  gest.  (Bonn,  1836). 

Polo  in  India:  Ain-i-Akbari  (1555);  G.  F.  Vigne,  Travels  in 
Kashmir  (Ladakh  and  Iskardo,  1842);  Colonel  Algernon  Durand, 
The  Making  of  a  Frontier  (1899).  , 

Polo  in  Gilgit  and  Chitral:  "  Polo  in  Baltistan."  The  Field 
(1888);  Polo  in  Manipur,  Captain  McCulloch,  Manipuris  and  the 
Adjacent  Tribes  (1859).  (T.  F.  D.) 

POLONAISE  {i.e.  Polish,  in  French),  a  stately  ceremonious 
dance,  usually  written  in  f  time.  As  a  form  of  musical  com- 
position it  has  been  employed  by  such  composers  as  Bach, 
Handel,  Beethoven,  and  above  all  by  Chopin.  It  is  usual  to 
date  the  origin  of  the  dance  from  the  election  (iS73)  of  Henry 
duke  of  Anjou,  afterwards  Henry  III.  of  France,  to  the  throne 
of  Poland.  The  ladies  of  the  Polish  nobOity  passed  in  cere- 
monial procession  before  him  at  Cracow  to  the  sound  of  stately 
music.  This  procession  of  music  became  the  regular  opening 
ceremony  at  royal  functions,  ind  developed  into  the  dance. 

The  term  is  also  given  to  a  form  of  skirted  bodice,  wliich  has 
been  fashionable  for  ladies  at  different  periods. 

POLONNARUWA,  a  ruined  city  and  ancient  capital  of 
Ceylon.  It  first  became  a  royal  residence  in  a.d.  368,  when  the 
lake  of  Topawewa  was  formed,  and  succeeded  Anuradhapura 
as  the  capital  in  the  middle  of  the  8th  century.  The  principal 
ruins  date  chiefly  from  the  time  of  Prakrama  Bahu  (a.d.  1153- 
II 86).  The  most  imposing  pile  remaining  is  the  Jetawa- 
narama  temple,  a  building  170  ft.  in  length,  with  walls  about 
80  ft.  high  and  1 2  ft.  thick.  The  city  is  now  entirely  deserted, 
and,  as  in  the  case  of  Anuradhapura,  its  ruins  have  only  recently 
been  rescued  from  the  jungle. 


POLOTSK—POLTAVA 


13 


POLOTSK,  a  town  of  Russia,  in  the  government  of  Vitebsk, 
at  the  confluence  of  the  Polota  with  the  Dvina,  62  m.  by  rail 
N.W.  of  the  town  of  Vitebsk.  Pop.  20,751;  Owing  to  the 
continuous  wars,  of  which,  from  its  position  on  the  line  of 
communication  between  central  Russia  and  the  west  it  was  for 
many  centuries  the  scene,  scarcely  any  of  its  remarkable  anti- 
quities remain.  The  upper  castle,  which  stood  at  the  confluence 
of  the  rivers  and  had  a  stone  wall  with  seven  towers,  is  in  ruins, 
as  is  the  lower  castle  formerly  enclosed  with  strong  walls  and 
connected  -{vith  the'  upper  castle  by  a  bridge.  The  cathedral 
of  St  Sophia  in  the  upper  castle,  built  in  the  12th  century, 
fell  to  ruins'in  the  i8th  century,  whereupon  the  United  Greek 
bishop  substituted  a  modern  structure.'  Upwards  of  two-thirds 
of  the  inhabitants  are  Jews;  the  remainder  have  belonged  mostly 
to  the  Orthodox  Greek  Church  since'  1839,  when  they  were 
compelled  to  abandon  the  United  Greek  Church.  Flax,  linseed, 
corn  alnd  tiiriber  are  the  leading  articles  of  commerce. 

Polotesk  or  Poltesk  is  riientioned  in  862  as  one  of  the  towns 
given  by  the  Scandinavian  R.urik  to' his  men.  In  980  it  had 
£t  prince  of  its  own,  Ragvald  (Rogvolod  or  Rognvald),  whose 
daughter  is  the  subject  of  many  legends.  It  remained  an 
independent  principality  until  the  12th  century,  resisting  the 
repeated  attacks  of  the  princes  of  Kiev;  those  of  Pskov,  Lithu- 
ania, and  the  Livonian  Knights,  however,  proved  more  effective, 
and  Polotsk  fell  Under  Lithuanian  rule  in  1320.  About  1385  its 
independence  was  destroyed  by  the  Lithuanian  prince  Vitovt. 
II  was  five  times  besieged  by  Moscow  in  1500-18,  and  was 
taken  by  Ivan  the  Terrible  in  1563.  Recaptured  by  Stephen 
Bathory,  king  of  Polatnd,  sixteen  years  later,  it  became  Polish 
by  the  treaty  of  1582.  It  was  then'  a  large  and  populous 
city,  and  carried  on  an  active'  commerce.  Pestilences  and 
conflagrations  were  its  ruin;  the  plague  of  1566  wrought 
great  havcjc  among  its  inhabitants,  and  that  of  1600  destroyed 
15,000.  The  castles,  the  town  and  its  walls  were  buriied  in 
1607  and  1642.  The  Russians  continued  their  attacks,  burning 
and  plundering  the  town,  and  twice,  in  1633  and  1705,  taking 
possession  of  it  for  a  few  years.  It  was  not  definitely  annexed, 
however,  to  Russia  until  1772,  after  the  first  disrhemberment 
of  Poland.  In  1812  its  inhabitants  resisted  the  French  invasion, 
and  the  town  was  partially  destroyed. 

POLTAVA,  a  government  of  south-western  Russia,  bounded 
by  the  government  of  Chernigov  on  the  N.,  Kharkov  on  the  E., 
Ekaterinoslav  and  Kherson  on  the  S.,  and  Kiev  on  the  W.,  and 
having  an  area  of  19,260  sq.  m.  Its  siirface  is  an  undulating 
plain  500  to  600  ft.  above  sea-level,  with  a'  few'  elevations  reach- 
ing 670  ft.  in  the  north,  and  gently  sloping  to  300  and  406  ft.  in 
the  south-west.  Owing  to  the  deep  excavations  of  the  rivers, 
their  banks,  especially  those  on  the  right,  have  the  aspect  of 
hilly  tracts,  while  low  plains  stretch'  to  the  left.  Almost  the 
whole  of  the  surface  consists  of  Tertiary  deposits;  Cretaceous 
rocks  appeal-  in  the  nbrth-east,  at  the  bottom  of  the  deeper 
ravines.  The  government  touches  the  granitic  region  of  the 
Dnieper  only  in  the  _  south,  below  Kremenchug.  Limestone 
with  dolerite  veins  occurs  in  the  isolated  hill  of  Isachek,  which 
rises  above  the  marshes  of  the  Sula.  'The  whole  is  covered  with 
a  layer,  26  to  60  ft.  thick,  of  boulder  clay,  which  again  is  often 
mantle'd  with  a  thick  sheet  of  loess.  Sandstone  (sometimes 
suitable  for  giindstones)  and  limestone  are  quarried,  and  a  few 
beds  of  gypsum  and  peat-bog  are  known  within  the  governftient. 
With  the  exception  of  some  sandy  tracts,  the  soil  is  on  the  whole 
very  fertile.  Poltava  is  drained  by  the  Dnieper,  which  flows 
along  its  border,  navigable  throughout,  and  by  its  tributaries 
the  Sula,  Psiol,  Vorskla,'  Orel,  Trubezh,  and  several  others, 
none  of  them  navigable,  although  their  courses  vary  from  150 
to  270  m.  each  in  length.  Even  those  which  used  to  be  navigated 
within  the '  historical  period,  such  as  the  Trubezh  and  Supoi, 
are  now  drying  up,  while  the  others  are  being  partially  trans- 
formed into  marshes.  Deep  sand-beds  intersected  by  number- 
less ravines  and  old  arms  of  the  river  stretch  along  the  left 
bank  of  the  Dnieper,  where  accordingly  the  settlements  are 
few.  Only  5  %  of  the  total  area  is  under  forest ;  timber,  wooden 
wares,  and  pitch  are  imported. 


The  estimated  population  in  igo6  was  3,312,400.  The  great 
majority  are  Little  Russians.  Agriculture  is  the  principal 
pursuit,  60%  of  the  total  area  being  arable  land.  The  crops 
chiefly  grown  are  wheat,  rye  and  oats;  the  sunflower  is  largely 
cultivated,  especially  for  oil,  and  the  growing  of  tobacco,  always 
important,  has  made  a  great  advance.  Kitchen  gardening, 
the  cultivation  of  the  plum,  and  the  preparation  of  preserved 
fruits  ate  important  branches  of  industry.  At  Lubny,  where 
an  apothecaries'  garden  is  maintained  by  the  Crown,  the  col- 
lection and  cultivation  of  medicinal  plants  are  a  speciality. 
The  main  source  of  wealth  in  Poltava  always  has  been,  and  still 
is,  its  live-stock  breeding — horseSj  cattle,  sheep,  pigs.  Some 
of  the  wealthier  landowners  and  many  peasants  rear  finer  breeds 
of  horses;  The  land  is  chiefly  owned  by  the  peasants,  who 
possess  52%  of  the  cultivable  area;  42%  belongs  to  private 
persons,  and  the  remainder  to  the  Crown,  the  clergy,  and  the 
municipalities. 

Among  the  manufactures  distilleries  hold  the  leading  place, 
after  ■Which  come  flour-miUs,  tobacco  factories,  machine-making, 
tanneries,  saw-mills, '  sugar-works  and  woollen  manufactures. 
In  the  villages  and  towns  several  domestic  trades  are  carried 
on,  such  as  the  preparation  of  sheepskins,  plain  woollen  cloth, 
leather,  boots  and  pottery.  The  fair  of  Poltava  is  of  great 
importance  fot  the  whole  wooUen  trade  of  Russia,  and 
leather,  cattle,  horses,  coarse  woollen  cloth,  skins,  and  various 
domestic  wares  are  exchanged  for  manufactures  imported  from 
Great  Russia.  The  value  of  merchandise  brought  to  the  fair 
averages  over  £2,500,000.  Several  other  fairs,  the  aggregate 
returns  for  which  reach  more  than  one-half  of  the  above,  are 
held  at  Romny  (tobacco),  Kremenchug  (timber,  corn,  tallow 
and  salt),  and  Kobelyaki  (sheepskins).  Corn  is  exported  to  a 
considerable  extent  to  the  west  and  to  Odessa,  as  also  saltpetre, 
spirits,  wool,  tallow,  skins  and  wooUen  cloth.  The  Dnieper  is 
the  principal  artery  for  the  exports  and  for  the  import — timber. 
The  chief  river-ports  are  Kremenchug  and  Poltava.  Steamers 
ply  between  Kiev  and  Ekaterinoslav;  but  the  navigation  is 
hampered  by  want  of  water  and  becomes  active  only  in  the 
south.  Traffic  mostly  follows  the  railway.  Poltava  is  divided 
into  fifteen  districts,  of  which  the  chief  towns  are  Poltava, 
Gadyach,  Khorol,  Kobelyaki,  Konstantinograd,  Kremenchug, 
Lokhvitsa,  Lubny,  Mirgorod,  Pereyaslavl,  Piryatin,  Prilukij 
Romny,  Zenkov  and  Zolotonosha. 

History. — ^At  the  dawn  of  Russian  history  the  region .  now 
occupied  by  Poltava  was  inhabited  by  the  Slav  tribe  of  the 
Syeveryanes.  As  early  as  988  the  Russians  erected  several 
towns  on  the  Sula  and  the  Trubezh  for  their  protection  against 
the  Turkish  Petchenegs  and' Polovtsi,  who  held  the  ■  south- 
eastern steppes.  Population  extended,  and  the  towns  of 
Pereyaslavl,  Lubny,  Priluki,  Piryatin,  Romny,  begin  to  be 
mentioned  in  the  nth  and  1 2th  centuries;  The  Mongol  invasion 
of  1239-42  destroyed  most  of  them,  and'  for  two  centuries 
afterwards  they  disappear  from  Russian  annals.  About  1331 
Gedimin,  prince  of  Lithuania,  annexed  the  so-called  "  Syeveisk 
towns  "  and  on  the  recognition  of  the  union  of  Lithuania  with 
Poland  they  were  included  in  the  united  kingdom  along  with 
the  remainder  of  Little  Russia.  In  1476  a  separate  principality 
of  Kiev  under  Polish  rule  and  Polish  institutions  was  formed 
out  of  Little  Russia,  and  remained  so  until  the  rising  of  the 
Cossack  chief  Bogdan  Chmielnicki  in  1654.  By  the  Andrussowo 
Treaty,  the  left  bank  of  the  Dnieper  being  ceded  to  Russia, 
Poltava  became  part  of  the  dominions  of  the  Zaporogian 
Cossacks,  and  was  divided  into  "  regiments,"  six  of  which 
(Poltava,  Pereyaslavl,  Priluki,  Gadyach,  Lubny  and  Mirgorod) 
lay  within  the  Kmits  of  the  present  government.  They  lost 
their  independence  in  1764.  (P.  A.  K. ;  J.  T.  Be.) 

POLTAVA,  a  town  of  Russia,  capital  of  the  government  of 
the  same  name,  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Vorskla,  88  m.  by 
rail  W.S.W.  of  Kharkov.  Pop.  53,060.  The  town  is  built  on 
a  plateau  which  descends  by  steep  slopes  on  nearly  every  side. 
Several  suburbs,  inhabited  by  Cossacks,  whose  houses  are  buried 
amid  gardens,  and  a  German  colony,  surround  the  town.  The 
oldest  buildings  are  a  monastery,  erected  in  1650,  and  a  wooden 


H 


POLTERGEIST 


church  visited  by  Peter  the  Great  after  the  battle  of  Poltava. 
There  are  a  military  school  for  cadets,  a  theological  seminary 
and  two  girls'  colleges;  also  iiour-mills,  tobacco  works  and  a 
tannery. 

Poltava  is  mentioned  in  Russian  annals  in  1174,  under  the 
name  of  Ltava,  but  does  not  again  appear  in  history  until  1430, 
when,  together  with  Glinsk,  it  was  given  by  Gedimin,  prince  of 
Lithuania,  to  the  Tatar  prince  Leksada.  Under  the  Cossack 
chief,  Bogdan  Chmielnicki,  it  was  the  chief  town  of  the  Poltava 
"  regiment."  Peter  the  Great  of  Russia  defeated  Charles  XII. 
of  Sweden  in  the  immediate  neighbourhood  on  the  27th  of  June 
1709,  and  the  victory  is  commemorated  by  a  column  over  50  ft. 
in  height. 

POLTERGEIST  (Ger.  for  "racketing  spirit"),  the  term 
applied  to  certain  phenomena  of  an  unexplained  nature,  such 
as  movements  of  objects  without  any  traceable  cause,  and 
noises  equally  untraced  to  their  source;  but  in  some  cases 
exhibiting  intelligence,  as  when  raps  answer  a  question  by  a 
code.  In  the  word  Poltergeist,  the  phenomena  are  attributed 
to  the  action  of  a  Geist,  or  spirit:  of  old  the  popular  explanation 
of  all  residuary  phenomena.  The  hypothesis,  in  consequence 
of  the  diffusion  of  education,  has  been  superseded  by  that  of 
"electricity";  while  sceptics  in  all  ages  and  countries  have 
accounted  for  all  the  phenomena  by  the  theory  of  imposture. 
The  last  is  at  least  a  vera  causa:  imposture  has  often  been 
detected;  but  it  is  not  so  certain  that  this  theory  accounts  for  all 
the  circumstances.  To  the  student  of  human  nature  the  most 
interesting  point  in  the  character  of  poltergeist  phenomena  is 
their  appearance  in  the  earliest  known  stages  of  culture,  their 
wide  diffusion,  and  their  astonishing  uniformity.  Almost  all 
the  beliefs  usually  styled  "  superstitious  "  are  of  early  occurrence 
and  of  wide  diffusion:  the  lowest  savages  believe  in  ghosts 
of  the  dead  and  in  wraiths  of  the  living.  Such  beliefs  when 
found  thriving  in  our  own  civilization  might  be  explained  as 
mere  survivals  from  savagery,  memories  of  all 

"  The  superstitions  idle-headed  eld 
Received  and  did  deliver  to  our  age." 

But  we  have  not  to  deal  only  with  a  belief  that  certain 
apparently  impossible  things  may  occur  and  have  occurred  in 
the  past.  We  are  met  by  the  evidence  of  sane  and  credible 
witnesses,  often  highly  educated,  who  maintain  that  they 
themselves  have  heard  and  beheld  the  unexplained  sounds  and 
sights.  It  appears,  therefore,  that  in  considering  the  phenomena 
of  the  poltergeist  we  are  engaged  with  facts  of  one  sort  or 
another;  facts  produced  either  by  skilled  imposture,  or  resting 
on  hallucinations  of  the  witnesses;  or  on  a  mixture  of  fraud 
and  of  hallucination  caused  by  "  suggestion."  There  remains 
the  chance  that  some  agency  of  an  unexplored  nature  is,  at  least 
in  certain  cases,  actually  at  work. 

A  volume  would  be  needed  if  we  were  to  attempt  to  chronicle 
the  phenomena  of  the  poltergeist  as  believed  in  by  savages 
and  in  ancient  and  medieval  times.  But  among  savages  they  are 
usually  associated  with  the  dead,  or  with  the  medicine-men  of  the 
tribes.  These  personages  are  professional  "  mediums,"  and  like 
the  mediums  of  Europe  and  America,  may  be  said  to  have  do- 
mesticated the  poltergeist.  At  their seances,tsavage or  civilized, 
the  phenomena  are  reported  to  occur — such  as  rappings  and 
other  noises,  loud  or  low,  and  "  movements  of  objects  without 
physical  contact."  (See,  for  a  brief  account,  A.  Lang,  Cock 
Lane  and  Common  Sense,  "  Savage  Spiritualism  ";  and  see  the 
Jesuit  Lettres  Hifianles,  North  America,  1620-1770,  and 
Kohl's  Kitchi  Gami.)  But  "'  induced  phenomena,"  where 
professional  mediums  and  professional  medical  men  are  the 
agents,  need  not  here  be  considered.  The  evidence,  unless  in 
the  case  of  Sir  William  Crookes's  experiments  with  Daniel  Dunglas 
Home,  is  generally  worthless,  and  the  laborious  investigations 
of  the  Society  for  Psychical  Research  resulted  only  in  the 
detection  of  fraud  as  far  as  "  physical "  manifestations  by 
paid  mediums  were  concerned. 

The  spontaneous  poltergeist,  where,  at  least,  no  professional 
is  present,  and  no  seance  is  being  held,  is  much  more  curious  and 


interesting  than  the  simple  tricks  played  in  the  dark  by  impudent 
charlatans.  The  phenomena  are  identical,  as  reported,  literally 
"  from  China  to  Peru."  The  Cieza  de  Leon  (1549)  tells  us 
that  the  cacique  of  Pirza,  in  Popyan,  during  his  conversion 
to  Christianity,  was  troubled  by  stones  falling  mysteriously 
through  the  air  (the  mysterious  point  was  the  question  of 
whence  they  came,  and  what  force  urged  them),  while  Chris- 
tians saw  at  his  table  a  glass  of  liquor  raised  in  the  air,  by  no 
visible  hand,  put  down  empty,  and  replenished!  Mr  Dennys 
{Folk  Lore  of  China,  1876,  p.  79)  speaks  of  a  Chinese  householder 
who  was  driven  to  take  refuge  in  a  temple  by  the  usual  phenomena 
— throwing  about  of  crockery  and  sounds  of  heavy  footfalls — 
after  the  decease  of  an  aggrieved  monkey.  This  is  only  one  of 
several  Chinese  cases  of  poltergeist;  and  the  phenomena  are 
described  in  Jesuit  narratives  of  the  i8th  century,  from  Cochin 
China.  In  these  papers  no  explanation  is  suggested.  There 
is  a  famous  example  in  a  nunnery,  recorded  (1528)  by  a  notable 
witness,  Adrien  de  Montalembert,  almoner  to  Francis  I.  The 
agent  was  supposed  to  be  the  spirit  of  a  sister  recently  deceased. 

Among  multitudes  of  old  cases,  that  of  the  "  Drummer  of 
Tedworth  "  (1662-1663;  see  Glanvil,  Sadducismus  trium.phaius, 
1666);  that  at  Rerrick,  recorded  by  the  Rev.  Mr  Telfer 
in  1695;  that  of  the  Wesley  household  (1716-1717)  chronicled 
in  contemporary  letters  and  diaries  of  the  Wesley  family 
(Southey's  Life  of  John  Wesley);  that  of  Cideville  (1851),  from 
the  records  of  the  court  which  tried  the  law-suit  arising  out  of 
the  afiair  (Proc.  Soc.  Psychical  Research,  xvui.  454-463);  and 
the  Alresford  case,  attested  by  the  great  admiral,  Lord  St 
Vincent,  are  among  the  most  remarkable.  At  Tedworth  we 
have  the  evidence  of  Glanvil  himself,  though  it  does  not 
amount  to  much;  at  Rerrick,  Telfer  was  a  good  chronicler 
and  gives  most  respectable  signed  vouchers  for  all  the  marvels: 
Samuel,  Wesley  and  his  wife  were  people  of  sense,  they  were 
neither  alarmed  nor  superstitious,  merely  puzzled;  whUe  the 
court  which  tried  the  Cideville  case,  only  decided  that  "  the 
cause  of  the  events  remains  unknown."  At  Alresford,  in 
Hampshire,  the  phenomena  attested  by  Lord  St  Vincent  and 
his  sister  Mrs  Ricketts,  who  occupied  the  house,  were  pecu- 
liarly strange  and  emphatic:  the  house  was  therefore  pulled 
down.  At  WOlington  Mill,  near  Morpeth  (1831-1847),  the 
phenomena  are  attested  by  the  journal  of  Mr  Procter,  the 
occupant,  a  Quaker,  a  "  tee-to taUer,"  and  a  man  of  great 
resolution.  He  and  his  family  endured  unspeakable  things  for 
sixteen  years,  and  could  find  no  explanation  of  the  sights  and 
sounds,  among,  which  were  phantasms  of  animals,  as  at 
Epworth,  in  the  Wesley  case. 

Of  all  these  cases  that  of  the  Wesleys  has  attracted  most 
critical  attention.  It  was  not,  in  itself,  an  extreme  instance 
of  poltergeist:  at  Alresford,  at  the  close  of  the  18th  century, 
and  at  Willington  Mill  in  the  middle  of  the  19th  the  disturbances 
were  much  more  violent  and  persistent  than  at  Epworth,  while 
our  evidence  is,  in  all  three  examples,  derived  from  the  contem- 
porary narratives,  letters  and  journals  of  educated  persons. 
The  Wesleys,  however,  were  people  so  celebrated  and  so  active 
in  religion  that  many  efforts  have  been  made  to  explain  their 
"old  Jeffrey,"  as  they  called  the  disturbing  agency.  These 
attempts  at  explanation  have  been  fruitless.  The  poet  Coleridge, 
who  said  that  he  knew  many  cases,  explained  all  by  a  theory  of 
contagious  epidemic  hallucination  of  witnesses.  Dr  Salmon, 
of  Trinity  College,  Dublin,  set  all  down  to  imposture  by  Hetty 
Wesley,  a  vivacious  girl  {Fortnightly  Review,  1866).  The 
documents  on  which  he  relied,  when  closely  studied,  did  not 
support  his  charges,  for  he  made  several  important  errors  in 
dates,  and  on  these  his  argument  rested.  F.  Podmore,  in  several 
works  (e.g.  Studies  in  Psychical  Research),  adopted  a  theory 
of  exaggerative  memory  in  the  narrators,  as  one  element, 
with  a  dose  of  imposture  and  of  hallucination  begotten  of 
excited  expectation.  The  Wesley  letters  and  journals,  written 
from  day  to  day,  do  not  permit  of  exaggerative  memory,  and 
when  the  records  of  1716-1717  are  compared  with  the  remini- 
scences collected  from  his  family  by  John  Wesley  in  1726,  the 
discrepancies  are  seen  to  be  only  such  as  occur  in  all  human 


POLTERGEIST 


15 


evidence  about  any  sort  of  events,  remote  by  nine  or  ten 
years.  Thus,  in  1726,  Mrs  Wesley  mentioned  a  visionary 
badger  seen  by  her.  She  did  not  write  about  it  to  her  son 
Samuel  in  17 17,  but  her  husband  and  her  daughter  did  then 
describe  it  to  Samuel,  as  an  experience  of  his  mother  at 
that  date.  The  whole  family,  in  17 17,  became  famiUar  with  the 
phenomena,  and  were  tired  of  them  and  of  Samuel's  questions. 
(Mr  Podmore's  arguments  are  to  be  found  in  the  Journal  of  the 
Studies  of  Psychical  Research,  ix.  40-45.  Some  dates  are  mis- 
printed.) The  theory  of  hallucination  cannot  aceoimt  for  the 
imiformity  of  statements,  in  many  countries  and  at  many 
dates,  to  the  effect  that  the  objects  mysteriously  set  in  motion 
moved  in  soft  curves  and  swerves,  or  "  wobbled."  Suppose 
that  an  adroit  impostor  is  throwing  them,  suppose  that  the 
spectators  are  excited,  why  should  their  excitement  every- 
where produce  a  uniform  hallucination  as  to  the  mode  of 
motion?  It  is  better  to  confess  ignorance,  and  remain  in 
doubt,  than  to  invent  such  theories. 

A  modern  instance  may  be  analysed,  as  the  evidence  was 
given  contemporaneously  with  the  events  (Podmore,  Proc. 
Soc.  Psychical  Research,  xii.  45-58:  "Poltergeists").  On 
the  20th  or  21st  of  February  1883  a  Mrs  White,  in  a 
cottage  at  Worksop,  was  "  washing  up  the  tea-things  at  the 
table,"  with  two  of  her  children  in  the  room,  when  "  the  table 
tilted  up  at  a  considerable  angle,"  to  her  amazement.  On  the 
26  th  of  February,  .  Mr  White  being  from  home,  Mrs  White 
extended  hospitality  to  a  girl,  EKza  Rose,  "  the  child  of  an 
imbecile  mother."  Eliza  is  later  described  as  "  half-witted," 
but  no  proof  of  this  is  given.  On  the  ist  of  March,  White  being 
from  homej  at  about  11.30  p.m.  a  number  of  things  "  which  had 
been  in  the  kitchen  a  few  minutes  before  "  came  tumbling  down 
the  kitchen  stairs.  Only  Mrs  White  and  EUza  Rose  were  then 
in  the  kitchen.  Later  some  hot  coals  made  an  invasion.  On 
the  following  night,  White  being  at  home  in  the  kitchen,  with  his 
wife  and  Eliza,  a  miscellaneous  throng  of  objects  came  in, 
Mr  White  made  vain  research  upstairs,  where  was  his  brother 
Tom.  On  his  return  to  the  kitchen  "  a  little  china  woman  left 
the  mantelpiece  and  flew  into  the  corner."  Being  replaced,  it 
repeated  its  flight,  and  was  broken.  White  sent  his  brother  to 
fetch  a  doctor;  there  also  came  a  pohceman,  named  Higgs;  and 
the  doctor  and  policeman  saw,  among  other  things,  a  basin  and 
cream  jug  rise  up  automatically;  fall  on  the  floor  and  break. 
Next  morning,  a  clock  which  had  been  silent  for  eighteen  months 
struck;  a,  crash  was  heard,  and  the  clock  was  found  to  have 
leapt  over  a  bed  and  fallen  on  the  floor.  All  day  many  things 
kept  flying  about  and  breaking  themselves,  and  Mr  White  sent 
Miss  Rose  about  her  business.     Peace  ensued. 

Mr  Podmore,  who  visited  the  scene  on  the  7th  and  8th  of 
April  and  collected  depositions,  says  (writing  in  1883):  "It 
may  be  stated  generally  that  there  was  no  possibflity,  in  most 
cases,  of  the  objects  having  been  thrown  by  hand.  .  .  .  More- 
over it  is  hard  to  conceive  by  what  mechanical  appliances, 
under  the  circumstances  described,  the  movements  could  have 
been  effected.  ...  To  suppose  that  these  various  objects 
were  all  moved  by  mechanical  contrivances  argues  incredible 
stupidity,  amounting  almost  to  imbecility,  on  the  part  of  all 
the  persons  present  who  were  not  in  the  plot,"  whereas  Higgs, 
Dr  Lloyd  and  a  miner  named  Curass,  aU  "  certainly  not  wanting 
in  intelligence,"  examined  the  objects  and  could  find  no  explana- 
tion. White  attested  that  fresh  invasions  of  the  kitchen  by 
inanimate  objects  occurred  as  Ehza  was  picking  up  the  earher 
arrivals;  and  he  saw  a  salt-ceUar  fly  from  the  table  while  Ehza 
was  in  another  part  of  the  room.  The  amount  of  things  broken 
was  valued  by  White  at  £9.  No  one  was  in  the  room  when  the 
clock  struck  and  feU.  Higgs  saw  White  shut  the  cupboard 
doors,  they  instantly  burst  open,  and  a  large  glass  jar  flew  into 
the  yard  and  broke.  "  The  jar  cp,uld  not  go  in  a  straight  Hne 
from  the  cupboard  out  of  the  door;  but  it  certainly  did  go  " 
(Higgs).  The  depositions  were  signed  by  the  witnesses  (April 
1883):  ■   ■,       ' 

In  1896,  Mr  Podmore,  after  thirteen  years  .qf  .experience 
in  examining  reports  of  the  poltergeist,  produced  his  explana- 


tions, (i)  The  witnesses,  though  "  honest  and  fairly  intelli- 
gent," were  "  imperfectly  educated,  not  skilled  in  accurate 
observation  of  any  kind."  (They  described,  like  many  others, 
in  many  lands,  the  "  wobbling  "  movement  of  objects  in  flight.) 
(2)  Mr  Podmore  took  the  evidence  five  weeks  after  date;  there 
was  time  for  exaggerated  memories.  (Mr  Podmore  did  not 
consult,  it  seems,  the  contemporary  evidence  of  Higgs  in  the 
Retford  and  Gainsborough  Times,  9th  of  March  1883.  On 
examination  it  proves  to  tally  as  precisely  as  possible  with  the 
testimonies  which  he  gave  to  Mr  Podmore,  except  that  in  March 
he  mentioned  one  or  two  miracles  which  he  omitted  five  weeks 
later!  The  evidence  is  pubhshed  in  Lang's  The  Making  of 
Religion,  1898,  p.  356.)  (3)  In  the  evidence  given  to  Mr  Podmore 
five  weeks  after  date,  there  are  discrepancies,  between  Higgs  and 
White  as  to  the  sequence  of  some  events,  and  as  to  whether 
one  Coulter  was  present  when  the  clock  fell:  he  asserts,  Higgs 
and  White  deny  it .  (There  is  never  evidence  of  several  witnesses, 
five  weeks  after  an  event,  without  such  discrepancies.  If  there 
were,  the  evidence  would  be  suspected  as  "  cooked."  Higgs 
in  April  gave  the  same  version  as  in  March.)  (4)  As  there 
are  discrepancies,  the  statements  that  Eliza  was  not  always 
present  at  the  abnormal  occurrences  may  be  erroneous.  "  It 
is  perhaps  not  unreasonable  to  conjecture  that  EHza  Rose  herself, 
as  the  instrument  of  mysterious  agencies,  or  simply  as  a  half- 
witted girl  gifted  with  abnormal  cunning  and  love  of  mischief, 
may  have  been  directly  responsible  for  all  that  took  place." 
{How,  if,  as  we  have  seen,  the  theory  of  mechanical  appliances 
is  abandoned,  "  under  the  circumstances  described  "  ?  We  need 
to  assume  that  all  the  circumstances  are  wrongly  desciibed. 
Yet  events  did  occur,  the  breakages  were  lamentable,  and  we 
ask  how  could  the  most  half-witted  of  girls  damage  so  much 
property  undetected,  under  the  eyes  of  the  owner,  a  policeman, 
a  medical  practitioner  and  others  ?  How  could  she  throw  things 
from  above  into  the  room  where  she  was  picking  up  the  things 
as  they  arrived?  Or  is  that  a  misdescription?  No  evidence 
of  Eliza's  haK-wittedness  and  abnormal  cunning  is  adduced. 
If  we  call  her  "the  instrument  of  mysterious  agencies,"  the 
name  of  these  agencies  is — poltergeist!  No  later  attempt  to 
find  and  examine  the  abnormal  girl  is  recorded.) 

The  explanations  are  not  ideally  satisfactory,  but  they  are  the 
result,  in  Mr  Podmore's  mind,  of  examination  of  several  later 
cases  of  poltergeist.^  In  one  a  girl,  carefully  observed,  was 
detected  throwing  things,  and  evidence  that  the  phenomena 
occurred,  in  her  absence,  at  another  place  and  time,  is  discounted. 
In  several  other  cases,  exaggerations  of  memory,  malobservation 
and  trickery  combined,  are  the  explanations,  and  the  conclu- 
sion is  that  there  is  "  strong  ground  "  for  beheving  in  trickery 
as  the  true  explanation  of  all  these  eleven  cases,  including 
:the  Worksop  affair.  Mr  Podmore  asserts  that,  at  Worksop, 
"  the  witnesses  did  not  give  their  testimony  until  some  weeks 
after  the  event."  That  is  an  erroneous  statement  as  far  as  Higgs 
goes,  the  result  apparently  of  malobservation  of  the  local  news- 
paper. More  or  less  of  the  evidence  was  printed  in  the  week 
when  the  events  occurred.  Something  more  than  unconscious 
exaggeration,  or  malobservation,  seems  needed  to  explain  the 
amazing  statements  made  by  Mr  Newman,  a  gamekeeper  of 
Lord  Portman,  on  the  23rd  of  January  1895,  at  Durmeston  in 
another  case.  Among  other  things,  he  said  that  on  the  i8th 
of  December  1894,  a  boot  flew  out  of  a  door.  "  I  went  and  put 
my  foot  on  the  boot  and  said  '  I  defy  anything  to  move  this 
boot.'  Just  as  I  stepped  off,  it  rose  up  behind  me  and  knocked 
my  hat  ofi.  There  was  nobody  behind  me."  Gamekeepers  are 
acute  observers,  and  if  the  narrative  be  untrue,  malobservation 
or  defect  of  memory  does  not  explain  the  fact.  In  this  case, 
at  Durmeston,  the  rector,  Mr  Anderson,   gave  an  account  of 

^The  present  writer  criticized  Mr  Podmore's  explanation  in 
The  Making  of  Religion.  Mr  Podmore  replied  (Proc.  Soc.  Psychical 
■Research,  xiv.  133,  136),' pointing  out  an  error  in  the  critic's 
presentation  of  his  rtieaning.  He,  in  turn,  said  that  the  writer 
"  champions  the  supernormal  interpretation,"  which  is  not  exact, 
as  the  writer  has  no  theory  on  the  subject,  though  he  is  not 
satisfied  that  "  a  naughty  little  girl  "  is  a  uniformly  successful 
solution  of  the  poltergeist  problemi 


i6 


POLTERGEIST 


some  of  the  minor  phenomena.  He  could  not  explain  them,  and 
gave  the  best  character  to  the  Nonconformist  mother  of  the 
child  with  whom  the  events  were  associated.  No  trickery 
was  discovered. 

The  phenomena  are  frequently  connected  with'  a  person, 
often  a  child,  suffering  from  nervous  malady  or  recent  nervous 
shock.  No  such  person  appears  in  the  Alresford,  WiUington, 
Epworth  and  Tedworth  cases,  and  it  is  not  stated  that  Ehza 
Rose  at  Worksop  was  subjected  to  a  medical  examination.  In 
a  curious  case,  given  by  Mrs  Crewe,  in  The  Night  Side  of  Nature, 
the  young  person  was  the  daughter  of  a  Captain  Molesworth. 
Her  own  health  was  bad,  and  she  had  been  depressed  by  the 
death  of  a  sister.  Captain  Molesworth  occupied  a  semi-detached 
villa  at  Trinity,  near  Edinburgh;  his  landlord  Hved  next  door. 
The  phenomena  set  in*  the  captain  bored  holes  in  the  wall  to 
discover  a  cause  in  trickery,  and  his  landlord  brought  a  suit 
against  him  in  the  sheriff's  court  at  Edinburgh. 

The  papers  are  preserved,  :  but  the  writer  found  that  to, 
discover  them  would  be  a  herculean  labour.  He  saw,  how- 
ever, a  number  of  documents  in  the  office  of  a  firm  of 
solicitors  employed  in  the  case.  They  proved  the  fact  of  the 
lawsuit  but  threw  no  other  hght  on  the  matter.  We  often 
find  that  the  phenomena  occur  after  a  nervous  shock  to  the 
person  who  may  be  called  the  medium.  The  shock  is  frequently 
consequent  on  a  threat  from  a  supposed  witch  or  wizard.  This 
was  the  case  at  CideviUe  in  1850-1851.  (See  an  abstract  of  the 
documents  of  the  trial.  Proceedings  S.P.R.  xvui.  454-463. 
The  entire  report  was  sent  to  the  writer.)  In  1901  there 
was  a  case  at  Great  Grimsby;  the  usual  flying  of  stones 
and  other  objects  occurred.  The  woman  of  the  house  had  been 
threatened  by  a  witch,  after  that  the  poltergeist  developed. 
No  explanation  was  forthcoming.  In  Proc.  S.P.R.  xvii. 
320  the  Rev.  Mr  Deanley  gives  a  curious  parallel  case 
with  detection  of  imposture.  In  Miss  O'Neal's  Devonshire 
Idylls  is  an  excellent  account  of  the  phenomena  which  occurred 
after  a  Devonshire  girl  of  the  best  character,  well  known  to  Miss 
O'Neal,  had  been  threatened  by  a  witch.  In  the  famous  instance 
of  Christian  Shaw  of  Bargarran  (1697)  the  child  had  been  thrice 
formally  cursed  by  a  woman,  who  prayed  to  God  that  her  soul 
"  might  be  hurled  through  hell."  Christian  fell  into  a  state 
which  puzzled  the  medical  faculty  (especially  when  she  floated 
in  the  air),  and  doubtless  she  herself  caused,  in  an  hysterical 
state,  many  phenomena  which,  however,  were  not  precisely 
poltergeistish.  A  very  marked  set  of  phenomena,  in  the  way 
of  movements  of  objects,  recently  occurred  in  the  Hudson  Bay 
territory,  after  a  half-breed  girl  had  received  a  nervous  shock 
from  a  flash  of  hghtning  that  struck  near  her.  Heavy  weights 
automatically  "  tobogganed,"  as  Red  Indian  spectators  said, 
and  there  were  the  usual  rappings  in  tent  and  wigwam.  If  we 
accept  trickery  as  the  sufiicient  explanation,  the  uniformity  of 
tricks  played  by  hysterical  patients  is  very  singular.  Still 
more  singular  is  a  long  series,  continued  through  several  years, 
of  the  same  occurrences  where  no  hysterical  patient  is  known  to 
exist.  In  a  very  curious  example,  a  carpenter's  shop  being  the 
scene,  there  was  concerned  nobody  of  an  hysterical  temperament, 
no  young  boy  or  girl,  and  there  was  no  explanation  {Proc.  S.P.R. 
vii.  383-394).  The  events  went  on  daring  six  weeks. 
An  excellent  case  of  hysterical  fraud  by  a  girl  in  France  is  given 
by  Dr  Grasset,  professor  of  clinical  medicine  at  Montpellier  (Proc. 
S.P.R.  xviii.  464-480).  But  in  this  instance,  though  things 
were  found  in  unusual  places,  nobody  over  eight  years  old  saw 
them  flying  about;  yet  all  concerned  were  deeply  superstitious. 

On  the  whole,  while  fraud,  especially  hysterical  fraud,  is  a 
vera  causa  in  some  cases  of  poltergeist,  it  is  not  certain  that  the 
explanation  fits  all  cases,  and  it  is  certain  that  detection  of 
fraud  has  often  been  falsely  asserted,  as  at  Tedworth  and 
Willington.  No  good  chronic  case,  as  at  Alresford,  Epworth, 
Spraiton  (Bovet's  Pandaemonium),  Willington,  and  in  other 
classical  instances,  has  been  for  months  sedulously  observed  by 
sceptics.  In  short-lived  cases,  as  at  Worksop,  Science  appears 
on  the  scene  long  enough  after  date  to  make  the  theory  of 
exaggeration  of  memory  plausible.     If  we  ask  science  to  explain 


how  the  more  remarkable  occurrences  could  be  produced  by  a 
girl  ex  hypothese  half-witted,  the  reply  is  that  the  occurrences 
never  occurred,  they  were  only  "described  as  occurring"  by 
untrained  observers  with  "  patent  double  magnifying  "  memo- 
ries; and  with  a  capacity  for  being  hallucinated  in  a  uniform 
way  all  the  world  over.  Yet  great  quantities  of  crockery 
and  furniture  were  broken,  before  the  eyes  of  observers,  in  a 
house  near  Ballarmina;  in  North  Ireland,  in  January  1907. 
The  experiment  of  exhibiting  a  girl  who  can  break  all  the 
crockery  without  being  detected,  in  the  presence  of  a  doctor, 
and  a  policeman,  and  who  can,  at  the  same  time,  induce  the 
spectators  to  beheve  that  the  flying  objects  waver,  swerve  and 
"  wobble,"  has  not  been  attempted. 

An  obvious  difficulty  in  the  search  for  authentic  information 
is  the  circumstance  that  the  poor  and  imperfectly  educated  are 
much  more  numerous  than  the  well-to-do  and  well  educated. 
It  is  therefore  certain  that  most  of  the  disturbances  will  occur 
in  the  houses  of  the  poor  and  iU  educated,  and  that  their  evidence 
wiU  be  rejected  as  insufficient.  When  an  excellent  case  occurs 
in  a  palacej  and  is  reported  by  the  margravine  of  Bayreuth,  sister 
of  Frederick  the  Great,  in  her  Memoirs,  the  objection  is  that  her 
narrative  was  written  long  after  the  events.  When  we  have 
contemporary  journals  and  letters,  or  sworn  evidence,  as  in  the 
affairs  of  Sir  PhiHp  Francis,  Cideville  and  Willington,  criticism 
can  probably  find  some  other  good  reasons  for  setting  these 
testimonies  aside.  It  is  certain  that  the  royal,  the  rich  and  the 
well-educated  observers  tell,  in  many  cases,  precisely  the  same 
sort  of  stories  about  poltergeist  phenomena  as  do  the  poor  and 
the  imperfectly  instructed. 

On  the  theory  that  there  exist  "  mysterious  agencies  "  which 
now  and  then  produce  the  phenomena,  we  may  ask  what  these 
agencies  can  possibly  be?  But  no  answer  worthy  of  considera- 
tion has  ever  been  given  to  this  question.  The  usual  reply  is 
that  some  unknown  but  inteUigent  force  is  disengaged  from  the 
personality  of  the  apparent  medium.  This  apparent  medium 
need  not  be  present;  he  or  she  may  be  far  away.  The  High- 
landers attribute  many  poltergeist  phenomena,  inexplicable  noises, 
sounds  of  viewless  feet  that  pass,  and  so  forth,  to  taradh,  an 
influence  exerted  unconsciously  by  unduly  strong  wishes  on  the 
part  of  a  person  at  a  distance.  The  phrase  falbh  air  fdrsaitig 
{"  going  uncontrolled  ")  is  also  used  (Campbell,  Witchcraft  and 
Second  Sight  in  the  Scottish  Highlands,  1902,  pp.  144-147).  The 
present  writer  is  well  acquainted  with  cases  attributed  to 
taradh,  in  a  house  where  he  has  often  been  a  guest.  They  excite 
no  alarm,  their  cause  being  well  understood.  We  may  caU  this 
kind  of  thing  telethoryby,  a  racket  produced  from  a  distance. 
A  very  marked  case  in  Illinois  would  have  been  attributed  in 
the  Highlands  to  the  tAradh  of  the  late  owner  of  the  house,  a 
dipsomaniac  in  another  state.  On  his  death  the  disturbances 
ceased  (first-hand  evidence  from  the  disturbed  lady  of  the 
house.  May  1907).  It  may  be  worth  while  to  note  that  the 
phenomena  are  often  regarded  as  death-warnings  by  popular 
belief .^  The  early  incidents  at  the  Wesleys'  house  were  thought 
to  indicate  tne  death  of  a  kinsman;  or  to  announce  the  approach- 
ing decease  of  Mr  Wesley  pbre,  who  at  first  saw  and  heard 
nothing  unusual.  At  Worksop  the  doctor  was  called  in,  because 
the  phenomena  were  guessed  to  be  "  warnings  "  of  the  death 
of  a  sick  child  of  the  house.  The  writer  has  first-hand 
evidence  from  a  lady  and  her  son  (afterwards  a  priest)  of 
very  singular  movements  of  untouched  objects  in  their  presence, 
which  did  coincide  with  the  death  of  a  relation  at  a  distance. 

Bibliography.— The  literature  of  the  subject  is  profuse,  but 
scattered.  For  modern  instances  the  Proceedings  of  th-e  Society 
f°^  „/^??*'^°f  Research  may  be  consulted,  especially  an  essay  by 
K  W.  H.  Myers,  vu.  146-198,  also  iv.  29-38;  with  the  essay  by 
l^odmore,  already  quoted.  Books  like  Dale  Owen's  Footfalls 
on  the  Boundary  of  Another  World,  and  Fresnoy's  Recueil  des  dis- 
sertations sur  les  apparitions,  are  stronger  in  the  quantity  of  anec- 
dotes than  m  the  quality  of  evidence.  A.  Lang's  Book  of  Dreams 
and  Ghosts,  contains  outlandish  and  Celtic  examples,  and  Telfair's 
(Teller  s)  A  True  Relation  of  an  Apparition  (1694-1696)  shows  un- 
usual regard  for  securing  signed  evidence.  Kiesewetter's  Geschichte 
des  neueren  Occultismus  and  Graham  Dalyell's  Darker  Super- 
stitions of  Scotland;  with  any  collections  of  trials  for  witchcraft 


POLTROON— POLYANTHUS 


17 


may  be  consulted,  and  Bovet's  Pandaemonium  (1684)  is  vf^ry  rich 
in  cases.  The  literature  of  the  famous,  drummer  of  Tedworth 
(March  1662-April  1663)  begins  with  an  abstract  of  the  sworn 
deposition  of  Mr  Mompesson,  whose  house  was  the  scene  of  the  dis- 
turbances. The  abstract  is  in  the  Mercmius  publicus  oi  April 
1663,  the  evidence  was  given  in  a  court  of  justice  on  the  15th  of  April. 
There^  is  also,  a  ballad,  a  rhymed  news-sheet  of  1662  (Anthony 
Wood's  Collection  401  (193),  Bodleian  Library).  Pepys  mentions 
"  books  "  about  the  affair  in  his  Diary  for  June  1663.  Glanvil's 
first  known  version  is  in  his  Sodduciimus  triumphatus  of  1666. 
The  sworn  evidence  of  Mompesson  proves  at  least  that  he  was 
disturbed  in  an,  intolerable  manner,  certainly  beyond  any  means 
at  the  disposal  of  his  two  daughters,  .aged  nine  and  eleven  or  there- 
abouts. The  agent  miay  have  been  the  iiradh  of  the  drummer 
whom  Mompesson  offended.  Glanvil  in  1666  confused  the  dates, 
and,  save  for  his' own  experiences,,  merely  repeats  the  statements 
curient  in_  1662-1663.  -  The  .ballad,  and  Mpmpesson's  deposition 
are  given  in  Proc.  S.P.R.  xvii.  304-^336,  in  a  discussion  befween 
the  writer  arid  Mr  Podmore.  The  dated  and  contemporary 
narrative  of'  Procter  in  the  Willington  Mill  case  (1835- 
1847),  is  printed  in  the  Journ.  S.P.R.  (Dec.  1892),  with  some 
contemporary  letters  on  the  subject.  Mr  Procter  endured  the 
disturbances  for,  sixteen  years,  before  he  retreated  from  the 
place.  There  was  no  naughty  little'  girl  in  the, affair;  no  nervous 
or  hysterical_  patient.  The  Celtic  hypothesis'  df  t&fadh,  exercised 
by  "  the  spirit  of  the  living,"  includes  visual  apparitions,  and  many 
a  so-called  ''  ghost  "  of  the  dead*  may  be  merely  the  iiradh  of  a 
living  person.  (A.  L.) 

POLTROON,  a  coward,  a  worthless  rogue  without  courage  or 
spirit.  The  word  comes  tJbirough,Fr.J>oftiKo«  from  Ital. ,  poltrone, 
an  idle  fellow,  one  who  lolls  ii;  a  bed  or  couch  (Milanese  poller, 
Venetian  poltrona,  adapted  frpm  Ger.  Polster,  a  pillow;  cf. 
English  "  bolster '').  The  old  guess  that  it  was  from  Lat.  pollice 
truncus, ,  maimed  in  the  thumb,  and  was  first  applied  to  those 
■who  avoided  military,  service ,  by  self -mutilation,  gave  rise 
probably  to  the  French  application  of  poltrori'  to  a  falcon  whose 
talons  were  cut  to  prevent  its  attacking  game. 

POLTROT,  JEAN  DE  (c,  1537-1563),,  sieur  de  Mere  or  Merey, 
a  nobleman  of  Angoumois,  who  murdered  Francis,  duke  of  Guise. 
He  had  lived  some  time  in  Spain,  aijd  his  knowledge  of  Spanish, 
together  ;with  his  swarthy  complexiop,  whicji  earned  him  the 
nickname  of  the  ",  Espagnolet,"  procured  him  employment  as  a 
spy  in  the  wars  against  Spain.  Becoming  a  fanatical  Huguenot, 
he  determined  to  kill  the  duke  of  Guise,  and  gained  admission 
as  a  deserter  to  the  camp  of  the  Catholics  who  were  besieging 
Orleans.  In  the  evening  of  the  1,8th  of  February  1563  he  hid 
by  the  side  of  a  road  along  which  he  knew,the  duke  would  pass, 
fired  a  pistol  at  him,  and  fled.  But  he  was  captured  the  next  day, 
and  was  tried,  tortured  several  times,  and  sentenced  to  be  drawn 
and  quartered.'  On  the  i8th  of  March  1563  he  underwent  a 
frightful  punishment.  The  horses  not  being  able  to  drag  off  his 
hmbsj  he  was,  hacked  to  pieces  with ,  cutlasses.  He  ha-d  made 
several  contradictory  declarations  regarding  the  compKcity  of 
Coligny.  The  admiral  protested  emphatically  against  the 
accusation,  wliich  appears  to  have  had  no  foundation. 

See  Mimpiresdu  prince  de  Conde  (London,  iji^s) ;  T.  A.  D'Aubignd, 
Histoire  iiniverselle  (ed.  by  de  Ruble,  Soc.  de  Vhistoire  de  France, 
1886) ;  A.  de  Ruble,  L'Assassinat  du  due  Frangois  de  Lorraine  (Paris, 
1897). 

POLYAENUS,  a  Macedonian,  who  lived  at  Rome  as  a  rhetori- 
cian arid  pleader  in  the  2nd  century  a.d.  When  the  Parthian  War 
(162-5)  broke  but,  Polyaenus,  too  old  to  share  in'the  campaign, 
dedicated  to  the  emperors  Marcus  Aurelius  and  Lucius  Verus  a 
work,  still  extant,  called  Strategica  or  Strategemata,  a  historical 
collection  of  stratagems  and  maxims  of  strategy  written  in  Greek 
arid  strung  together  in  the  form  of  anecdotes.  It  is  not  strictly 
confined  to  warlike  stratagems,  but  includes  also  examples,  of 
wisdom,  courage  and  cunning  drawn  from  civil  and  political  life. 
The  work  is  uncritically  written,  but  is  nevertheless  important  on 
account  of  the  extracts  it  has  preserved  from  histories  liow  lost. 
It  is,  divided  into  eight  books,  (parts  of:  the  sixth  and  seventh 
are  lost);  and  originally  contaiiied  nine  hundred  anecdotes, 
of  -which  eight  hundred  and  thirty-three  are  extant.  Polyaenus 
intended  to  write  a  history  of  the  Parthian  War,  but  there  is  no 
evidence  that  he  did  so..  His  works  on  Macedonia,  on  Thebes, 
and  on  tactics  (perhaps  identical  with  the  Strategica)  are  lost. 

His  Strategiea  seems  to  have  been  highly  esteemed  by  the  Roman 
emperors,  arid  to  have  been  handed  down  by  them  as  a  sort  of 


heirloom.  From  Rome  it  passed  to  Constantinople;  at  the  end  of 
the  9th  century  it  was  diligently  studied  by  Leo  VI.,  who  himself 
wrote  a  work  on  tactics;  and  m  the  middle  of  the  loth  century 
Constantine  Porphyro^eriitus  mentioned  it  as  one  of  the  most 
valuable  books  in  the  imperial  library.  It  was  used  by  Stobaeus, 
Suidas,  and  the  anonymous  author  of  the  work  Ilcpi  airlaToiv  (see 
Palaephatus).  It  is  arranged  as  follows:  bks.  1.,  ii.,  iii.,  strata- 
gems occurring  in  Greek  history;  bk.  iv.,  stratagems  of  the  Mace- 
donian kings  and  successors  of  Alexander  the  Great;  bk.  v.,  strata- 
gems occurring  in  the  history  of  Sicily  and  the  Greek  islands  and 
colonies;  bk.  vi.,  stratagems  of:  a  whole  people  (Carthaginians, 
Lacedaemonians,  Argives),  together  with  ,  some  individuals 
(Philopoemen,  Pyrrhus,  Hannibal);  bk.  vii.,  stratagems  of  the 
barbarians  (Medes,  Persians,  Egyptians,  Thracians,  Scythians, 
Celts);  bk.  viii.,  stratagems  of  Romans  and  women.  This  dis- 
tribution, is  not,  however,  observed  very  strictly.  Of  the  negligence 
or  haste  with  which  the  work  was  written  there  are  many  instances : 
e.g.  he  confounds  Dionysius  the  elder  and  Dionysius  the  younger, 
Mithradates  satrap  of  Artaxerxes  and  Mithradates  the  Great, 
Scipio  the  elder  and  Scipio  the  younger,  Perseus,  king  of  Macedonia 
and  Perseus  the  companion  of  Alexander;  he  mixes  up  the  strata- 
gems of  Caesar  and  Pompey;  he  brings  into  immediate  connexion 
events  which  were  totally  distinct;  he  narrates  some  events  twice 
over,  with  variations  according  to  the  different  authors  from  whom 
he  draws.  Though  he  usually  abridges,  he  occasionally  amplifies 
arbitrarily  the  narratives  of  his  authorities.  He  never  mentions 
his  authorities,  buf;  amongst  authors  still  extant, he  used  Herodotus, 
Thucydides,  Xenophon,  Polybius,  Diodorus,  Plutarch,  Frontinus 
and  Suetpriius;  amongst  authors  cf  whom  only  fragments  now 
remain  he  drew  upon  Ctesias;  Ephorus,  Timaeus,  Phylarchus  and 
Nicolaus  Damascenus,  His  style  is  clear,  but  monotonous  and 
inelegant.  In  the  forms  of  his  words  he  generally  follows  Attic 
usage. 

The  best  edition  of  the  text  is  Wolfflin  and  Melber  (Teubner 
Series,  1887,  with  bibliography  and  editio  princeps  of  the  Strate- 
gemata of  the  emperor  Leo) ;  annotated  editions  by  Isaac  Casaubon 
(1589)  and  A.  Coraes  (r8og);  I.  Melber,  TJeber  die  Quellen  und 
Werth  der  Strategemensammlung  Polydns  (1885);  Knott,  De  fide 
et  fontibus_  Pplyaeni  (1883),  who  largely  reduces  the  number  of 
the  authorities  consulted  by  Polyaenus.  Eng.  trans,  by  R.  Shepherd 
(1793)-  ■ 

POLYANDRY  (Gr.  Tohvs,  many,  and  avrip,  man),  the  system 
of  marriage  between  one  woman  and  several  men,  who  are  her 
husbands  exclusively  (see  Family).  The  custom  locally  legal- 
izing the  marriage  of  one  woman  to  more  than  one  husband  at  a 
time  has  been  variously  accounted  for  as  the  result  of  poverty  and 
of  life  in  unfertile  lands,  where  it  was  essential  to  check  popula- 
tion as  the  consequence  of  female  infanticide,  or,  in  the  opinion 
of  J.  F.  McLennan  and  L.  H.  Morgan,  as  a  natural  phase  through 
which  human  progress  has  necessarily  passed.  Polyaiidry  is  to 
be  carefuUy  differentiated  from  communal  marriage,  where  the 
woman  is  the  property  of  any  and  every  member  of  the  tribe. 
Two  distinct  kinds  of  polyandry  are  practised:  one,  often  called 
Nair,  in  which,, as  among  the  Nairs  of  India,  the  husbands  are 
not  related  to  each  other;  and  the  second,  the  Tibetan  or  fraternal 
polyandry,  in  which  the  woman  is  married  to  all  the  brothers  of 
one  family.  Polyandry  is  practised  by  the  tribes  of  Tibet, 
Kashmir  and  the  Himalayan  regions,  by  the  Todas,  Koorgs, 
Nairs  and  other  peoples  of  India,  in  Ceylon,  New  Zealand,  by 
some  of  the  Australian  aborigines,  in  parts  of  Africa,  in  the 
Aleutian  archipelago,  among  the  Koryaks  and  on  the  Orinoco. 

See  McLennan's  Primitive  Marriage  (Londpn,  1885);  Studies  in 
Ancient  History  (London,  1886);  "The  Levirate  and  Polyandry," 
in  The  Fortnightly  Review,  new  series,,  vol.  xxi.  (London,  1877); 
L.  H.  Moigan,  System  of  Consanguinity  and  Affinity  of  the  Human 
Family  (Washington,  1869);  Lord  Avebury,  Origin  of  Civilization; 
E.  Westermarck,  History  of  Human  Marriage.  . 

POLYANTHUS,  one  of  the  oldest  of  the  florists'  flowers,  is 
probably  derived  from  P.  variabilis,  itself  a  cross  between  the 
commtin  primrose  and  the  cowslip ;  it  differs  from  the  primrose  in 
having  the  umbels  of  flowers  carried  up  on  a  stalk.  The  florists' 
polyanthus  has  a  golden  margin,  and  is  known  as  the  gold-laced 
polyanthus,  the  properties  being  very  distinctly  laid  down  and 
rigidly  adhered  to.  The  chief  of  these  are  a  clear,  unshaded, 
blackish  or  reddish  ground  colour,  an  even  margin  or  lacing  of 
yellow  extending  round  each  segment  and  cutting  through  its 
centre  down  to  the  ground  colour,  and  a  yeUow  band  surrounding 
thetubeof  exactly  the  same  hue  as  the  yellow  of  the  lacing.  The 
plants  are  quite  hardy,  and  grow  best  in  strong,  loamy  soil 
tolerably  well  enriched  with  well-decayed  dung  and  leaf -mould; 


i8 


POLYBIUS 


they  should  be  planted  about  the  end  of  September  or  not 
later  than  October.  Plants  for  exhibition  present  a  much 
better  and  cleaner  appearance  if  kept  during  winter  in  a  cold 
well-aired  frame. 

For  the  flower  borders  what  are  called  fancy  polyanthuses  are 
adopted.  These  are  best  raised  annually  frorn  seed,  the  young 
crop  each  year  blooming  in  succession.  The  seed  should  be 
sown  as  soon  as  ripe,  the  young  plants  being  allowed  to  stand 
through  the  winter  in  the  seed  bed.  In  April  or  May  they  are 
planted  out  in  a  bed  of  rich  garden  soil,  and  they  will  bloom 
abundantly  the  following  spring.  A  few  of  the  better  "  thrum- 
eyed  "  sorts  (those  having  the  anthers  in  the  eye,  and  the  pistil 
sunk  in  the  tube)  should  be  allowed  to  ripen  seed;  the  rest  may  be 
thrown  away.  In  some  remarkable  forms  which  have  been 
cultivated  for  centuries  the  ordinarily  green  calyx  has  become 
petaloid;  when  this  is  complete  it  forms  the  hose-in-hose  prim- 
rose of  gardeners.  There  are  also  a  few  well-known  double- 
flowered  varieties. 

POLYBIUS  (c.  204-122  B.C.),  Greek  historian,  was  a  native  of 
Megalopolis  in  Arcadia,  the  youngest  of  Greek  cities  (Paus.  viii. 
9),  which,  however,  played  an  honourable  part  in  the  last  days  of 
Greek  freedom  as  a  stanch  member  of  the  Achaean  League  (q.v.) . 
His  father,  Lycortas,  was  the  intimate  friend  of  Philopoemen,  and 
on  the  death  of  the  latter,  in  182,  succeeded  him  as  leader  of  the 
league.  The  date  of  Polybius's  birth  is  doubtful.  He  tells  us 
himself  that  in  181  he  had  notyet  reached  the  age  (?  thirty  years, 
Polyb.  xxix.  9)  at  which  an  Achaean  was  legally  capable  of 
holding  office  (xxiv.  6).  We  learn  from  Cicero  {Ad  Fam.  v.  {12) 
that  he  outhved  the  Numantine  War,  which  ended  [in  132,  and 
from  Lucian  {Macroh.  22)  that  he  died  at  the  age  of  eighty-two. 
The  majority  of  authorities  therefore  place  his  birth  between 
214  and  204  B.C.  Little  is  known  of  his  early  life.  As  the  son  of 
Lycortas  he  was  naturally  brought  into  close  contact  with  the 
leading  men  of  the  Achaean  League.  With  Philopoemen  he 
seems  to  have  been  on  intimate  terms.  After  Philopoemen's 
tragic  death  in  Messenia  (182)  he  was  entrusted  with  the  honour- 
able duty  of  conveying  home  the  urn  in  which  his  ashes  had  been 
deposited  (Plut.  Phil.  21).  In  181,  together  with  his  father, 
Lycortas  and  the  younger  Aratus,  he  was  appointed,  in  spite  of 
his  youth,  a  member  of  the  embassy  which  was  to  visit  Ptolemy 
Epiphanes,  king  of  Egypt,  a  mission,  however,  which  the  sudden 
death  of  Ptolemy  brought  to  a  premature  end  (xxv.  7).  The 
next  twelve  years  of  his  life  are  a  blank,  but  in  169  he  reappears 
-as  a  trusted  adviser  of  the  Achaeans  at  a  difficult  crisis  in  the 
history  of  the  League.  Ini  7 1  war  had  broken  out  between  Rome 
and  the  Macedonian  king  Perseus,  and  the  Achaean  statesmen 
■were  divided  as  to  the  policy  to  be  pursued;  there  were  good 
reasons  for  fearing  that  the  Roman  senate  would  regard  neu- 
trality as  indicating  a  secret  leaning  towards  Macedon.  Polybius 
therefore  declared  for  an  open  alliance  with  Rome,  and  his  views 
were  adopted.  It  was  decided  to  send  an  Achaean  force  to  co- 
operate with  the  Roman  general,  and  Polybius  was  selected  to 
command  the  cavalry.  The  Roman  consul  declined  the  proffered 
assistance,  but  Polybius  accompanied  him  throughout  the 
campaign,  and  thus  gained  his  iirst  insight  into  the  military 
system  of  Rome.  In  the  next  year  (168)  both  Lycortas  and 
Polybius  were  on  the  point  of  starting  at  the  head  of  1200 
Achaeans  to  take  service  in  Egypt  against  the  Syrians,  when  an 
intimation  from  the  Roman  commander  that  armed  inter- 
ference was  undesirable  put  a  stop  to  the  expedition  (xxix.  23). 
The  success  of  Rome  in  the  war  with  Perseus  was,  now  assured. 
The  final  victory  was  rapidly  followed  by  the  arrival  in  Achaea 
of  Roman  commissioners  charged  with  the  duty  of  establishing 
Roman  interests  there.  Polybius  was  arrested  with  1000  of 
the  principal  Achaeans,  but,  while  his  companions  were  con- 
demned to  a  tedious  incarceration  in  the  country  towns  of  Italy, 
he  obtained  permission  to  reside  in  Rome.  This  privilege  he 
owed  to  the  influence  of  L.  AemiUus  PauUus  and  his  two  sons, 
Scipio  and  Fabius  (xxxii.  9).  Polybius  was  received  into  Aemi- 
lius's  house,  and  became  the  instructor  of  his  sons.  Between 
Scipio  (P.  Cornelius  Scipio  Africanus  the  younger),  the  future 
conqueror  of  Carthage,  and  himself  a  friendship  soon  sprang  up, 


which  ripened  into  a  lifelong  intimacy,  and  was  of  inestimable 
service  to  him  throughout  his  career.  It  protected  him  from 
interference,  opened  to  him  the  highest  circles  of  Roman  society, 
and  enabled  him  to  acquire  a  personal  influence  with  the  leading 
men,  which  stood  him  in  good  stead  when  he  afterwards  came 
forward  to  mediate  between  his  countrymen  and  Rome.  It 
placed  within  his  reach  opportunities  for  a  close  study  of  Rome 
and  the  Romans  such  as  had  fallen  to  no  historian  before  him, 
and  secured  him  the  requisite  leisure  for  using  them,  while 
Scipio's  liberahty  more  than  once  suppKed  him  with  the  means  of 
conducting  difficult  and  costly  historical  investigations  (Pliny, 
N.H.  V.  9).  In  151  the  few  surviving  exiles  were  allowed  to 
return  to  Greece.  But  the  stay  of  Polybius  in  Achaea  was  brief. 
The  estimation  in  which  he  was  held  at  Rome  is  clearly  shown 
by  the  anxiety  of  the  consul  Marcus  (or  Manlius)  Manilius  (149) 
to  take  him  as  his  adviser  on  his  expedition  against  Carthage. 
Polybius  started  to  join  him,  but  broke  off  his  journey  at  Corcyra 
on  learning  that  the  Carthaginians  were  inclined  to  yield  (xxxvi. 
3).  But  when,  in  147,  Scipio  himself  took  the  command  in 
Africa,  Polybius  hastened  to  join  him,  and  was  an  eye-witness 
of  the  siege  and  destruction  of  Carthage.  During  his  absence  in 
Africa  the  Achaeans  had  made  a  last  desperate  attempt  to 
assert  their  independence  of  Rome.  He  returned  in  146  to  find 
Corinth  in  ruins,  the  fairest  cities  of  Achaea  at  the  mercy  of  the 
Roman  soldiery,  and  the  famous  Achaean  League  shattered  to 
pieces  (see  Achaean  League).  All  the  influence  he  possessed 
was  freely  spent  in  endeavouring  to  shield  his  countrymen  from 
the  worst  consequences  of  their  rashness.  The  excesses  of  the 
soldiery  were  checked,  and  at  his  special  intercession  the  statues 
of  Aratus  and  Philopoemen  were  preserved  (xxxix.  14).  An 
even  more  difficult  task  was  that  entrusted  to  him  by  the 
Roman  authorities  themselves,  of  persuading  the  Achaeans  to 
acquiesce  in  the  new  regime  imposed  upon  them  by  their  con- 
querors, and  of  setting  the  new  machinery  in  working  order. 
With  this  work,  which  he  accomplished  so  as  to  earn  the  heartfelt 
gratitude  of  his  countrymen  (xxxix.  16),  his  public  career  seems 
to  have  closed.  The  rest  of  his  life  was,  so  far  as  we  know, 
devoted  to  the  great  history  which  is  the  lasting  monument  of 
his  fame.  He  died,  at  the  age  of  eighty-two,  of  a  fall  from  his 
horse  (Lucian,  Macrob.  22).  The  base  of  a  statue  erected  to 
him  by  Elis  was  found  at  Olympia  in  1877.  It  bears  the  inscrip- 
tion 17  TToXis  57  'YiXdiov  ILoKvPlov  AvKopra  Miya\(moXi.Triv. 

Of  the  forty  books  which  made  up  the  history  of  Polybius,  the 
first  five  alone  have  come  down  to  us  in  a  complete  form ;  of  the  rest 
we  have  only  more  or  less  copious  fragments.  But  the  general 
plan  and  scope  of  the  work  are  explained  by  Polybius  himself. 
His  intention  was  to  make  plain  how  and  why  it  was  that  "  all  the 
known  regions  of  the  civihzed  world  had  fallen  under  the  sway 
of  Rome  "  (iii.  i).  This  empire  of  Rome,  unprecedented  in  its 
extent  and  still  more  so  in  the  rapidity  with  which  it  had  been  ac- 
quired, was  the  standing  wonder  of  the  age,  and  "  who,"  he  exclaims 
(i.  i),  "  is  so  poor-spirited  or  indolent  as  not  to  wish  to  know  by 
what  means,  and  thanks  to  what  sort  of  constitution,  the  Romans 
subdued  the  world  in  something  less  than  fifty-three  years?" 
These  fifty-three  years  are  those  between  220  (the  point  at  which 
the  work  of  Aratus  ended)  and  168  B.C.,  and  extend  therefore 
f-  om  the  outbreak  of  the  Hannibalic  War  to  the  defeat  of  Perseus 
at  Pydna.  To  this  period  then  the  main  portion  of  his  history 
is  devoted  from  the  third  to  the  thirtieth  book  inclusive.  But 
for  clearness'  sake  he  prefixes  in  bks.  i.  and  ii.  such  a  preliminary 
sketch  of  the  earlier  history  of  Rome,  of  the  First  Punic  War,  and 
of  the  contemporary  events  in  Greece  and  Asia,  as  will  enable  his 
readers  more  fully  to  understand  what  follows.  This  seems  to 
have  been  his  original  plan,  but  at  the  opening  of  bk.  iii.,  wiitten 
apparently  after  146,  he  explains  that  he  thought  it  desirable  to 
add  some  account  of  the  manner  in  which  the  Romans  exercised 
the  power  they  had  won,  of  their  temperament  and  policy  and  of 
the  final  catastrophe  which  destroyed  Carthage  and  for  ever  broke 
np  the  Achaean  League  (iii.  4,  5).  To  this  appendix,  giving  the 
history  from  168-146,  the  last  ten  books  are  devoted. 

Whatever  fault  may  be  found  with  Polybius,  there  can  be  no 
question  that  he  had  formed  a  high  conception  of  the  task  before 
him.  He  lays  repeated  stress  on  two  qualities  as  distinguishing 
his  history  from  the  ordinary  run  of  historical  compositions.  The 
first  of  these,  its  synoptic  character,  was  partly  necessitated  by  the 
nature  of  the  period.  The  various  states  fringing  the  basin  of  the 
Mediterranean  had  become  so  inextricably  interwoven  that  it 
was  no  longer  possible  to  deal  with  them  m  isolation.  Polybius 
therefore  claims  for  his  history  that  it  will  take  a  comprehensive 


POLYBIUS 


19 


view  of  the  whole  course  of  events  in  the  civilized  World,  within 
the  limits  of  the  period  (i.  4).  He  thus  aims  at  placing  before  his 
readers  at  each  stage  a  complete  survey  of  the  field  of  action  from 
Spain  to  Syria  and  Egypt.  This  synoptic  method  proceeds  from 
a  true  appreciation  of  what  is  now  called  the  unity  of  history,  and 
to  Polyhius  must  be  given  the  credit  of  having  first  firmly  grasped 
and  clearly  enforced  a  lesson  which  the  events  of  his  own  time 
were  especially  well  calculated  to  teach.  It  is  the  great  merit 
of  his  work  that  it  gives  such  a  picture  of  the  2nd  and  3rd  centuries 
B.C.  as  no  series  of  special  narratives  could  have  supplied. 

The  second  quality  upon  which  Polybius  insists  as  distinguishing 
his  history  from  all  others  is  its  "  pragmatic  "  character.  It  deals, 
that  is,  with  events  and  with  their  causes,  and  aims  at  an  accurate 
record  and  explanation  of  ascertained :  facts.  This  "  pragmatic 
method  "  (ix.  2)  makes  history  intelligible  by  explaining  the  how 
and  the  why ;  and,  secondly,  it  is  only  when  so  written  that  history 
can  perform  its  true  function  of  instructing  and  guiding  those  who 
study  it.  For  the  great  use  of  history,  according  to  Polybius,  is  to 
contribute  to  the  right  conduct  of  human  life  (i.  35).  But  this 
it  can  do  only  if  the  historian  bears  in  mind  the  true  nature  of  his 
task.  He  must  remember  that  the  historian  should  not  write  as 
the  dramatist  does  to  charm  or  excite  his  audience  for  the  moment 
(ii.  56).  He  will  aim  simply  at  exhibiting  events  in  their  true 
light,  setting  forth  "  the  why  and  the  how  "  in  each  casBj  not 
confusing  causes  and  occasion's,  or  dragging  in  old  wiveis'  fables, 
prodigies  and  marvels  (ii.  16,  iii.  48).  He  will  omit  nothing  which 
can  help  to  explain  the  events  he  is  dealing  with:  the  genius  and 
temperament  -  of  particular  '  peoples,  their  political  and  iriilitary 
systems,  the  characters  of  the  leading  men,  the  geographical  features 
of  the  country,  must  all  be  taken  into  account.  To  this  conception 
of  history  Polybius  is  on  the  whole  consistently  faithful.  It  is 
true  that  his  anxiety  to  instruct  leads  often  to  a  rather  wearisome 
iteration  of  his  favourite  maxims,  and  that  his  digressions,  such 
as  that  on  the  military  art,  are  occasionally  provokingly  long  and 
didactic.  But  his  comments  and  reflections  are  for  the  most  part 
sound  and  instructive  (e.g.  those  on  the  lessons  to  be  learnt  from 
the  revolt  of  the  mercenaries  in  Africa,  i.  65 ;  from  the  Celtic  raids 
in  Italy,  ii.  35 ;  and  on  the  Roman  character),  while  &.mong  his  digres- 
sions are  included  such  invaluable  chapters  as  those  on  the  Roman 
constitution  (bk.  vi),  the  graphic  description  of  Cisalpine  Gaul 
(bk.  ii.)  and  the  account  of  the  rise  and  constitution  of  the  Achaean 
League  (ii.  38  seq.).  To  his  anxiety  again  to  trace  back  events 
to  their  first  causes  we  owe,  not  only  the  careful  inquiry  (bk.  iii.) 
into  the  origin  of  the  Second  Punic  War,  but  the  sketch  of  early 
Roman  history  in  bk.  i.,  and  of  the  early  treaties  between  Rome 
and  Carthage  in  iii.  22  seq.  Among  the  many  defects  which  he 
censures  in  previous  historians,  not  the  least  serious  in  his  eyes 
are  their  inattention  to  the  political  and  geographical  surroundings 
of  the  history  (ii.  16,  iii.  36),  and  their  neglect  duly  to  set  forth  the 
causes  of  events  (iii.  6). 

Polybius  is  equally  explicit  as  regards  the  personal  qualifications 
necessary  for  a  good  historian,  and  in  this  respect  too  his  practice  is 
in  close  agreement  with  his  theory.  Without  a  personal  knowledge 
of  affairs  a  writer  will  inevitably  distort  the  true  relations  and  im- 
portance of  events  (xii.  28).  Such  experience  would  have  saved 
accomplished  and  fluent  Greek  writers  like  Timaeus  from  many 
of  their  blunders  (xii.  25a),  but  the  shortcomings  of  Roman  soldiers 
and  senators  like  Q.  Fabius  Pictor  show  that  it  is  not  enough  by 
itself.  Equally  indispensable  is  careful  painstaking  research.  All 
available  evidence  must  be  collected,  thoroughly  sifted,  soberly 
weighed,  and,  lastly,  the  historian  must  be  animated  by  a  sincere 
love  of  truth  and  a  calm  impartiality. 

It  is  important  to  consider  how  far  Polybius  himself  comes  up 
to  his  standard.'  In  his  personal  acquaintance  with  affairs,  in  the 
variety  of  his  experience,  and  in  his  opportunities  for  forming  a 
correct  judgment  on  events  he  is  without  a  rival  among  ancient 
historians.  A  great  part  of  the  period  of  which  he  treats  fell  within 
his  own  lifetime  (iv.  2).  He  may  just  have  remembered  the  battle 
of  Cynoscephalae  (197),  and,  as  we  have  seen,  he  was  actively 
engaged  in  the  military  and  political  affairs  of  the  Achaean  League. 
During  his  exile  in  Rome  he  was  able  to  study  the  Roman  constitu- 
tion, and  the  peculiarities  of  the  Roman  temperament;  he  made 
the  acquaintance  of  Roman  senators,  and  became  the  intimate 
friend  of  the  greatest  Roman  of  the  day.  Lastly,  he  was  able  to 
survey  with  his  own  eyes  the  field  on  which  the  great '  struggle 
between  Rome  and  Hannibal  was  fought  out.  He  left  Rome 
only  to  witness  the  crowning  triumph  of  Roman  arms  in  Africa, 
and  to  gain  a  practical  acquaintance  with  Roman  methods  of 
government  by  assisting  in  the  settlement  of  Achaea.  When,  in 
146,  his  public  life  closed,  he  completed  his  preparatiori  of  himself 
for  his  great  work  by  laborious  investigations  of  archives  and  monu- 
ments, and  by  a  careful  personal  examination  of  historical  sites  and 
scenes.  To  all  this  we  must  add  that  he  was  deeply  read  in  the 
learning  of  his  day,  above  all  in  the  writings  of  earlier  historians. 

Of  Polybius's  anxiety  to  getat  the  truth  no  better  proof  can  be 
given  than  his  conscientious  investigation  of  original  documents 
and  monuments,  and  his  careful  study  of  geography  and  topography 
— both  of  them  points  in  which  his  predecessors,  as  well  as  his 
successor  Livy,  conspicuously  failed.  Polybius  is  careful  con- 
stantly to  remind  us  that  ■  he  writes  for  those  who  are  ^iXoAtaSelj 


lovers  of  knowledge,  with  whom  truth  is  the  first  consideration. 
He  closely  studied  the  bronze  tablets  in  Rome  on  which  were  in- 
scribed the  early  treaties  concluded  between  Romans  and  Cartha- 
ginians. He  quotes  the  actual  language  of  the  treaty  which  ended 
the  First  Punic  War  (i.  62),  and  of  that  between  Hannibal  and  Philip 
of  Macedon  (vii.  9).  In  xvi.  15  he  refers  to  a  document  which  he 
had  personally  inspected  in  the  archives  at  Rhodes,  and  in  iii.  33 
to  the  monument  on  the  Lacinian  promontory,  recording  the 
number  of  Hannibal's  forces.  According  to  Dionysius,  i.  17,  he 
got  his  date  for  the  foundation  of  Rome  from  a  tablet  in  the  pontifical 
archives.  As  instances  of  his  careful  attention  to  geography  and 
topography  we  have  not  only  the  fact  of  his  widely  extendeci  travels, 
from  the  African  Coast  and  the  Pillars  of  Hercules  in  the  west,  to 
the  Euxine  and  the  coasts  of  Asia  Minor  in  the  east,  but  also  the 
geographical  and  topographical  studies  scattered  throughout  his 
history. 

Next  to  the  duty  of  original  research,  Polybius  ranks  that  of 
impartiality.  Some  amount  of  bias  in  favour  of  one's  own  country 
may,  he  thinks,  be  pardoned  as  natural  (xvi.  14) ;  but  it  is  unpardon- 
able, he  says,  for  the  historian  to  set  anything  whatever  above  the 
truth.  And  on  the  whole,  Polybius  must  be  allowed  here  again 
to  have  practised  what  he  preached.  It  is  true  that  his  affection 
for  and  pride  in  Arcadia  appear  in  more  than  one  passage  (iv.  20, 
21),  as  also  does  his  dislike  of  the  Aetolians  (ii.  45,  iv.  3,  16).  His 
treatment  of  Aratus  and  Philopoemen,_  the  heroes  of  the  Achaean 
League,  and  of  Cleomenes  of  Sparta,  its  most  constant  enemy,  is 
perhaps  open  to  severer  criticism.  Certainly  Cleomenes  does  not 
receive  full  justice  at  his  hands.  Similarly  his  views  of  Rome 
and  the  Romans  may  have  been  influenced  by  his  firm  belief  in 
the  necessity  of  accepting  the  Roman  supremacy  as  inevitable, 
and  by  his  intimacy  with  Scipio.  He  had  a  deep  admiration  for 
the  great  republic,  for  her  well-balanced  constitution,  for  her  military 
system,  and  for  the  character  of  her  citizens.:  But  just  as  his 
patriotism  does  not  blind  him  to  the  faults  and  follies  of  his  country- 
men (xxxviii.  4,  5,  6),  so  he  does  not  scruple  to  criticize  Rome. 
He  notices  the  incipient  degeneracy  of  Rome  after  146  (xviii.  35). 
He  endeavours  to  hold  the  balance  evenly  between  Rome  and 
Carthage ;  he  strongly  condemns  the  Roman-  occupation  of  Sardinia 
as  a  breach  of  faith  (iii.  28,  31);  and  he  does  full  justice  to 
Hannibal.  Moreover,  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  he  sketched  the 
Roman  character  in  a  masterly  fashion. 

His  interest  in  the  study  of  character  and  his  skill  in  its  delinea- 
tion are  everywhere  noticeable.  He  believes,  indeed,  in  an  over- 
ruling fortune,  which  guides  the  course  of  events.  It  is  fortuile 
which  has  fashioned  anew  the  face  of  the  world  in  his  own  tirne 
(iv.  2),  which  has  brought  the  whole  civilized  wOrld  into  subjection 
to  Rome  (i.  4) ;  and  the  Roman  Empire  itself  is  the  most  marvellous 
of  her  works  (viii.  4).  But  under  fortune  not  only  political  and 
'  geographical  conditions  but  the  characters  and  temperaments  of 
nations  and  individuals  play  their  part.  The  Romans  had  been 
fitted  by  their  previous  struggles  for  the  conquest  of  the  world 
(i.  63) ;  they  were  chosen  to  punish  the  treachery  of  Philip  of  Macedon 
(xv.  4) ;  and  the  greatest  of  them,  Scipio  himself,  Polybius  regards 
as  the  especial  favourite  of  fortune  (xxxii.  15;  x.  5). 

In  respect  of  form,:  Polybius  is  far  the  inferior  of  Livy,  partly 
owing  to  his  very  virtues.  His  laudable  desire  to  present  a  picture 
of  the  whole  political  situation  at  each  important  moment  is  fatal 
to  the  continuity  of  his  narrative.  Thus  the  thrilling  story  of  the 
Second  Punic  War  is  broken  in  upon  by  digressions  on  the  con- 
temporary affairs  in  Greece  and  Asia.  More  serious,  however, 
than  this  excessive  love  of  synchronism  is  his  almost  pedantic 
anxiety  to  edify.  For  grace  and  elegance  of  composition,  and  for 
the  artistic  presentation  of  events,  he  has  a  hardly  concealed  con- 
tempt. Hence  a  general  and  almost  studied  carelessness  of  effect, 
which  mars  his  whole  work.  On  the  other  hand  he  is  never  weary 
of  preaching.  His  favourite  theories  of  the  nature  and  aims  of 
history,  of  the  distinction  between  the  universal  and  special  histories, 
of  the  duties  of  an  historian,  sound  as  most  of  them  are  in  them- 
selves, are  enforced  with  wearisome  iteration;  more  than  once  the 
effect  of  a  graphic  picture  is  spoilt  by  obtrusive  moralizing.  Nor, 
lastly,  is  Polybius's  style  itself  such  as  to  compensate  for  these 
defects.  It  is,  indeed,  often  impressive  from  the  evident  earnest- 
ness of  the  writer,  and  from  his  sense  of  the  gravity  of  his  subject, 
and  is  unspoilt  by  rhetoric  or  conceit.  It  has  about  it  the  ring  of 
reality;  the  language  is  sometimes  pithy  and  vigorous;  and  now 
and  then  we  meet  with  apt  metaphors,  such  as  those  borrowed 
from  boxing  (i.  57),  from  cock-fighting  (i.  58),  from  draughts  (i.  84). 
But,  in  spite  of  these  redeeming  features,  the  prevailing  baldness 
of  Polybius's  style  excludes  him  from  the  first  rank  among  classical 
writers ;  and  it  is  impossible  to  quarrel  with  the  verdict  pronounced 
by  Dionysius  of  Halicarnassus,  who  places  him  among  those  authors 
of  later  times  who  neglected  the  graces  of  style,  and  who  paid  for 
their  neglect  by  leaving  behind  them  works  "  which  no  one  was 
patient  enough  to  read  through  to  the  end." 

It  is  to  the  value  and  variety  of  his  matter,  to  his  critical  insight, 
breadth  of  view  and  wide  research,  and  not  least  to  the  surpassing 
importance  and  interest  of  the  period  ■with  which  he  deals,  that 
Polybius  owes  his  place  among  the  writers  'of  history.  What  is 
known  as  to  the  fortunes  of  his  histories,  and  the  reputation  they 
enjoyed,  fully  bears  out  this  conclusion.     The  silence  respecting 


20 


POLYCARP 


him  maintained  by  Quintilian  and  by  Lucian  may  reasonably  be 
taken  to  imply  their  agreement  with  Dionysius  as  to  his  merits 
as  a  master  of  style.  On  the  other  hand,  Cicero  {De  off.  iii.  32) 
describes  him  as  "  bonus  auctor  in'  primis  ";  in  the  De  republica 
(ii.  14)  he  praises  highly  his  accuracy  in  matters  of  chronology; 
and  Cicero's  younger  contemporary,  Marcus  Brutus,  was  a  devoted 
student  of  Polybius,  and  was  engaged  on  the  eve  of  the  battle  of 
Pharsalia  in  compiling  an  epitome  of  his  histories  (Suidas,  s.v.; 
Plutarch,  Brut.  4).  Livy,  however,  notwithstanding  the  extent 
to  which  he  used  his  writings  (see  Livy),  speaks  of  him  in  such 
qualified  terms  as  to  suggest  the  idea  that  his  strong  artistic  sensi- 
bilities had  been  wounded  by  Polybius's  literary  defects.  He  has 
nothing  better  to  say  of  him  than  that  he  is  "  by  no  means  con- 
temptible" (xxx.  45),  and  "  not  an  untrustworthy  author"  (xxxiii. 
10).  Posidonius  and  Strabo,  both  of  them  Stoics  like  Polybius 
himself,  are  said  to  have  written  continuations  of  his  history  (Suidas, 
s.v.\  Strabo  p.  515).  Arrian  in  the  early  part  of  the  2nd  and 
Aelian  in  the  3rd  century  both  speak  of  him  with  respect,  though 
with  reference  mainly  to  his  excellence  as  an  authority  on  the  art 
of  war.  In  addition  to  his  Histories  Polybius  was  the  author  of 
the  following  smaller  works:  a  life  of  Philopoemen  (Polyb.  x.  24) j 
a  history  of  the  Numantine  War  (Cic.  Ad  Fam.  v.  12),  a  treatise  on 
tactics  (Polyb.  ix.  20;  Arrian,  Tactica;  Aelian,  Tact.  i.).  The 
geographical  treatise,  referred  to  by  Geminus,  is  possibly  identical 
with  the  thirty-fourth  book  of  the  Histories  (Schweighauser, 
Praef.  p.  184. 

Authorities. — The  complete  books  (i.-v.)  of  the  Histories 
were  first  printed  in  a  Latin  translation  by  Nicholas  Perotti  in 
1473.  The  date  of  the  first  Greek  edition,  that  by  Obsopaeus, 
is  1530.  For  a  full  account  of  these  and  of  later  editions,  as  well 
as  of  the  extant  MSS.,  see  SchweighauSer's  Preface  to  his  edition 
of  Polybius.  Our  knowledge  of  the  contents  of  the  fragmentary 
books  is  derived  partly  from  quotations  in  ancient  writers,  but 
mainly  from  two  collections  of  excerpts;  one,  probably  the  work 
of  a  late  Byzantine  compiler,  was  first  printed  at  Basel  in  1549 
and  contains  extracts  from  books  vi.-xviii.  (irepi  TrpeaPeloiv,  xepi 
apeT^s  Kal  nadas) ;  the  other  consists  of  two  fragments  from  the 
"  select  passages  "  from  Greek  historians  compiled  by  the  directions 
of  Constantine  Porphyrogenitus  in  the  loth  century.  To  these 
must  be  added  the  Vatican  excerpts  edited,  by  Angelo  Mai  in  the 
present  century. 

The  following  are  the  more  important  modern  editions  of  Polybius : 
Ernesti  (3  vols.,  1 763-1 764);  Schweighauser  (8  vols.,  1793,  and 
Oxford,  1823);  Bekker  (2  vols.,  1844);  L.  Dindorf  (4  vols.,  1866- 
1868,  2nd  ed.,  T.  Biittner-Wobst,  5  vols.,.  Leipzig,  1882-1904) ; 
Hultsch  (4  vols.,  1867-1871);  J.  L.  Strachan-Davidson,  Selections 
from  Polybius  (Oxford,  1888).  For  the  literature  of  the  subject, 
see  Engelmann,  Biblioth.  script,  class.:  Script,  graeci,  pp.  646- 
650  (8th  ed.  Leipzig,  1880).,  See  also  W.  W.  Capes,  The  History 
of  the  Achaean  League  (London,  1888);  F.  Susemihl,  Gesch.  d. 
griech.  Litteratur  in  d.  Alexandrinerzeit,  ii.  80-128  (Leipzig,  1891- 
1892);  O.  Cuntz,  Polybios  und  sein  Werk  (Leipzig,  1902);  R.  v. 
Scala,  Die  Studien  des  Polybios  (Stuttgart,  1890);  J.  B.  Bury, 
Ancient  Greek  Historians  (1909),  "  a  whole-hearted  appreciation 
of  Polybius";  J.  L.  Strachan-Davidson,  in  Hellenica,  pp.  353- 
387  (London,  1898),  and, in  Appendix  IL  to  Selections  from  Polybius 
pp.  642-668  (Oxford,  1888).  (H.  F.  P.;  X.) 

POLYCARP  (c.  69-c.  iSS),  bishop  of  Smyrna  and  one  of  the 
Apostolic  Fathers,  derives  much  of  his  importance  from  the  fact 
that  he  links  together  the  apostolic  age  and  that  of  nascent 
Catholicism.  The  sources  from  which  we  derive  our  knowledge 
of  the  life  and  activity  of  Polycarp  are:  (i)  a  few  notices  in  the 
writings  of  Irenaeus,  (2)  the  Epistle  of  Polycarp  to  the  Church  at 
Philippi,  (3)  the  Epistle  of  Ignatius  to  Polycarp,  (4)  the  Epistle 
of  the  Church  at  Smyrna  to  the  Church  at  Philomelium,  giving 
an  account  of  the  martyrdom  of  Polycarp.  Since  these  authori- 
ties have  all  been  more  or  less  called  in  question  and  some  of  them 
entirely  rejected  by  recent  criticism,  it  is  necessary  to  say  a  few 
words  about  each. 

I.  The  Statements  of  Irenaeus  are  found  (a)  in  his  Adversus  haereses, 
iii.  3,  4,  (b)  in  the  letter  to  Victor,  where  Irenaeus  gives  an  account 
of  Polycarp's  visit  to  Rome,  (c)  in  the  letter  to  FlorinUs — a  most 
important  document  which  describes  the  intercourse  between 
Irenaeus  and  Polycarp  and  Polycarp's  relation  with  St  John.  No 
objection  has  been  made  against  the  genuineness  of  the  statements 
in  the  Adversus  haereses,  but  the  authenticity  of  the  two  letters 
has  been  stoutly  contested  in  recent  times  by  van  Manen.^  The 
main  attack  is  directed  against  the  Epistle  to  Florinus,  doubtless 
because  of  its  importance.  "  The  manifest  exaggerations,"  says 
van  Manen,  "  coupled  with  the  fact  that  Irenaeus  never  shows 
any  signs  of  acquaintance  with  Florinus  .  .  .  enable  us  to  perceive 
clearly  that  a  writer  otherwise  unknown  is  speaking  to  us  here." 
The  criticism  of  van  Manen  has,  however,  found  no  supporters 
outside   the   Dutch   school.      The   epistle   is   quoted   by   Eusebius 

'  Ency.  Bib.  iii.  3490. 


(v.  20),  and  is  accepted  as  genuine  by  Harnack''  and  Kruger." 
The  relevant  statements  in  the  letter,  moreover,  are  supported 
by  the  references  to  Polycarp  which  we  find  in  the  body  of 
Irenaeus's  great  work. 

2.  The  Epistle  of  Polycarp. — Though  Irenaeus  states  that  Polycarp 
wrote  many  "  letters  to  the  neighbouring  churches  or  to  certain 
of  the  brethren  "*  only  one  has  been  preserved,  viz.  the  well-known 
letter  to  the  Philippians.  The  epistle  is  largely  involved  in  the 
Ignatian  controversy  (see  Ignatius).  The  testimony  which  it 
affords  to  the  Ignatian  Epistles  is  so  striking  that  those  scholars 
who  regard  these  letters  as  spurious  are  bound  to  reject  the  Epistle 
of  Polycarp  altogether,  or  at  any  rate  to  look  upon  it  as  largely 
interpolated.  The  former  course  has  been  adopted  by  Schwegler,^ 
Zeller,"  and  Hilgenfeld,'  the  latter  by  RitschH  and  Lipsius.^'  The 
rehabilitation  of  the  Ignatian  letters  in  modern  times  has,  however, 
practically  destroyed  the  attack  on  the  Epistles  of  Polycarp.  The 
external  evidence  in  its  favour  is  of  considerable  weight.  Irenaeus 
(iii.  3,  4)  expressly  mentions  and  commends  a  "very  adequate" 
{iKavaraTTi)  letter  of  Polycarp  to  the  Philippians,  and  we  have  no 
reason  for  doubting  the  identity  of  this  letter  mentioned  by  Irenaeus 
with  our  epistle.  Eusebius  (iii.  36)  quotes  extracts  from  the 
epistle,  and  some  of  the  extracts  contain  the  very  passages  which 
the  critics  have  marked  as  interpolations,  and  Jerome  (De  Vir.  III. 
xvii.)  testifies  that  in  his  time  the  epistlewas  publicly  read  in  the 
Asiatic  churches.  The  internal  evidence  is  equally  strong.  There 
is  absolutely  no  motive  for  a  forgery  in  the  contents  of  the  epistle. 
As  Harnack  says,  "  There  is  no  trace  of  any  tendency  beyond  the 
immediate  purpose  of  maintaining  the  true  Christian  life  in  the 
church  and  warning  it  against  covetousness  and  against  an  un- 
brotherly  spirit.  The  occasion  of  the  letter  was  a  case  of  embezzle- 
ment, the  guilty  individual  bein^  a  presbyter  at  Philippi.  It  shows 
a  fine  combination  of  mildness  with  severity;  the  language  is  simple 
but  powerful,  and,  while  there  is  undoubtedly  a  lack  of  original 
ideas,  the  author  shows  remarkable  skill  in  weaving  together 
pregnant  sentences  and  impressive  warnings  selected  from  the 
apostolic  epistles  and  the  first  Epistle  of  Clement.  In  these  circum- 
stances it  would  never  have  occurred  to  any  one  to  doubt  the 
genuineness  of  the  epistle  or  to  suppose  that  it  had  been  inter- 
polated, but  for  the  fact  that  in  several  passages  reference  is  made 
to  Ignatius  and  his  epistles."  The  date  of  the  epistle  depends 
upon  the  date  of  the  Ignatian  lettero  and  is  now  generally  fixed 
between  112  and  118.  An  attempt  has  been  made  in  some  quarters 
to  prove  that  certain  allusions  in  the  epistle  imply  the  rise  of  the 
heresy  of  Marcion  and  that  it  cannot  therefore  be  placed  earlier  than 
140.  Lightfoot,  however,  has  proved  that  Polycarp's  statements 
may  equally  well  be  directed  against  Gorinthianism  or  any  other 
form  of  Docetism,  while  some  of  his  arguments  are  absolutely 
inapplicable  to  Marcionism. 

3.  The  Epistle  of  Ignatius  to  Polycarp. — This  epistle  has  of  course 
been  subjected  to  the  same  criticism  as  has  been  directed  against 
the  other  epistles  of  Ignatius  (see  Ignatius).  Over  and  above  the 
general  criticism,  which  may  now  be  said  to  have  been  completely 
answered  by  the  investigations  of  Zahn,  Lightfoot  and  Harnack, 
one  or  two  special  arguments  have  been  brought  against  the  Epistle 
to  Polycarp.  Ussher,  for  instance,  while  accepting  the  other  six 
epistles,  rejected  this  on  the  ground  that  Jerome  says  that  Ignatius 
only  sent  one  letter  to  Smyrna — a  mistake  due  to  his  misinterpre- 
tation of  Eusebius.  Some  modern  scholars  (among  whom  Harnack 
was  formerly  numbered,  though  he  has  modified  his  views  on  the 
point)  feel  a  difficulty  about  the  peremptory  tone  which  Ignatius 
adopts  towards  Polycarp.  There  was  some  force  in  this  argument 
when  the  Ignatian  Epistles  were  dated  about  140,  as  in  that  case 
Polycarp  would  have  been  an  old  and  venerable  man  at  the  time. 
But  now  that  the  date  is  put  back  to  about  112  the  difficulty 
vanishes,  since  Polycarp  was  not  much  over  forty  when  he  received 
the  letter.  We  must  remember,  too,  that  Ignatius  was  writing 
under  the  consciousness  of  impending  martyrdom  and  evidently 
felt  that  this  gave  him  the  right  to  criticize  the  bishops  and  churches 
of  Asia. 

4.  The  Letter  of  the  Church  at  Smyrna  to  the  Philomelians  is  a 
most  important  document,  because  we  derive  from  it  all  our  in- 
formation with  regard  to  Polycarp's  martyrdom.  Eusebius  has 
preserved  the  greater, part  of  this  epistle  (iv.  15),  but  we  possess  it 
entire  with  various  concluding  observations  in  several  Greek  MSS., 
and  also  in  a  Latin  translation.  The  epistle  gives  a  minute 
description  of  the  persecution  in  Smyrna,  of  the  last  days  of 
V  olycarp  and  of  his  trial  and  martyrdom;  and  as  it  contains  many 
instructive  details  and  professes  to  have  been  written  not  long  after 
the  events  to  which  it  refers,  it  has  always  been  regarded  as  one 
ot_  the  most  precious  remains  of  the  2nd  century.  Certain  recent 
critics,  however,  have  questioned  the  authenticity  of  the  narrative. 

2  Geschichte  der  altchristlichen  Litteratur,  1.  593-594 

'  Early  Christian  Literature  (Eng.  trans.,  1897),  p."iso 

'  Letter  to  Florinus  ap.  Euseb.  v.  20. 

^  Nachapostolisches  Zeitalter,  ii.  154. 

^  Apostolgeschichte,  p.  52. 

''  Apostolische  Vdter,  p.  272. 

"  Entstehung  der  altkatholischen  Kirche,  p.  584. 

»  Ueber  das  Verhdltniss,  &c.,  p.  14. 


POLYCARP 


21 


Lipsius  brings  1  the  date  of  the  epistle, dp wn  tq  about  260,  though 
he  admits  many  of  the  statements  as  trustworthy.  Keim,  too,^ 
endeavours  to  show  that,  although  it  was  based  on  good  information, 
it  could  not  have  been  composed  till  the  middle  of  the  3rd  century. 
A  similar  position  has  also  been  taken  up  by  Schurer,^  Holtzmann,'' 
Gebhardt,*  Rgville, «  and  van  Manen.'  The  last  named  regards  the 
document  "as  a  decorated  narrative  of  the  saint's  martyrdom 
framed  after  the  pattern  of  Jesus'  martyrdorri,"  though  he  thinks 
that  it  cannot  be  put  as  late  as  250,  but  must  fall  within  the  liniits 
of  the  2hd  century.  It  cannot  be  Said,  however,  that  the  case 
against  the  document  has  been  at  all  substantiated,  and  the  more 
moderate  school  _  of  modern  critics  (e.g.  Lightfoot,*  Harnack," 
Kriiger)!"  is  unanimous  in  regai'dihg  it  as  an  authentic  document, 
though  it  recognizes  that  here  and  there  a  few  slight  interpolations 
have  been  inserted."  Besides  these  we  have  no  other  sources  for 
the  life  of  Poly  carp;  the  Vita  S.  Poly  carpi  auctore  Pionio  (published 
by  Duchesne,  Paris,  1881,  a,nd  Lightfoot  Ignatius  and  Polycarp, 
1885,  ii.  1015-1047)  is  worthless. 

Assuming  the  genuineness  of  the  docunients  mentioned,  we 
now  proceed  to  collect  the  scanty  information  which  they  afford 
with  regard  tp  Polycarp's  career.  Very  little  is  known  about 
his  early  life.  He  must  have  been  born  not  later  than  the  year 
69,  for  on  the  day  of  his  death  (c.  155)  he  declared  that  he  had 
served  the  Lord  for  eighty-six  years  {Martyrium,  9).  The 
statement  seems  to  imply  that, he  was  of  Christian  parentage; 
he  cannot  have  been  older  than  eighty-six  at  the  time  of  his 
martyrdom,  since  he  had  paid  a  visit  to  Rome  almost  immediately 
before.  Irenaeus  tells  us  that  in  early  life  Polycarp  "had  been 
taught  by  apostles  and  lived  in  familiar  iijtercourse  with  many 
that  had  seen  Christ  "  (iji.  3,4).  This  testimony  is  expanded 
in  the  remarkable  words  which  Irenaeus  addresses  to  Florinus: 
"  I  saw  thee  when  I  was  still  a  boy  (irais  €«  <I!)j')  in  Lower  Asia 
in  company  with  Polycarp  ...  I  can  even  now  point  out  the 
place  where  the  blessed  Polycarp  used  to  sit  when  he  discoursed, 
and  describe  his  goings  out  and  his  comings  in,  his  manner  of 
life  and, his  personal  appearance  and  the  discourses  which  he 
delivered  to  the  people,  how  he  used  to  speak  of  his  intercourse 
with  John  and  with  the  rest  of  those  who  had  seen  the  Lord,  and 
how,  he  would  relate  their  words.  And  everything  that  he  had 
heard  from  them  about  the  Lord,  about  His  miracles  and  about 
His  teaching,  Polycarp  used  to  tell  us  as  one  who  had  received 
it  from  those  who  had  seen  the  Word  of  Life  with  their  own  eyes, 
and  all  this  in  perfect  harmony  with  the  Scriptures.  To  these 
things  I  used  to  listen  at  the  time,  through  the  mercy  of  God 
vouchsafed  to  rne,  noting  them  down,  not  on  paper  but  in  my 
heart,  and  constantly  by  the  grace  of  God  I  brood  over  my 
accurate  recollections."  These  are  priceless  words,  for  they 
estabhsh  a  chain  of  tradition  (John- Polycarp-Irenaeus)  which  is 
without  a  parallel  in  early  church  history.  Polycarp  thus 
becomes  the  living  link  between  the  Apostolic  age  and  the  great 
writers  who  flourished  at  the  end  of  the  2nd  century.  Recent 
criticism,  however,  has  endeavoured  to  destroy  the  force  of  the 
words  of  Irenaeus.  Harnack,  for  instance,  attacks  this  link  at 
both  ends.'^  {a)  The  connexion  of  Irenaeus  and  Polycarp,  he 
argues,  is  very  weak,  because  Irenaeus  was  only  a  boy  (Trats)  at 
the  time,  and  his  recollections  therefore  carry  very  little  weight. 
The  fact  too  that  he  never  shows  any  signs  of  having  been  influ- 
enced by  Polycarp  and  never  once  quotes  his  writings  is  a  further 
proof  that  the  relation  between  them  was  slight.  (J)  "The 
connexion  which  Irenaeus  tries  to  establish  between  Polycarp 
and'John  the  apostle  is  probably  due  to,  a  blunder.  Jrenaeus  has 
confused  John  the,  apostle,  and  John  the  presbyter.  Polycarp 
was  the  disciple  of  the  latter,  not  the  former.    In  this  second 

^Zeitschr.  f.  wissensch.  Theol,  (1874),  p.  200  seq., 

^  Aus  dem  Urchristenth'tm  (1878),  p.  90. 

^  Zeitschr.  f.  hist.  Theol.  (1870),  p.  203  seq. 

'  Zeitschf.  f.  wissensch'.  Theol.  (1877). 

^  Zeitschr.f.  hist.  Theol.  (1875). 

*  De  anno  Polycarpi  (1881). 

'  Oud-Christ  {1861),  and  Ency.  Bib.  iii.  3479. 

'  Ignatius  and  Polycarp,  i.  589  seq. 

°  Gesch.  d.  altchrist.  Lit.  II.  i.  341. 

^^  Early  Christian  Lit.  (Eng.  trans.,  1897),  p.  380. 

"  Amongst  these  we  ought  probably  to  include  the  expression 
il  KodoXuri  kKK\i!<7ia .{xvi.'  I^),  KoBoKi-Kis  being  here  used  in  the  sense 
of  orthodox — a  usage  which  is  not  found  elsewhere  at  so  early  a 
date. 

^'  Chronologie,  i.  325-329. 


argument  Harnack  has  the  support  of  a  considerable  number  of 
modern  scholars  who  deny  the  Ephesian  residence  of  John  the 
apostle.  But,  as  Gwatkin"  has  pointed  out,  Harnack's  argu- 
ments are  by  no  means  decisive,  {a)  When  Irenaeus  describes 
himself  as  a  boy  (Trats),  he  need  not  have  meant  a  very  young  lad, 
under  thirteen,  as  Harnack  makes  out.  Lightfoot  has  cited  many 
instances  which  prove  that  the  word  could  be  used  of  a  man 
of  thirty."  Nor  does  the  alternative  phrase  which  Irenaeus  uses 
in  iii.  3,  4  (  oj'  /cat  i7yuets  eupaKcifiev  kv  rfj  irpcor^  ■fjixCiv  iJXtKt^) 
militate  against  this  interpretation,  for,  elsewhere  Irenaeus  him- 
self distinctly  says  "  triginta  annorum  aetas  prima  indoles  est 
juvenis  "  (ii,  22,  5).  It  is  true  that  Harnack  has  adduced  argu- 
ments which  cannot  be  discussed  here  to  prove  that  Irenaeus 
was  not  born  till  about  140;^'  but  against  this  we  may  quote  the 
decision  of  Lipsius,  who  puts  the  date  of  his  birth  at  130,1^  while 
Lightfoot  argues  for  1 20."  The  fact  that  Irenaeus  never  quotes 
Polycarp  does  not  count  for  much.  Polycarp  wrote  very  little. 
He  does  not  seem  to  have  been  a  man  of  great  mental  capacity. 
"  His  influence  was  that  of  saintliness  rather  than  that  of 
intellect."  (b)  A  discussion  of  Harnack's  second  line  of  argument 
is  impossible  here.  His  theory  with  regard  to  the  confusion 
of  names  is  a  gratuitous  assumption  and  cannot  be  proved. 
The  tradition  of  St  John's  residence  at  Ephesus  is  too  strong  to 
be  easily  set  aside.  In  spite  therefore  of  much  modern  criticism 
there  seems  to  be  no  solid  reason  for  rejecting  the  statements  of 
Irenaeus  and  regarding  Polycarp  as  the  link  between  the  Apostolic 
age  and  the  first  of  the  Catholic  fathers. 

Though  Polycarp  must  have  been  bishop  of  Smyrna  for  nearly 
half  a  century  we  know  next  to  nothing  about  his  career.  We 
get  only  an  occasional  glimpse  of  his  activity,  and  the  period 
between  115  and  155  is  practically  a  blank.  The  only  points  of 
sure  information  which  we  possess  relate  to  (i)  his  relations  with 
Ignatius,  (2)  his  protests  against  heresy,  (3)  his  visit  to  Rome  in 
the  time  of  Anicetus,  (4)  his  martyrdom. 

I.  His  Relations  with  Ignatius. — Ignatius,  while  on  his  way  to 
Rome  to  suffer  martyrdom,  halted  at  Smyrna  and  received  a 
warm  welcome  from  the  church  and  its  bishop.  Upon  reaching 
Troas  he  despatched  two  letters,  one  to  the  church  at  Smyrna, 
another  addressed  personally  to  Polycarp.  In  these  letters 
Ignatius  charged  Polycarp  to  write  to  all  the  churches  between 
Smyrna  and  Syria  (since  his  hurried  departure  from  Troas  made 
it  impossible  for  him  to  do  so  in  person)  urging  them  to  send 
letters  and  delegates  to  the  church  at  Antioch  to  congratulate 
it  upon  the  cessation  of  the  persecution  and  to  estabhsh  it  in  the 
faith.  The  letters  of  Ignatius  illustrate  the  commanding 
position  which  Polycarp  had  already  attained  in  Asia.  It  was 
in  the  discharge  of  the  task  which  had  been  laid  upon  him  by 
Ignatius  that  Polycarp  was  brought  into  correspondence  with 
the_  PhiUppians.  The  Church  at  Philippi  wrote  to  Polycarp 
asking  him  to  forward  their  letters  to  Antioch.  Polycarp  replied, 
promising  to  carry  out  their  request  and  enclosing  a  number  of 
the  letters  of  Ignatius  which  he  had  in  his  possession. 

■2.  Polycarp's  Attack  on  Heresy. — All  through  his  Ufe  Polycarp 
appears  to  have  been  an  uncompromising  opponent  of  heresy. 
We  find  him  in  his  epistle  (ch.  vii.)  uttering  a  strong  protest 
against  certain  false  teachers  (probably  the  followers  of 
Cerinthus). 

For  every  one  who  shall  not  confess  that  Jesus  Christ  is  come 
in  the  flesh  is  antichrist;  and  whosoever  shall  not  confess  the 
testimony  of  the  Cross  is  of  the  devil ;  and  whosoever  shall  pervert 
the  oracles  of  the  Lord  to  his  own  lusts  and  say  that  there  is  neither 
resurrection  iior  judgment,  that  man  is  the  first-born  of  Satan. 
Wherefore  let  us  forsake  their  vain  doing  and  their  false  teaching 
and  turn  unto  the  word  which  was  delivered  unto  us  from  the 
beginning." 

Polycarp  lived  to  see  the  rise  of  the  Marcionite  and  Valentinian 
sects  and  vigorously  opposed  them.    Irenaeus  tells  us  that  on 

^'  Contemp.  Review,  February  1897. 

1*  Ignatius  and  Polycarp,  i.  432,  for  instance,  Constantine  (Euseb. 
V.C.  ii.  51)  describes  himself  as  Ko/xiSri  irals,  though  he  must  have 
been  over  thirty  at  the  time. 

^^  Chronologie,  i.  325-333. 

''  See  Lightfoot,  op.  cit.  i.  432. 

"  Essays  on  Supernatural  Religion,  264,  265. 


22 


POLYCLITUS 


one  occasion  Marcion  endeavoured  to  establish  relations  with 
him  and  accosted  him  with  the  words,  "  Recognize  us."  But 
Polycarp  displayed  the  same  uncompromising  attitude  which  his 
master  John  had  shown  towards  Cerinthus  and  answered,  "  I 
recognize  you  as  the  first-born  of  Satan."  The  steady  progress 
of  the  heretical  movement  in  spite  of  all  opposition  was  a  cause 
of  deep  sorrow  to  Polycarp,  so  that  in  the  last  years  of  his  life  the 
words  were  constantly  on  his  lips,  "  Oh  good  God,  to  what  times 
hast  thou  spared  me,  that  I  must  suffer  such  things!" 

3.  Polycarp' s  Visit  to  Rome. — It  is  one  of  the  most  interesting 
and  important  events  in  the  church  history  of  the  2nd  century 
that  Polycarp,  shortly  before  his  death,  when  he  was  considerably 
over  eighty  years  old,  undertook  a  journey  to  Rome  in  order  to 
visit  the  bishop  Anicetus.  Irenaeus,  to  whom  we  are  indebted 
for  this  information  {Haer.  iii.  3,  4;  Epist.  ad  mctorem,  ap. 
Euseb.  V.  24),  gives  as  the  reason  for  the  journey  the  fact  that 
differences  existed  between  Asia  and  Rome  "  with  regard  to 
certain  things  "  and  especially  about  the  time  of  the  Easter 
festival.  He  might  easily  have  told  us  what  these  "  certain 
things  "  were  and  given  us  fuller  details  of  the  negotiations 
between  the  two  great  bishops,  for  in  all  probability  he  was 
himself  in  Rome  at  the  time.  But  unfortunately  all  he  says  is 
that  with  regard  to  the  certain  things  the  two  bishops  speedily 
came  to  an  understanding,  whUe  as  to  the  time  of  Easter,  each 
adhered  to  his  own  custom,  without  breaking  off  communion 
with  the  other.  We  learn  further  that  Anicetus  as  a  mark  of 
special  honour  allowed  Polycarp  to  celebrate  the  Eucharist  in 
the  church,  and  that  many  Marcionites  and  Valentinians  were 
converted  by  him  during  his  stay  in  Rome. 

4.  Polycarp's  Martyrdom. — Not  many  months  apparently 
after  Polycarp's  return  from  Rome  a  persecution  broke  out  in 
Asia.  A  great  festival  was  in  progress  at  Smyrna.  The  pro- 
consul Statius  Quadratus  was  present  on  the  occasion,  and  the 
asiarch  Philip  of  Tralles  was  presiding  over  the  games.  Eleven 
Christians  had  been  brought,  mostly  from  Philadelphia,  to  be 
put  to  death.  The  appetite  of  the  populace  was  inflamed  by  the 
spectacle  of  their  martyrdom.  A  cry  was  raised  "  Away  with 
the  atheists.  Let  search  be  made  for  Polycarp."  Polycarp  took 
refuge  in  a  country  farm.  His  hiding-place,  however,  was  be- 
trayed and  he  was  arrested  and  brought  back  into  the  city. 
Attempts  were  made  by  the  officials  to  induce  him  to  recant,  but 
without  effect.  When  he  came  into  the  theatre  the  proconsul 
urged  him  to  "  revile  Christ,"  and  promised,  if  he  would  consent 
to  abjure  his  faith,  that  he  would  set  him  at  hberty.  To  this 
appeal  Polycarp  made  the  memorable  answer,  "  Eighty  and  six 
years  have  I  served  Him  and  He  hath  done  me  no  wrong.  How 
then  can  I  speak  evil  of  my  King  who  saved  me?  "  These  words 
only  intensified  the  fury  of  the  mob.  They  clamoured  for  a  Hon 
to  be  let  loose  upon  him  there  and  then.  The  asiarch  however 
refused,  urging  as  an  excuse  that  the  games  were  over.  When 
they  next  demanded  that  their  victim  should  be  burned,  the 
proconsul  did  not  interfere.  Timber  and  faggots  were  hastily 
collected  and  Polycarp  was  placed  upon  the  pyre.  With  calm 
dignity  and  unflinching  courage  he  met  his  fate  and  crowned  a 
noble  life  with  an  heroic  death. 

The  question  as  to  the  date  of  the  martyrdom  has  evoked 
considerable  controversy.  Eusebius  in  bis  Chronicon  gives 
A.D.  166  as  the  date  of  Polycarp's  death,  and  until  the  year  1867 
this  statement  was  never  questioned.  In  that  year  appeared 
Waddington's  MSmoire  sur  la  chronologie  de  la  vie  du  rheteur 
Aelius  Aristide,  in  which  it  was  shown  from  a  most  acute  combin- 
ation of  circumstances  that  the  Quadratus  whose  name  is  men- 
tioned in  the  Martyrium  was  proconsul  of  Asia  in  155-156,  and 
that  consequently  Polycarp  was  martyred  on  the  23rd  of  February 
155.  Waddington's  conclusion  has  received  overwhelming 
support  amongst  recent  critics.  His  views  have  been  accepted 
by  (amongst  many  others)  Renan,^  Hilgenfeld,''  Gebhardt,' 
Lipsius,'*  Harnack,'  Zahn,^  Lightfoot,'  Randell.'  Against  this 

'  Antichrist  (1873),  p.  207.     ^  Zeitschr.f.  wiss.  Theol.  (1874),  P-  325- 

^  Zeitschr.f.  hist.  Theol.  (1875),  p.  356. 

*  Jahtb.  f.  prot.  Theol.  (1883),  p.  525.       »  Chronologie,  i.  334-356. 

^  Zeitschr.  f.  wiss.  Theol.  (1882),  p.  227;  (1884),  p.  216. 

'  Ignatius  and  Polycarp,  i.  629-702.     '  Sludia  biblica  (1885),  i.  175. 


array  of  scholars  only  the  following  names  of  importance  can  be 
quoted  in  support  of  the  traditional  view— Keim,«  Wieseleri"  and 
Uhlhorn."  The  problem  is  too  complex  to  admit  of  treatment 
here.  There  seems  to  be  Uttle  doubt  that  the  case  for  the  earlier 
date  has  been  proved.  The  only  point  upon  which  there  is 
division  of  opinion  is  as  to  whether  Waddington's  date  155,  or— 
as  is  suggested  by  Lipsius  and  supported  by  C.H.  Turner  i''— the 
following  year  156  is  the  more  probable.  The  balance  of  opinion 
seems  to  favour  the  latter  alternative,  because  it  leaves  more 
room  for  Polycarp's  visit  to  Anicetus,  who  only  became  bishop  of 
Rome  in  154.    Harnack,  however,  after  careful  investigation, 

prefers  155. 

The  significance  of  Polycarp  in  the  history  of  the  Church  is 
out  of  all  proportion  to  our  knowledge  of  the  facts  of  his  career. 
The  violent  attack  of  the  Smyrnaean  mob  is  an  eloquent  tribute 
to  his  influence  in  Asia.  "This  is  the  teacher  of  Asia,"  they 
shouted,  "this  is  the  father  of  the  Christians:  this  is  the  des- 
troyer of  our  gods:  this  is  the  man  who  has  taught  so  many  no 
longer  to  sacrifice  and  no  longer  to  pray  to  the  gods.""  And 
after  the  execution  they  refused  to  deliver  up  his  bones  to  the 
Christians  for  burial  on  the  ground  that  "  the  Christians  would 
now  forsake  the  Crucified  and  worship  Polycarp."i*  Polycarp 
was  indeed,  as  Polycrates  says,"  "  one  of  the  great  luminaries  " 
{fieya\a  aToix^la.)  of  the  time.  It  was  in  no  small  degree  due  to 
his  stanch  and  unwavering  leadership  that  the  Church  was  saved 
from  the  peril  of  being  overwhelmed  by  the  rising  tide  of  the 
pagan  revival  which  swept  over  Asia  during  the  first  half  of  the 
2nd  century,  and  it  was  his  unfaltering  allegiance  to  the  Apostohc 
faith  that  secured  the  defeat  of  the  many  forms  of  heresy  which 
threatened  to  destroy  the  Church  from  within.  Polycarp  had 
no  creative  genius.  He  was  a  "  transmitter,  not  a  maker," 
but  herein  lies  his  greatness.  Much  occurred  between  the 
Apostolic  age  and  the  age  when  the  faith  of  the  Church  was 
fixed  in  the  earliest  creed  and  protected  by  the  determination 
of  the  canon  of  the  New  Testament.  This  intervening  period 
was  the  most  perilous  epoch  in  the  history  of  the  ante-Nicene 
Church.  The  Apostolic  tradition  might  have  been  perverted 
and  corrupted.  The  purity  of  the  Gospel  might  have  been 
defiled.  The  Christian  ideal  might  haye  been  lost.  That  the 
danger  was  so  largely  averted  fs  to  no  femall  extent  the  result  of 
the  faithful  witness  of  Polycarp.  As  Irenaeus  says  (iii.  3,  4), 
"  Polycarp  does  not  appear  to  have  possessed  qualifications  for 
successfully  conducting  a  controversial  discussion  ■nith  erroneous 
teachers  .  .  .  but  he  could  not  help  feeUng  how  unlike  their 
speculations  were  to  the  doctrines  which  he  had  learned  from 
the  Apostles,  and  so  he  met  with  indignant  reprobation  their 
attempt  to  supersede  Christ's  gospel  with  fictions  of  their  own 
devising."  It  is  this  that  constitutes  Polycarp's  service  to  the 
Church,  and  no  greater  service  has  been  rendered  by  any  of  its 
leaders  in  any  age. 

Bibliography. — J.  B.  Lightfoot,  Apostolic  Fathers,  pt.  ii. 
(2nd  ed.,  .1889).  Polycarp  is  dealt  with  in  i.  417-459,  530-704; 
ii.  8p7-io86;  G.  Volkmar,  Epistula  Polycarpi  Smyrnaei  genuina 
(Zilnch,  1885) ;  T.  Zahn,  Forschungen  zur  Geschichte  des  Kanons,  &c., 
iv.  249,  279;  J.  M.  Cotterill,  "The  Epistle  of  Polycarp  to  the 
Philippians,"  Journ.  of  Philol.  (1891),  xix.,  241-285;  Harnack, 
Chronologie  der  altchristlichen  Litteratur  (1897).  See  also  Apo- 
stolic Fathers.  (H.  T.  A.) 

POLYCLITUS,  the  name  of  two  Greek  sculptors  of  the  school 
of  Argos;  the  first  belonging  to  the  fifth  century,  the  second  to 
the  early  part  of  the  fourth. 

I .  The  elder  and  best  known  Polyclitus  was  a  contemporary  of 
Pheidias,  and  in  the  opinion  of  the  Greeks  his  equal.  He  made 
a  figure  of  an  Amazon  for  Ephesus  which  was  regarded  as  superior 
to  the  Amazon  of  Pheidias  made  at  the  same  time;  and  his 
colossal  Hera  of  gold  and  ivory  which  stood  in  the  temple  neat 
Argos  was  considered  as  worthy  to  rank  with  the  Zeus  of  Pheidias. 

^  Aus  dem  Urchristentum,  p.  90. 

1°  Die  Christenverfolgungen  der  Caesaren  (1878),  p.  34. 

"  Studia  biblica  (1890),  ii.  105-156. 

^''  Realencyk.  f.  prot.  Theol.,  2nd  ed.  xii.  105. 

^'  Martyrium,  ch.  12. 

"  Ibid.  17. 

"  Ap.  Euseb.  v.  24. 


POLYCRATES— POLYGAMY 


23 


It  would  be  hard  for, a  iilodern  critic  to  rate  Polyclitus  so  high: 
the  reason  is  that  balance,  rhythm  and  the  minute  perfection  of 
bodily  form,  which  were  the  great  merits  of  this  sculptor,  do  not 
appeal  to  us  as  they  did  to  the  Greeks  of  the  sth  century.  ,  He 
worked  mainly  in  bronze. 

As  regards  his  chronology  we  have  data  in  a  papyrus  pub- 
lished by  GrenfeU  and  Hunt  containing  lists  of  athletic  victors. 
From  this  it  appears  that  he  made  a  statue  of  Cyniscus,  a  victori- 
ous athlete  of  464  or  460  B.C.,  of  Pythocles  (452)  and  Aristion 
(452).  He  thus  can  scarcely  have  been  born  as  late  as  480  B.C. 
His  statue  of  Hera  is  dated  by  Pliny  to  420  B.C.  His  artistic 
activity  must  thus  have  been  long  and  prolific. 

Copies  of  his  spearman  (doryphorus)  (see  Greek  Art,  Plate  VI. 
fig.  80),  and  his  victor  winding  a  ribbon  round  his  head  (diadu- 
menus)  have  long  been  recognized  in  our  galleries.  We  see  their 
excellence,  but  they  inspire  no  enthusiasm,  because  they  are 
more  fleshy  than  modern  figures  of  athletes,  and  want  charm. 
They  are  chiefly  valuable  as  showing  us  the  square  forms  of  body 
affected  by  Polyclitus,  and  the  scheme  he  adopted,  throwing 
the  weight  of  the  body  (as  Pliny  says  of  him)  on  one  leg.  We 
must  not,,  however,  judge  of  a  great  Greek  sculptor  by  Roman 
copies  of  his  works.  This  has  been  enforced  by  the  discovery  at 
Delos,  by  the  French  excavators,  of  a  diadumenus  of  far  more 
pleasing  type  and  greater  finish,  which  also  goes  back  to  Poly- 
clitus. The  excavations  at  Olympia^have  also  greatly  widened 
our  knowledge  of  the  sculptor.  Among  the  bases  of  statues 
found  on  that  site  were  three  signed  by  Polyclitus,  stfll  bearing 
on  their  surface  the  marks  of  attachment  of  the  feet  of  the 
statueSi  This  at  once  gives  us  their  pose;  and  following  up  the 
clue,  A.  Furtwangler  has,  identified  several  extant  statues  as 
copies  of  figures  of  boy  athletes  victorious  at  Olympia  set  up  by 
Polyclitus.  Among  these  the  Westmacott  athlete  in  the  British 
Museum  is  conspicuous.  And  it  is  certain  that  these  boys, 
although  the  anatomy  of  their  bodies  seems  to  be  too  mature,  yet 
have  a  real  charm,  combining  beauty  of  form  with  modesty  and 
unaffected  simplicity.  They  enable  us  better  to  understand  the 
merit  of  the  sculptor. 

The  Amazon  of  Polyclitus  survives  in  several  copies,  among 
the  best  of  which  is  one  in  the  British  Museum  (for  its  type  see 
Greek  Art,  fig.  40).  Here  again  we  find  a  certain  heaviness; 
and  the  womanly  character  of  the  Amazon  scarcely  appears 
through  her  robust  limbs.  But  the  Amazon  of  Pheidias,  if 
rightly  identified,  is  no  better.  The  masterpiece  of  Polyclitus, 
his  Hera  of  gold  and  ivory,  has  of  course  totally  disappeared. 
The  coins  of  Argos  give  us  only  the  general  type.  Many  archaeo- 
logists have  tried  to  find  a  copy  of  the  head.  The  most  defen- 
sible of  all  these  identifications  is  that  of  C.  Waldstein,  who 
shows  that  a  head  of  a  girl  in  the  British  Museum  (labelled  as 
Polyclitan)  corresponds  so  nearly  with  that  of  Hera  on  sth 
century  coins  of  Argos  that  we  must  regard  it  as  a  reflex  of  the 
head  of  the  great  statue.  It  seems  very  hard  and  cold  beside 
such  noble  heads  of  the  goddess  as  those  in  the  Ludovisi  Gallery 
(Terme  Museum)  Rome.  American  archaeologists  have  in 
recent  years  conducted  excavations  on  the  site  of  the  Argive 
temple  of  Hera  (Argos  and  Greek  Art,  fig.  39) ;  but  the  sculp- 
tural fragments,  heads  and  torsos,  which  seem  to  belong  to  the 
temple  ;erected  in  the  time  of  Polyclitus,  have  no  close  stylistic 
resemblance  to  other  statues  recognized  as  his;  and  at  present 
their  position  in  the  history  of  art  is  matter  of  dispute. 

The  want  of  variety  in  the  works  of  Polyclitus  was  brought  as 
a.  reproach  against  him  by  ancient  critics.  Varro  says  that  his 
statues  were  square  and  almost  of  one  pattern.  We  have 
already  observed;that  there  was  small  variety  in  their  attitudes. 
Except  for  the  statue  of  Hera,  which  was  the  work  of  his  old 
age,  he  produced  scarcely  any  notable  statue  of  a  deity.  His 
field  was  narrowly  limited;  but  in,  that  field  he  was  unsurpassed. 

2.  The  younger  Polyclitus  was  of  the  same  family  as  the  elder,, 
and  the  works  of  the  two  are  not  easily  to  be  distinguished. 
Some  existing  bases,  however,  bearing  the  name  are  inscribed, 
in  characters  of  the  4th  century,  at  which  time  the  elder  sculptor: 
cannot  haye  been  alive.  The  most  noted  work  of  the  younger 
artist  was  a, .  statue  in  marble  of  Zeus  Milichius  (the  Merciful) 


set  up  by  the  people  of  Argos  after  a  shameful  massacre  which 
took  place  in  370  B.C.  The  elder  artist  is  not  known  to  have 
worked  in  marble.  (P.  G.) 

POLYCRATES,  tyrant  of  Samos  (c.  535-515  B.C.).  Having 
won  popularity  by  donations  to  poorer  citizens,  he  took  advan- 
tage of  a  festival  of  Hera,  which  was  being  celebrated  outside 
the  walls,  to  make  himself  master  of  the  city  (about  535  B.C.). 
After  getting  rid  of  his  brothers  Pantagnotus  and  Syloson,  who 
had  at  first  shared  his  power,  he  established  a  despotism  which 
is  of  great  importance  in  the  history  of  the  island.  Realizing 
clearly  the  value  of  sea-power  for  a  Greek  state,  he  equipped 
a  fleet  of  100  ships,  and  so  became  master  of  the  Aegean  basin. 
This  ascendancy  he  abused  by  numerous  acts  of  piracy  which 
made  him  notorious  throughout  Greece;  but  his  real  purpose 
in  building  his  navy  was  to  become  lord  of  all  the  islands  of  the 
archipelago  and  the  mainland  towns  of  Ionia.  The  details 
of  his  conquests  are  uncertain,  but  it  is  known  that  in  the 
Cyclades  he  maintained  an  alliance  with  the  tyrant  Lygdamis 
of  Naxos,  and  curried  favour  with  the  Delian  Apollo  by  dedi- 
cating to  him  the  island  of  Rheneia.  He  also  encountered  and 
heavily  defeated  a  coalition  of  two  great  naval  powers  of  the 
Asiatic  coast,  Miletus  and  Lesbos.  Doubtless  with  the  object 
of  expanding  the  flourishing  foreign  trade  of  Samos,,  he  entered 
into  alliance  with  Amasis,  king  of  Egypt,  who,  according  to 
Herodotus,  renounced  his  ally  because  he  feared  that  the  gods, 
in  envy  of  Polycrates'  excessive  good  fortune,  would  bring 
ruin  upon  him  and  his  allies.  It  is  more  probable  that  the 
breach  of  the  compact  was  due  to  Polycrates,  for  when  Cambyses 
of  Persia  invaded  Egypt  (525)  the  Samian  tyrant  offered  to 
support  him  with  a  naval  contingent.  This  squadron  never 
reached  Egypt,  for  the  crews,  composed  as  they  were  of  Poly- 
crates' political  enemies,  suspecting  that  Cambyses  was  under 
agreement  to  slay  them,  put  back  to  Samos  and  attacked  their 
master.  After  a  defeat  by  sea,  Polycrates  repelled  an  assault 
upon  the  walls,  and  subsequently  withstood  a  siege  by  a  joint 
armament  of  Spartans  and  Corinthians  assembled  to  aid  the 
rebels.  He  maintained  his  ascendancy  until  about  515,  when 
Oroetes,  the  Persian  governor  of  Lydia,  who  had  been  reproached' 
for  his  failure  to  reduce  Samos  by  force,  lured  him  to  the 
mainland  by  false  promises  of  gain  and  put  him  to  death  by 
crucifixion. 

Beside  the  political  and  commercial  pre-eminence  which  he 
conferred  upon  Samos,  Polycrates  adorned  the  city  with  public 
works  on  a  large  scale — an  aqueduct,  a  mole  and  a  temple  of 
Hera  (see  Samos;  Aqueducts).  The  splendour  of  his  palace 
is  attested  by  the  proposal  of  the  Roman  emperor  Caligula  to 
rebuild  it.  Foreign  artists  worked  for  him  at  high  wages; 
from  Athens  he  brought  Democedes,  the  greatest  physician  of 
the  age,  at  an  exceptional  salary.  He  was  also  a  patron  of 
letters:  he  collected  a  library  and  lived  on  terms  of  intimate 
friendship  with  the  poet  Anacreon,  whose  verses  were  full  of 
references  to  his  patron.  The  philosopher  Pythagoras,  however, 
quitted  Samos  in  order  to  escape  his  tyranny.        (M.  O.  B.  C.) 

POLYCRATES,  Athenian  sophist  and  rhetorician,  flourished 
in  the  4th  century  B.C.  He  taught  at  Athens,  and  afterwards 
in  Cyprus.  He  composed  declamations  oh  paradoxical  themes 
— an  Encommm  on  Clytaemnestra,  an  Accusation  of  Socrates, 
an  Encomium  on  Busiris  (a  mythical  king  of  Egypt,  notorious 
for  his  inhumanity);  also  declamations  on  mice,  pots  and 
counters.  His  Encomium  on  Busiris  was  sharply  criticized 
by  Isocrates,  in  a  work  still  extant,  and  Dionysius  of  Hali- 
carnassus  characterizes  his  style  as  frigid,  vulgar  and  inelegant. 

POLYGAMY,  (Gr.  ttoXus,  many,  and  7d/xos,  marriage),  or  as  it 
is  sometimes  termed.  Polygyny  (7W17,  woman),  the  system 
under  which  a  man  is  married  to  several  yromen  at  the  same  time. 
Derivatively  it  includes  the  practice  of  polyandry,  but, it  has 
become  definitely  restricted  to  expressing  what  has  been,  and  still 
is,  far  the  commonest  type  of  relations  between  the  sexes  (see 
Family  and  Marriage).  Among  Oriental  nations  plurality  of 
legal  wives  is  customary.  Mahommedans  are  allowed  four.  A 
Hindu  can  have  as  many,  as  he  pleases :  the  high-caste  sometimes 
having  as  many  as  a  hundred.     Polygamy  is  the  rule  among 


2  + 


POLYGENISTS— POLYGON 


African  tribes,  and  is  common  among  those  of  Australia  and  Poly- 
nesia. In  China,  however,  only  one  wife  is  lawful.  In  many 
polygamous  countries  the  practical  obstacle  of  expense  prevents 
men  from  taking  advantage  of  their  privileges.  While  poly- 
gamy wa:s  the  rule  in  biblical  days  among  the  ancient  Jews,  and 
was  permitted  and  even  enjoined  in  certain  cases  by  the  Mosaic 
law,  the  Christian  Church,  though  it  is  nowhere  forbidden,  except 
for  "bishops,"  in  the  New  Testament,  has  always  set  its  face 
against  it.  There  have,  however,  been  divines  who  dissented 
from  this  general  disapproval.  The  Anabaptists  insisted  on 
freedom  in  the  matter,  and  Bernardino  Ochino  conditionally 
defended  plurality  of  wives.  When  in  1540  Philip  the  Magnani- 
mous, the  reforming  Landgrave  of  Hesse,  determined  (with  his 
wife's  approval,  she  being  a  confirmed  invalid)  to  marry  a  second 
wife,  Luther  and  Melanchthon  approved  "  as  his  personal  friends, 
though  not  as  doctors  of  theology";  while  Martin  Bucer  assisted 
at  the  marriage.  In  later  times  the  Mormons  (q.v.)  in  America 
provide  the  most  notable  instance  of  the  revival  of  polygamy. 

POLYGENISTS,  the  term  applied  to  those  anthropologists 
who  contend  that  the  several  primary  races  of  mankind  are 
separate  species  of  independent  origin.    (See  Monogeisiists.) 

POLYGLOT!  (Gr.  iroXis,  many,  and  ^XiSrra,  tongue),  the  term 
for  a  book  which  contains  side  by  side  versions  of  the  same  text 
in  several  different  languages;  the  most  important  polyglotts 
are  editions  of  the  Bible,  or  its  parts,  in  which  the  Hebrew  and 
Greek  originals  are  exhibited  along  with  the  great  historical 
versions,  which  are  of  value  for  the  history  of  the  text  and  its 
interpretation.  The  first  enterprise  of  this  kind  is  the  famous 
Hexapla  of  Origen  in  which  the  Old  Testament  Scriptures  were 
written  in  six  parallel  columns,  the  first  containing  the  Hebrew 
text,  the  second  a  transliteration  of  this  in  Greek  letters,  the 
third  and  fourth  the  Greek  translations  by  Aquila  and  Sym- 
machus,  the  fifth  the  Septuagint  version  as  revised  by  Origen, 
the  sixth  the  translation  by  Theodotion.  Inasmuch,  however,  as 
only  two  languages,  Hebrew  and  Greek,  were  employed  the  work 
was  rather  diglott  than  polyglott  in  the  usual  sense.  After  the 
invention  of  printing  and  the  revival  of  philological  studies, 
polyglotts  became  a  favourite  means  of  advancing  the  knowledge 
of  Eastern  languages  (for  which  no  good  helps  were  available)  as 
well  as  the  study  of  Scripture.  The  series  began  with  the 
Complutensian  printed  by  Arnaldus  Guilielmus  de  Brocario  at 
the  expense  of  Cardinal  Ximenes  at  the  university  at  Alcala  de 
Henares  (Complutum).  The  first  volume  of  this,  containing  the 
New  Testament  in  Greek  a:nd  Latin,  was  completed  on  the  loth 
of  January  1514.  In  vols,  ii.-v.  (finished  on  July  10,  1517) 
the  Hebrew  text  of  the  Old  Testament  was  printed  in  the 
first  column  of  each  page,  followed  by  the  Latin  Vulgate  and 
then  by  the  Septuagint  version  with  an  interlinear  Latin  trans- 
lation. Below  these  stood  the  Chaldee,  again  with  a  Latin 
translation.  The  sixth  volume  containing  an  appendix  is  dated 
1515,  but  the  work  did  not  receive  the  papal -sanction  till  March 
1520,  and  was  apparently  not  issued  till  1522.  The  chief  editors 
were  Juan  de  Vergara,  Lopez  de  Zufliga  (Stunica),  Nuiiez  de 
Guzman  (Pincianus),  Antonio  de  Librixa  (Nebrissensis),  and 
Demetrius  Ducas.  About  half  a  century  after  the  Complu- 
tensian ca,Tae  ■  the  Antwerp  Polyglott,  printejd  by  Christopher 
Plantin  (1569-1572,  in  8  vols,  folio).  Of  this  the  principal  editor 
was  Arias  Montanus  aided  by  Guido  Fabricius  Boderianus, 
Raphelengius,  Masius,  Lucas  of  Bruges  and  others.  This  work 
was  under  the  patronage  of  Philip  II.  of  Spain;  it  added  a  nev/ 
language  to  those  of  the  Complutensian  by  including  the  Syriac 
New  Testament;  and,  while  the  earlier  polyglott  had  only  the 
Targum  of  Onkelos  on  the  Pentateuch,  the  Antwerp  Bible  had 
also  the  Targum  on  the  Prophets,  and  on  Esther,  Job,  Psalms 
and  the  Salomonic  writings.  Next  came  Le  Jay's  Paris  Poly- 
glott (1645),  which  embraces  the  first  printed  texts  of  the  Syriac 
Old  Testament  (edited  by  Gabriel  Sionita,  a  Maronite,  but  the 
book  of  Ruth  by  Abraham  Ecchelensis,  also  a  Maronite)  and  of 
the  Samaritan  Pentateuch  and  version  (by  Morinus).  It  has  also 
an  Arabic  version,  or  rather  a  series  of  various  Arabic  versions. 
The  last  great  polyglott  is  Brian  Walton's  (London,  1657), 
which  is  much  less  beautiful  than  Le  Jay's  but  more  complete 


in  various  ways,  including,  among  other  things,  the  Syriac  of 
Esther  and  of  several  apocryphal  books  for  which  it  is  wanting 
in  the  Paris  Bible,  Persian  versions  of  the  Pentateuch  and  Gospels, 
and  the  Psalms  and  New  Testament  in  Ethiopic.  Walton  was 
aided  by  able  scholars,  and  used  much  new  manuscript  material. 
His  prolegomena,  too,  and  collections  of  various  readings  mark  an 
important  advance  in  biblical  criticism.  It  was  in  connexion 
with  this  polyglott  that  E.  Castell  produced  his  famous  iIe^tog/o« 
Lexicon  (2  vols,  folio,  London,  1669),  an  astounding  monument  of 
industry  and  erudition  even  when  allowance  is  made  for  the  fact 
that  for  the  Arabic  he  had  the  great  MS.  lexicon  compiled  and 
left  to  the  university  of  Cambridge  by  the  almost  forgotten 
W.  BedweU.  The  liberality  of  Cardinal  Ximenes,  who  is  said 
to  have  spent  half  a  milUon  ducats  on  it,  removed  the  Complu- 
tensian polyglott  from  the  risks  of  commerce.  The  other  three 
editions  all  brought  their  promoters  to  the  verge  of  ruin.  The 
later  polyglotts  are  of  little  scientific  importance,  the  best 
recent  texts  having  been  confined  to  a  single  language;  but  every 
bibhcal  student  still  uses  Walton  and,  if  he  can  get  it,  Le  Jay. 
Of  the  numerous  polyglott  editions  of  parts  of  the  Bible  it  may 
suffice  to  mention  the  Genoa  psalter  of  151 6,  edited  by  Giustini- 
ani,  bishop  of  Nebbio.  This  is  in  Hebrew,  Latin,  Greek,  Chaldee 
and  Arabic,  and  is  interesting  from  the  character  of  the  Chaldee 
text,  being  the  first  specimen  of  Western  printing  in  the  Arabic 
character,  and  from  a  curious  note  on  Columbus  and  the  dis- 
covery of  America  on  the  margin  of  Psalm  xix.      (A.  W.  Po.) 

POLYGNOTUS,  Greek  painter  in  the  middle  of  the  5th  century 
B.C.,  son  of  Aglaophon,  was  a  native  of  Thasos,  but  was  adopted 
by  the  Athenians,  and  admitted  to  their  citizenship.  He  painted 
for  them  in  the  time  of  Cimon  a  picture  of  the  taking  of  Ilium 
on  the  walls  of  the  Stoa  PoecUe,  and  another  of  the  marriage  of 
the  daughters  of  Leucippus  in  the  Anaceum.  In  the  haU  at  the 
entrance  to  the  Acropolis  other  works  of  his  were  preserved. 
The  most  important,  however,  of  his  paintings  were  his  frescoes 
in  a  building  erected  at  Delphi  by  the  people  of  Cnidus.  The 
subjects  of  these  were  the  visit  to  Hades  by  Odysseus,  and  the 
taking  of  Ilium.  Fortunately  the  traveller  Pausanias  has  left 
us  a  careful  description  of  these  paintings,  figure  by  figure 
(Pans.  X.  25-31).  The  foundations  of  the  building  have  been 
recovered  in  the  course  of  the  French  excavations  at  Delphi. 
From_  this  evidence,  some  modern  archaeologists  have  tried  to 
reconstruct  the  paintings,  excepting  of  course  the  colours  of  them. 
The  best  of  these  reconstructions  is  by  Carl  Robert,  who  by  the 
help  of  vase-paintings  of  the  middle  of  the  fifth  century  has 
succeeded  in  recovering  both  the  perspective  of  Polygnotus 
and  the  character  of  his  figures  (see  Greek  Art,  fig.  29).  The 
figures  were  detached  and  seldom  overlapping,  ranged  in  two  or 
three  rows  one  above  another;  and  the  farther  were  not  smaller 
nor  dimmer  than  the  nearer.  The  designs  are  repeated  in 
Frazer's  Pausanias,  v.  360  and  372.  It  wiU  hence  appear 
that  paintings  at  this  time  were  executed  on  almost  precisely 
the  same  plan  as  contemporary  sculptural  reliefs.  We 
learn  also  that  Polygnotus  employed  but  few  colours,  and 
those  simple.  Technically  his  art  was  primitive.  His  excellence 
lay  in  the  beauty  of  his  drawing  of  individual  figures;  but 
especially  in  the  "ethical"  and  ideal  character  of  his  art.  The 
contemporary,  and  perhaps  the  teacher,  of  Pheidias,  he  had  the 
same  grand  manner.  SimpHcity,  which  was  almost  childlike, 
sentiment  at  once  noble  and  gentle,  extreme  grace  and  charm 
of  execution,  marked  his  works,  in  contrast  to  the  more 
animated,  complicated  and  technically  superior  paintings  of 
a  later  age.  (p_  q  \ 

POLYGON  (Gr.  to\vs,  many,  and  juvla,  an  angle),  in  geo- 
metry, a  figure  enclosed  by  any  number  of  lines — the  sides— 
which  intersect  in  pairs  at  the  corners  or  vertices.  If  the  sides 
are  coplanar,  the  polygon  is  said  to  be  "  plane  ";  if  not,  then  it 
is  a  "skew"  or  "gauche"  polygon.  If  the  figure  lies  entirely 
to  one  side  of  each  of  the  bounding  hnes  the  figure  is  "  convex"- 
if  not  it  is  "re-entrant"  or  "concave."  A  "regular"  polygon 
has  all  its  sides  and  angles  equal,  i.e.  it  is  equilateral  and  equi- 
angular; if  the  sides  and  angles  be  not  equal  the  polygon  is 
"irregular."    Of  polygons  inscriptible  in  a  circle  an  equilateral 


POLYGON 


25 


figure  is  necessarily  equiangular,  but  the  converse  is  only  true 
when  the  number  of  sides  is  odd.  The  term  regular  polygon 
is  usually, restricted  to  "  convex  "  polygons;  a  special  class  of 
polygons  (regular  in  the  wider  sense)  has  been  named  "star 
polygons  "  on  account  of  their  resemblance  to  star-rays;  these 
are,  however,  concave.  , 

,  Pol};gons,  especially  of  the  "  regular  "  and  "  star  "  types,  were 
extensively  studied  by  the  Greek  geometers.  There  are  two 
important  corollaries  to  prop.  32,  book  i.,  of  Euclid's  Elements 
relating  to  polygons.  Having  proved  that  the  sum  of  the  angles 
of  a  tnangle  is  a  straight  angle,  i.e.  two  right  angles,  it  is  readily 
seen  that  the  sum  of  the  internal  angles  of  a  polygon  (necessarily 
convex)  of  n  sides  is  »— 2  straight  angles  (2m— 4  right  angles),  for  the 
polygon  can  be  divided  into  n—2  triangles  by  lines  joining  one 
vertex  to  the  other  vertices.  The  second  corollary  is  that  the 
sum  of  the  supplements  of  the  internal  angles,  measured  in  the 
same  direction,  is  4  right  angles,  and  is  thus  independent  of  the 
number  of  sides. 

The  systematic  discussion  of  regular  polygons  with  respect  to  the 
inscribed  and  circumscribed  circles  is  given  in  the  fourth  book  of 
the  Elements.  (We  may  note  that  the  construction  of  an  equilateral 
triangle  and  square  appear  in  the  first  book.)  The  triangle  is  dis- 
cussed in  props.  2-6;  the  square  in  props.  6-9;  the  pentagon  (5-side) 
in  props.  10-14;  the  hexagon  (6-side)  in  prop.  15;  and  the  quin- 
decagon  in  prop.  16.  The  triangle  and  square  call  for  no  special 
mention  here,  other  than  that  any  triangle  can  be  inscribed  or 
circumscribed  to  a  circle.  The  pentagon  is  of  more  interest.  Euclid 
bases  his  construction  upon  the  fact  that  the  isosceles  triangle 
formed  by  joining  the  extremities  of  one  side  of  a  regular  penta- 
gon to  the  opposite  vertex  has  each  angle  at  the  base  double  the 
angle  at  the  vertex.  He  constructs  this  triangle  in  prop.  10,  by 
dividing  a  line  in  medial  section,  i.e.  the  square  of  one  part  equal  to 
the  product  of  the  other  part  and  the  whole  line  (a  construction  given 
in  book  ii.  11),  and  then  showing  that  the  greater  segment  is  the 
base  of  the  required  triangle,  the  remaining  sides  being  each  equal 
to  the  whole  line.  The  inscription  of  a  pentagon  in  a  circle  is 
effected  by  inscribing  an  isosceles  triangle  similar  to  that  constructed 
in  prop.  10,  bisecting  the  angles  at  the  base  and  producing  the  bisec- 
tors to  meet  the  circle.  Euclid  then  proves  that  these  intersections 
and  the  three  vertices  of  the  triangle  are  the  vertices  of  the  required 
pentagon.  The  circumscription  of  a  pentagon  is  effected  by  con- 
structing an  inscribed  pentagon,  and  drawing  tangents  to  the  circle 
at  the  vertices.  This  supplies  a  general  method  for  circumscribing 
a  polygon  if  the  inscribed  be  given,  and  conversely.  In  book  xiii., 
prop.  10,  an  alternative  method  for  inscribing  a  pentagon  is  indicated, 
for  it  is  there  shown  that  the  sum  of  the  squares  of  the  sides  of  a 
square  and  hexagon  inscribed  in  the  same  circle  equals  the  square 
of  the  side  of  the  pentagon.  It  may  be  incidentally  noticed  that 
Euclid's  construction  of  the  isosceles  triangle  which  has  its  basal 
angles  double  the  vertical  angle  solves  the  problem  of  quinquesecting 
a  right  angle;  moreover,  the  base  of  the  triangle  is  the  side  of  the 
regular  decagon  inscribed  in  a  circle  having  the  vertex  as  centre 
and  the  sides  of  the  triangle  as  radius.  The  inscription  of  a  hexagon 
in  a  circle  (prop.  15)  reminds  one  of  the  Pythagorean  result  that 
six  equilateral  triangles  placed  about  a  common  vertex  form  a  plane ; 
hence  the  bases  form  a  regular  hexagon.  The  side  of  a  hexagon 
inscribed  in  a  circle  obviously  equals  the  radius  of  the  circle.  The 
inscription  of  the  quindecagon  in  a  circle  is  made  to  depend  upon 
the  fact  that  the  difference  of  the  arcs  of  a  circle  intercepted  by 
covertical  sides  of  a  regular  pentagon  and  equilateral  triangle  is 
\—\,  =  fs<  of  the  whole  circumference,  and  hence, the  bisection 
of  this  intercepted  arc  (by  book  iii.,  30)  gives  the  side  of  the 
quindecagon.  ' 

The  methods  of  Euclid  permit  the  construction  of  the  following 
series  of, inscribed  polygons:  from  the  square,  the  8-side  or  octagon, 
16-,  32-  .  .  .,  or  generally  4-2"-side;  from  the  hexagon,  the  12-side 
or  dodecagon,  24-,,  48-  .  .  .,  or  generally  the  6-2"-side;  from  the 
pentagon,  the  lo-side  or  decagon,  20-,  40-  .  .  .,  or  generally  5-2"- 
side;  from  the- quindecagon,  the  30-,  60-  .  .  .,  or  generally  15-2"- 
side.  It  was  long  supposed,  that  no  other  inscribed  polygons  were 
possible  of  construction  by  elementary  methods  {i.e.  by  the  ruler 
and  eoiripasses);  Gauss  disproved  this  by  forming  the  17-side,  and 
he  subsequently  generalized  his  method  for  the  (2''H-i)-side,  when 
this  number  is  prime. 

The  problem  of  the  construction  of  an  inscribed  heptagon,  nonagon, 
or  generally  of  any  polygon, having  an  odd;  number  of  sides,  is  readily 
reduced  to  the  construction  of  a  certain  isosceles  triangle.  Suppose 
the  polygon  to  have  (2m-|-i)  sides.     Join  the  extremities  of  one 


side  to  the  opposite  vertex,  and  consider  the  triangle  so  formed. 
It  is  readily  seen  that  the  angle  at  the  base  is  n  times  the  angle  at 
the  vertex.  In  the  heptagon  the  ratio  is  3,  in  the  nonagon  4,  and 
so  on.  The  Arabian  geometers  of  the  9th  century  showed  that  the 
heptagon  required  the  solution  of  a  cubic  equation,  thus  resembling 
the  Pythagorean  problems  of  "  duplicating  the  cube  "  and  "  tri- 
secting an  angle."  Edmund  Halley  gave  solutions  for  the  heptagon 
and  nonagon  by  means  of  the  parabola  and  circle,  and  by  a 
parabola  arid  hyperbola  respectively. 

Although  rigorous  methods  for  inscribing  the  general  polygons  in 
a  circle  are  wanting,  many  approximate  ones  have  been  devised. 
Two  such  methods  are  here  given:  (i)  Divide  the  diameter  of  the 
circle  into  as  many  parts  as  the  polygon  has  sides.  On  the 
diameter  construct  an  equilateral  triangle;  and  from  its  vertex 
draw  a  line  through  the  second  division  along  the  diameter, 
measured  from  an  extremity,  and  produce  this  line  to  intercept 
the  circle.  Then  the  chord  joining  this  point  to  the  extremity  of 
the  diameter  is  the  side  of  the  required  polygon.  (2)  Divide  the 
diameter  as  before,  and  draw  also  the  perpendicular  diameter. 
Take  points  on  these  diameters  beyond  the  circle  and  at  a  dis- 
tance from  the  circle  equal  to  one  division  of  the  diameter.  Join  the 
points  so  obtained;  and, draw  a  line  from  the  point  nearest  the 
divided  diameter  where  this  line  intercepts  the  circle  to  the  third 
division  from  the  produced  extremity;  this  line  is  the  required 
length. 

The  construction  of  any  regular  polygon  on  a  given  side  may  be 
readily  performed  with  a  protractor  or  scale  of  chords,  for  it  is 
only  necessary  to  lay  off  from  the  extremities  of  the  given  side 
lines  equal  in  length  to  the  given  base,  at  angles  equal  to  the  interior 
angle  of  the  polygon,  and  repeating  the  process  at  each  extremity 
so  obtained,  the  angle  being  always  takr^n  on  the  same  side;  or  lines 
may  be  laid  off  at  one  half  of  the  interior  angles,  describing  a  circle 
having  the  meet  of  these  lines  as  centre  and  their  length  as  radius, 
and  then  measuring  the  given  base  around  the  circumference. 

Star  Polygons. — These  figures  were  studied  by  the  Pythagoreans, 
and  subsequently  engaged  the  attention  of  many  geometers — 
Boethius,  Athelard  of  Bath,  Thomas  BradwardinCi  archbishop 
of  Canterbury,  Johannes  Kepler  and  others.  Mystical  and  magical 
properties  were  assigned  to  them  at  an  earlj'  date ;  the  Pythagoreans 
regarded  the  pentagram,  the  star  polygon  derived  from  the  pentagon, 
as  the  symbol  of  health,  the  Platonists  of  well-being,  while  .others 
used  it  to  symbolize  happiness.  Engraven  on  metal,  &c..  it  is 
worn  in  almost  every  country  as  a  charm  or  amulet. 

The  pentagon  gives  rise  to  one  star  polygon,  the  hexagon  gives 
none,  the  heptagon  two,  the  octagon  one,  and  the  nonagon  two. 
In  general,  the  number  of  star  polygons  which  can  be  drawn  with 
the  vertices  of  an  w-point  regular  polygon  is  the  number  of  numbers 
which  are  not  factors  of  n  and  are  less  than  \n. 


Pentagrams. 


Heptagrams. 


Nonograms. 


Number  of  n-point  and  n-side  Polygons.  A  polygon  may  be 
regarded  as  determined  by  the  joins  of  points  or  the  meets  of  lines. 
The  terminatiori  -gram  is  often  applied  to  the  figures  determined 
by  lines,  e.g.  pentagram,  hexagram.  It  is  of  interest  to  know  how 
many  polygons  can  be  formed  with  n  given  points  as  vertices  (no 
three  of  which  are  coUinear),  or  with  n  given  lines  as  sides  (no  two 
of  which  are  parallel);  Considering  the  case  of  points  it  is  obvious  that 
we  can  join  a  chosen  point  with  any  one  cf  the  remaining  {n  —  l) 
points;  any  one,  of  these  [n  —  l)  points  can  be  joined,  to  any  one 
of  the  remaining  (n—2),  and  by  proceeding  similarly  it  is  seen  that 
we  can  pass  through  the  n  points  in  («  — i)  {n—2)  .  .  .  2-i  or 
{n  —  \)\  ways.  It  is  obvious  that  the  direction  in  which  we  pass 
is  immaterial;  hence  we  must  divide  this  number  by  2,  thus  obtaining 
(re  — 1)!/2  as  the  required  number:  In  a  similar  manner  it  may 
be  shown  that  the  number  of  polygons  determined  by  »  lines  is 
(re  — 1)!/2.  Thus  five  points  or  lines  determine  12  pentagons, 
6  points  or  lines  60  hexagons,  and  so  on. 

Mensuration. — In  the  regular  polygons  the  fact  that  they  can  be 
inscribed  and  circumscribed  to  a  circle  affords  convenient  expres- 
sions for  their  area,  &c.  In  a  re-gon,  i.e.  a  polygon  with  »-sides, 
each  side  subtends  at  the  centre  the  angle  2x/re,  i.e.  ^6o°/n,  and 
each  internal  angle  is  (re— 2)x/«  or  (re— 2)  l8o°/re.  Calling  the 
length   of   side   a   we    may   derive   the   following  relations:    Area 


Number 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

II 

12 

of  sides. 

Triangle. 

Square. 

Pentagon. 

Hexagon. 

Heptagon. 

Octagon. 

Nonagon. 

Decagon. 

Undecagon. 

Dodecagon. 

0   ., 

60° 

9°: 

108° 

120° 

I28f° 

135° 

140° 

144° 

i47tV° 

150° 

j8      ■ 

120° 

90° 

72° 

60° 

Sir 

45° 

40° 

36° 

32A° 

30° 

A 

0-43301 

I 

1-72048 

2-59808 

3-63391 

4-82843 

6-18182 

7-69421 

9-36564 

11-19615 

R, 

0-S7735 

0-70710 

0-85065 

I 

1-1523 

1-3065 

1-4619 

1-6180 

1-7747 

1-9318 

r 

0-28867 

o-S 

0-68819 

0-86602 

1-0383 

I -2071 

1-3737 

1-5388 

1-7028 

1-8660 

26 


POLYGONACEAE 


(A)  =  J  a^n  cot  (ir/n) ;  radius  of  circum-circle  (R)  =  |  o  cosec  (tt/m) 
radius  of  in-circle  (r)  =  50  cot  (tt/m). 

,  The  table  at  foot  of  p.  1.592  gives  the  value  of  the  internal  angle 
(a),  the  angle  P  subtended  at  the  centre  by  a  side,  area  (A),  radius 
of  the  circum-circle  (R),  radius  of  the  inscribed  circle  {r)  for  the 
simpler  polygons,  the  length  of  the  side  being  taken  as  unity. 

POLYGONACEAE,  in  botany,  a  natural  order  of  Dicotyledons, 
containing  30  genera  with  about  700  species,  chiefly  in  the  north 
temperate  zone,  and  represented  in  Great  Britain  by  three 
genera,    Polygonum,  Rumex  (Dock,  q.v.)  and  Oxyria.    They  are 

mostly  herbs  characterized  by  the 
union  of  the  stipules  into  a 
sheath  or  ocrea,  which  protects  the 
younger  leaves  in  the  bud  stage 
(fig.  i).  Some  are  climbers,  as,  for 
instance,  the  British  Polygonum 
Convolvulus  (black  bindweed) .  In 
Muehlenbeckia  platyclada,  a  native 
of  the  Solomon  Islands,  the  stem 
and  branches  are  flattened,  form- 
ing ribbon-like  cladodes  jointed  at 
the  nodes.  The  leaves  are  alter- 
nate, simple  and  generally  entire; 
the  edges  are  rolled  back  in  the 
They  are  generally  smooth,  but  sometimes,  especially  in 


Fig.  I. — Leaf  of  Polygonum, 
with  part  of  stem  (g,  ocrea). 

bud. 


mountain  species,  woolly.  The  small  regular,  generally  her- 
maphrodite flowers  are  borne  in  large  numbers  in  compound 
inflorescences,  the  branches  of  which  are  cymose.  The  parts  of 
the  flower  are  whorled  (cyclic)  or  acyclic.  The  former  arrange- 
ment may  be  derived  from  a  regular  trimerous  flower  with  two 
whorls  of  perianth  leaves,  two  staminal  whorls  and  a  three-sided 
ovary — such  a  flower  occurs  in  the  Californian  genus  Pterostegia 
(fig.  2).  The  flower  of  rhubarb  {Rheum)  is  derived  from 
this   by   doubling   in   the   outer  staminal  whorl   (fig.   3),   and 


Fig.  2. — Pterostegia.        Fig.  3. — Rheum.  Fig.  4. — Rumex. 

that  of  the  dock  (Rumex)  by  doubling  in  the  outer  staminal 
whorl  and  suppression  of  the  inner  (fig.  4).  In  Koenigia,  a 
tiny  annual  less  than  an  inch  high,  native  in  the  arctic  and 
sub-arctic  regions  and  the  Himalayas,  there  is  one  perianth  and 
one  staminal  whorl  only.  Dimerous  whorled  flowers  occur  in 
Oxyria  (mountain  sorrel),  another  arctic  and  alpine  genus,  the 
flowers  of  which  resemble  those  of  Rumex  but  are  dimerous 
(fig.  s).    In  the  acyclic  flowers  a  5-merous  perianth  is  followed 


Fig.  6. — Polygonum. 


Fig.  7. — Dry  one-seeded  fruit 
of  dock  (Rumex)  cut  vertically 
(enlarged). 

ov,    Pericarp  formed  from  ovary 
wall. 
Seed. 

Endosperm. 

Embryo  with  radicle  point- 
ing upwards  and  cotyledons 
downwards. 


s, 


pi 


by  5  to  8  stamens  as  in  Polygonum  (fig.  6).  The  perianth  leaves 
are  generaUy  uniform  and  green,  white  or  red  in  colour.  They 
are  free  or  more  or  less  united,  and  persist  till  the  fruit  is  ripe, 
often  playing  a  part  in  its  distribution,  and  affording  useful 
characters  for  distinguishing  genera  or  species.     Thus  in  the  docks 


the  three  inner  leaves  enlarge  and  envelope  the  fruit  as' three 
membranous  wings  one  or  more  of  which  bear  on  the  back  large 
fleshy  warts.  Less  often,  as  in  the  South  American  genus 
Triplaris,  the  three  outer  perianth  leaves  form  the  agent  of 
distribution,  developing '  into  long  flat  membranous  wings,  the 
whole  mechanism  suggesting  a  shuttlecock.  The  number  of  the 
carpels  is  indicated  by  the  three-sided  (in  dimerous  flowers  two- 
sided)  ovary,  and  the  number  of  the  styles;  the  ovary  is  uni- 
locular and  contains  a  single  erect  ovule  springing  from  the  top 
of  the  floral  axis  (fig.  7).     The  fruit  is  a  dry  one-seeded  nut,  two- 


FiG.  8. 
Rumex  obtusifolius,  Common  Dock. 

1.  Upper  part  of  plant,  showing  the  flowers  (about   i  nat.  size). 

2.  Leaf  from  base  of  the  stem  (J  nat.  size). 

3.  Fruit  enlarged. 

4.  Fruit  of  Rumex  Acetosa  (sorrel)  (enlarged). 

sided  in  bicarpeUary  flowers,  as  in  Oxyria.  The  straight  or 
curved  embryo  is  embedded  in  a  mealy  endosperm.  The  flowers 
are  wind-poUinated,  as  in  the  docks  (Rumex),  where  they  are 
pendulous  on  long  slender  stalks  and  have  large  hairy  stigmas; 
or  insect-poUinated,  as  in  Polygonum  or  rhubarb  (Rheum),  where 
the  stigmas  are  capitate  and  honey  is  secreted  by  glands  near  the 
base  of  the  stamens.  Insect-pollinated  flowers  are  rendered 
conspicuous  chiefly  by  their  aggregation  in  large  numbers,  as 
for  instance  in  Bistort  (Polygonum  Bistorta),  where  the  perianth 
is  red  and  the  flowers  are  crowded  in  a  spike.  In  buckwheat 
(q.v.,  P.  Fagopyrum)  the  numerous  flowers  have  a  white  or  red 
perianth  and  are  perfumed;  they  are  dimorphic,  i.e.  there  are 
two  forms  of  flowers,  one  with  long  styles  and  short  stamens, 
the  other  with  short  styles  and  long  stamens.  In  other  cases 
self-pollination  is  the  rule,  as  in  knot-grass  (P.  aviculare),  where 
the  very  small,  solitary  odourless  flowers  are  very  rarely  visited 
by  insects  and  pollinate  themselves  by  the  incurving  of  the  three 
inner  stamens  on  to  the  styles. 

Polygonaceae  is  mainly  a  north  temperate  order.  A  few  genera 
are  tropical,  e.g.  Coccoloba,  which  has  125  species  restricted  to  tropical 
and  sub-tropical  America.  Polygonum  has  a  very  wide  distribution 
spreading  from  the  limits  of  vegetation  in  the  northern  hemisphere 
to  the  mountains  of  tropical  Africa  and  South  Africa,  through  the 
highlands  of  tropical  Asia  to  Australia,  and  in  America  as  far  south 
as  Chile.  Most  of  the  genera  have,  however,  a  limited  distribution. 
Of  the  three  which  are  native  in  the  British  Isles,  Polygonum  has 


POLYGONAL  NUMBERS— POLYHEDRON 


27 


12  species;  Rumex  (fig.  8)  (11  species)  includes  the  various  species  of 
dock  (g.D.)  and  sorrel  {R.  Acetosa) ;  and  Oxyria  digyna,  an  alpine 
plant  (mountain  sorrel),  takes  its  generic  name  (Gr.  d^is,  sharp) 
from  the  acidity  of  its  leaves.  Rheum  (Rhubarb,  q.v.)  is  central 
Asiatic. 

POLYGONAL  NUMBERS,  in  mathematics.  Suppose  we  have 
a  number  of  equal  circular  counters,  then  the  number  of  counters 
which  can  be  placed  on  a  regular  polygon  so  that  the  tangents  to 
the  outer  rows  form  the  regular  polygon  and  all  the  internal 
counters  are  in  contact  with  its  neighbours,  is  a  "  polygonal 
number  "  of  the  order  of  the  polygon.  If  the  polygon  be  a 
triangle  then  it  is  readily  seen  that  the  numbers  are  3,  6,  10,  15 
, .  .  and  generally  jw  (»  +  i);  if  a  square,  4,  9,  16,  .  .  .  and  gener- 
ally n^;  if  a  pentagon,  5,  12,  22.  .  .  and  generally  «(3«-i);  if  a 
hexagon,  6, 15,  28,  . . .  and  generally  »(2»—  i) ;  and  similarly  for  a 
polygon  of  r  sides,  the  general  expression  for  the  corresponding 
polygonal  number  is  in[{n—i)  (>'— 2)-|-2]. 

Algebraically,  polygonal  numbers  may  be  regarded  as  the  sums 
of  consecutive  terms  of  the  arithmetical  progressions  having  i  for 
the  first  term  and  i,  2,  3,  ...  for  the  common  differences.  Taking 
unit  common  difference  we  have  the  series  l;  1+2=3;  1+2+3 
!=  6;  1+2  +  3  +  4=10;  or  generally  1+2+3  •■•  +  »  = 
|w(m  +  i)  ;  these  are  triangular  numbers.  With  a  common  difference 
2  we  have,!;,  1+3=4;  1+3  +  5=9;  i+3+5+7  =  i6; 
or  generally  1+3+5+  ■••+  {2n  —  l)=n^;  and  generally  for. 
the  polygonal  number  of  the  rth  order  we  take  the  sums  of  consecu- 
tive terms  of  the  series 

I,  i-|^(r— 2),  1+2  {r—2):,  ...  .  i+n  —  i.r  —  2;. 
and  hence  the  nth  polygonal  number  of  the  rth  order  is  the  sum  of 
n  terms  of  this  series,  i.e., 

l  +  l  +  (r— 2)  +  i+2(?'— 2)+  .  .  .  +(l+»  — l.y  — 2) 
=n-\-in.n  —  i.r  —  2. 
The  series  l,  2,  3,  4,  .  .  .  or  generally  n,  are  the  so-called  "  linear 
numbers  "  (cf.  Figurate  Numbers). 

POLYHEDRAL  NUMBERS,  in  mathematics.  These  numbers 
are  related  to  the  polyhedra  (see  Polyhedron)  in  a  manner 
similar  to  the  relation  between  polygonal  numbers  (see  above) 
and  polygons.  Take  the  case  of  tetrahedral  numbers.  Let  AB, 
AC,  AD  be  three  covertical  edges  of 
a  regular  tetrahedron.  Divide  AB, 
.  .  .  into  parts  each  equal  to  A  i,  so 
that  tetrahedra  having  the  common 
vertex  A  are  obtained,  whose  linear 
dimensions  increase  arithmetically. 
Imagine  that  we  have  a  number  of 
spheres  (or  shot)  of  a  diameter  equal 
to  the  distance  Ai.  It  is  seen  that 
/).  shot  having  their  centres  at  the 
vertices  of  the  tetrahedron  Ai  wiU  form 
a  pyramid.  In  the  case  of  the  tetra- 
hedron of  edge  A2  we  require  3  along  each  side  of  the  base,  i.e. 
6,  3  along  the  base  of  Ai,  and  i  at  A,  making  10  in  all.  To  add 
a  third  la;yer,  we  will  require  4  along  each  base,  i.e.  g,  and  i  in 
the  centre.  Hence  in  the  tetrahedron  A3  we  have  20  shot. 
The  numbers  i,4j  10,  20  are  polyhedral  numbers,  and  from  their 
association  with  the  tetrahedron  are  termed  "  tetrahedral 
numbers."    , 

This  illustration  may  serve  for  a  definition  of  polyhedral 
numbers:  a  polyhedral  number  represents  the  number  of  equal 
spheres  which  can  be  placed  within  a  polyhedron  so  that  the 
spheres  touch  one  another  or  the  sides  of  the  polyhedron. 

In  the  case  of  the  tetrahedron  we  have  seen  the  numbers  to  be 
I,  4,  10,  20;  the  general  formula  for  the  «th  tetrahedral  number  is 
ln(n+i){n+2).  Cubic,  numbers  are  I,  8,  27,  64,  125,  .&c.; 
or  generally  «'.  Octahedral  numbers  are  I,  6,  19, 44,  &c. ,  or  generally 
ln{2n'-\-i).  .  Dodecahedral  numbers  are  i,  20,,  84,  220,  &c. ;  or 
generally  J»(9»^— 9M+2).  Icosahedral  numbers  are  I,  12,  48, 
124,  &c.,  or  generally  in(5n''— 511+2). 

POLYHEDRON  (Gr.  iroKvs,  many,  'iSpa,  a  base),  in  geometry, 
a  solid  figure  contained  by  plane  faces.  If  the  figure  be  entirely 
to  one  side  of  any  face  the  polyhedron  is  said  to  be  "  convex,  " 
and  it  is  obvious  that  the  faces  enwrap  the  centre  once;  if,  on  the 
other  hand,  the  figure  is  to  both  sides  of  every  face  it  is  said  to  be 
"  concave,  "  and  the  centre  is  multiply  enwrapped  by  the  faces. 
"  Regular  polyhedra  "  are  such  as  have  their  faces  all  equal 
regular  polygons,  and  all  their  soUd  angles  equal;  the  term  is 


usually  restricted  to  the  five  forms  in  which  the  centre  is  singly 
enclosed,  viz.  the  Platonic  solids,  while  the  four  polyhedra  in 
which  the  centre  is  multiply  enclosed  are  referred  to  as  the 
Kepler-Poinsot  solids,  Kepler  having  discovered  three,  while 
Poinsot  discovered  the  fourth.  Another  group  of  .polyhedra 
are  termed  the  "  Archimedean  sohds,"  named  after  Archimedes, 
who,  according  to  Pappus,  invented  them.  These  have  faces 
which  are  all  regular  polygons,  but  not  all  of  the  same  kind, 
while  all  their  solid  angles  are  equal.  These  figures  are  often 
termed  "  semi-regular  solids,"  but  it  is  more  convenient  to  restrict 
this  term  to  solids  having  all  their  angles,  edges  and  faces  equal, 
the  latter,  however,  not  being  regular  polygons. 

Platonic  Solids.  The  names  of  these  five  solids  are:  (i)  the 
tetrahedron,  enclosed  by  four  equilateral  triangles;  (2)  the  cubs 
or  hexahedron,  enclosed  by  6  squares;  (3)  the  octahedron, 
enclosed  by  8  equilateral  triangles;  (4)  the  dodecahedron,  en- 
closed by  12  pentagons;  (5)  the  icosahedron,  enclosed  by  20 
equilateral  triangles. 

The  first  three  were  certainly  known  to  the  Egyptians;  and 
it  is  probable  that  the  icosahedron  and  dodecahedron  were  added 
by  the  Greeks.  The  cube  may  have  originated  by  placing  three 
equal  squares  at  a  common  vertex,  so  as  to  form  a  trihedral  angle. 
Two  such  sets  can  be  placed  so  that  the  free  edges  are  brought 
into  coincidence  while  the  vertices  are  kept  distinct.  This 
solid  has  therefore  6  faces,  8  vertices  and  12  edges.  The  equi- 
lateral triangle  is  the  basis  of  the  tetrahedron,  octahedron  and 
icosahedron.^  If  three  equilateral  triangles  be  placed  at  a 
common  vertex  with  their  covertical  sides  coinddent  in  pairs, 
it  is  seen  that  the  base  is  an  equal  equilateral  triangle;  hence  four 
equal  equilateral  triangles  enclose  a  space.  This  soUd  has  4 
faces,  4  vertices  and  6  edges.  In  a  similar  manner,  four  covertical 
equilateral  triangles  stand  on  a  square  base.  Two  such  sets  placed 
base  to  base  form  the  octahedron,  which  consequently  has  8 
faces,  6  vertices  and  12  edges.  Five  equilateral  triangles  coverti- 
cally  placed  would  stand  on  a  pentagonal  base,  and  it  was  found 
that,  by  forming  several  sets  of  such  pyramids,  a  soKd  could  be 
obtained  which  had  20  triangidar  faces,  which  met  in  pairs  to 
form  30  edges,  and  in  fives  to  form  12  vertices.  This  is  th^ 
icosahedron.  That  the  triangle  could  give  rise  to  no  other  solid 
followed  from  the  fact  that  six  covertically  placed  triangles  formed 
a  plane.  The  pentagon  is  the  basis  of  the  dodecahedron.  Three 
pentagons  may  be  placed  at  a  common  vertex  to  form  a  solid 
angle,  and  by  forming  several  such  sets  and  placing  them  in 
juxtaposition  a  solid  is  obtained  having  12  pentagonal  faces, 
30  edges,  and  20  vertices. 

These  solids  played  an  important  part  in  the  geometry  of  the 
Pythagoreans,  and  in  their  cosmology  symbohzed  the  five  ele- 
ments: fire  (tetrahedron),  air  (octahedron),  water  (icosahedron), 
earth  (cube),  universe  or  ether  (dodecahedron).  They  were 
also  discussed  by  the  Platonists,  so  much  so  that  they  became 
known  as  the  "  Platonic  solids."  Euclid  discusses  them  in  the 
thirteenth  book  of  his  Elements,  where  he  proves  that  no  more 
regular  bodies  are  possible,  and  shows  how  to  inscribe  them  in  a 
sphere.  This, ,  latter  problem  received  the  attention  of  the 
Arabian  astronomer  Abul  Wefa  (roth  century  a.d.),  who  solved 
it  with  a  single  opening  of  the  compasses. 

Mensuration  of  the  Platonic  Solids. — The  mensuration  of  the  regular 
polyhedra  is  readily  investigated  by  the  methods  of  elementary 
geometry,  the  property  that  these  solids  may  be  inscribed  in  and 
circumscribed  to  concentric  spheres  being  especially  useful. 

If  F  be  the  number  of  faces,  n  the  number  of  edges  per  face,  m 
the  number  of  faces  per  vertex,  and  /  the  length  of  an  edge,  and  if 
we  denote  the  angle  between  two  adjacent  faces  by  I,  the  area  by  A, 
the  volume  by  V,  the  radius  of  the  circum-sphere  by  R,  and  of  the 
in-sphere  by  r,  the  following  general  formulae  hold,  a  being  written 
for  2ir/n,  and  p  for  2jr/m : — 

Sin  jl  =cos  ^/sin  a;  tan  JI  =cos  /3/(sin2  o— cos^  /3)i. 

A  =  ii2„Fcota. 
V  =  JrA  =  s^/'»  F  tan  JI  cot^  o 

=,jij/%  F  cot"  a  cos  (3/(sin2  a-cos^  /3)i. 
R  =  iZ  tan  il  tan  /3  =  i/  sin  ;3/(sin2  a-cos^  ,8)5. 
r  =  il  tan  JI  cot  a  =  il  cot  a  cos  /3/(sin'  g-cos^  0)h. ^ 

>■  In  the  language  of  Proclus,  the  commentator:  "  The  equilateral 
triangle  is  the  proximate  cause  of  the  three  elements,^ '  fire,'  '  air '  and 
'  water  ';  but  the  square  is  annexed  to  the  '  earth.'  " 


28 


POLYHEDRON 

The  following  Table  gives  the  values  of  A,  V,  R,  r  for  the  five  Polyhedra;- 


A. 
Area. 

Volume 
V. 

Radius  of  Circum-sphere. 
R. 

Radius  of  Ih-sphere. 
r. 

Tetrahedron 

P.V3 
(1-7321  P) 

/V6V2 
(0- 1 1 785/') 

/.  V6/4 

1.^6/12 

Cube 

6P 

P 

/.V3/2 

¥ 

Octahedron 

P. 2^3 
(3-4642/^) 

/».V2/3 
(0-47140/=) 

//V2 

//V6 

Dodecahedron 

Z\i5V(i+2V5) 
(20-64578  P) 

/^5V((47+2iV5)/4ol 
(7-6631 19  ^') 

/.|Vi(5+3V5)/2! 

/.V!(20-fiiV5)/4o! 

Icosahedron 

Z^5V3 
(8-6605  i') 

^'.Wl(7+3V5)/2l' 
(2-18169  P) 

/.4V!(5+V5)/2l 

Z.fV!(7+3V5)/6! 

Kepler-Poinsot  Polyhedra. — These  solids  have  all  their  faces 
equal  regular  polygons,  and  the  angles  at  the  vertices  all  equal. 
They  bear  a  relation  to  the  Platonic  solids  similar  to  the 
relation  of  "  star  polygons "  to  ordinary  regular  polygons, 
inasmuch  as  the  centre  is  multiply  enclosed  in  the  former 
and  singly  in  the  latter.  Four  such  solids  exist:  (i)  small 
stellated  dodecahedron;  (2)  great  dodecahedron;  (3)  great 
stellated  dodecahedron;  (4)  great  icosahedron.  Louis  Poinsot 
discussed  these  solids  in  his  memoir,  "  Sur  les  polygenes  et  les 
polyedres  "  (Journ.  Ecole  poly,  [iv.]  1810),  three  of  them  having 
been  previously  considered  by  Kepler.  They  were  afterwards 
treated  by  A.  L.  Cauchy  {Journ.  Ecole  poly,  [ix.]  1813),  who 
showed  that  they  were  derived  from  the  Platonic  solids,  and 
that  no  more  than  four  were  possible.  A.  Cayley  treated 
them  in  several  papers  {e.g.  Phil.  Mag.,  1859,  i7,  P-  123  seq.), 
considering  them  by  means  of  their  projections  on  the 
circumscribing  sphere  and  not,  as  Cauchy,  in  solido. 

The  small  stellated  dodecahedron  is  formed  by  stellating  the  Platonic 
dodecahedron  (by  "  stellating  "  is  meant  developing  the  faces  con- 
tiguous to  a  specified  base  so  as  to  form  a  regular  pyramid).  It  has 
12  pentagonal  faces,  and  30  edges,  which  intersect  in  fives  to  form  12 
vertices.  Each  vertex  is  singly  enclosed  by  the  five  faces;  the 
centre  of  each  face  is  doubly  enclosed  by  the  succession  of  faces  about 
the  face ;  and  the  centre  of  the  solid  is  doubly  enclosed  by  the  faces. 
The  great  dodecahedron  is  determined  by  the  intersections  of  the 
twelve  planes  which  intersect  the  Platonic  icosahedron  in  five  of  its 
edges;  or  each  face  has  the  same  boundaries  as  the  basal  sides 
of  five  covertical  faces  of  the  icosahedron.  It  is  the  reciprocal 
(see  below)  of  the  small  stellated  dodecahedron.  Each  vertex 
is  doubly  enclosed  by  the  succession  of  covertical  faces,  while  the 
centre  of  the  solid  is  triply  enclosed  by  the  faces.  The  great  stellated 
dodecahedron  is  formed  by  stellating  the  faces  of  a  great  dodecahe- 
dron. It  has  12  faces,  which  meet  in  30  edges;  these  intersect  in 
threes  to  form  20  vertices.  Each  vertex  is  singly  enclosed  by  the 
succession  of  faces  about  it ;  and  the  centre  of  the  solid  is  quadruply 
enclosed  by  the  faces.  The  great  icosahedron  is  the  reciprocal  of 
the  great  stellated  dodecahedron.  Each  of  the  twenty  triangular 
faces  subtend  at  the  centre  the  same  angle  as  is  subtended  by  four 
whole  and  six  half  faces  of  the  Platonic  icosahedron;  in  other  words, 
the  solid  is  determined  by  the  twenty  planes  which  can  be  drawn 
througla  the  vertices  of  the  three  faces  contiguous  to  any  face  of 
a  Platonic  icosahedron.  The  centre  of  the  solid  is  septuply  enclosed 
by  the  faces. 

A  connexion  between  the  number  of  faces,  vertices  and  edges  of 
regular  polyhedra  was  discovered  by  Euler,  and  the  result,  which 
assumes  the  form  E  +  2:=  F  +V,  where  E,  F,  V  are  the  number 
of  edges,  faces  and  vertices,  is  known  as  Euler's  theorem  on  poly- 
hedra. This  formula  only  holds  for  the  Platonic  solids.  Poinsot 
gave  the  formula  E  -f-  2^  =  eV  -f  F,  in  which  k  is  the  number  of 
times  the  projections  of  the  faces  from  the  centre  on  to  the  surface 
of  the  circumscribing  sphere  make  up  the  spherical  surface,  the  area 
of  a  stellated  face  bemg  reckoned  once,  and  e  is  the  ratio  "  angles  at  a 
vertex  /27r"  as  projected  on  the  sphere,  E,  V,  F  being  the  same  as 
before.  Cayley  gave  the  formula^  E  -f  2D  =  eV  -f  e'F,  where 
e,  E,  V,  F  are  the  same  as  before,  D  is  the  same  as  Poinsot's  k  with 
the  distinction  that  the  area  of  a  stellated  face  is  reckoned  as  the  sum 
of  the  triangles  having  their  vertices  at  the  centre  of  the  face  and 
standing  on  the  sides,  and  e'  is  the  ratio:  "  the  angles  subtended  at 
the  centre  of  a  face  by  its  sides  /27r." 

The  following  table  gives  these  constants  for  the  regular  poly- 
hedra ;  n  denotes  the  number  of  sides  to  a  face,  «i  the  number  of  faces 
to  a  vertex : — 


F 

V 

E 

n 

3 
4 
3 
5 
3 

3 
3 
4 
3 
5 

e 

I 
I 
I 
I 
I 

e' 

D 

k 

Tetrahedron  .      ; 
Cube  .      . 
Octahedron    . 
Dodecahedron 
Ic'osahedron 

4 

6 

8 

12 

20 

4 

8 

6 

20 

12 

6 
12 
12 
30 
30 

30 
30 
30 
30 

I 

I 
I 
I 

I 

I 

I 
I 
I 
I 

Small  stellated  dodecahedron    . 
Great  dodecahedron 
Great  stellated  dodecahedron   . 
Great  icosahedron 

12 
12 
12 
20 

12 
12 
20 
12 

5 
5 
5 
3 

5 
5 
3 
5 

I 
2 
I 
2 

2 
I 
2 
1 

3 
3 
7 
7 

2 
3 
4 
7 

Archimedean  Solids. — These  sohds  are  characterized  by 
having  all  their  angles  equal  and  all  their  faces  regular 
polygons,  which  are  not  all  of  the  same  species.  Thirteen 
such  solids  exist. 

1.  The  truncated  tetrahedron  is  formed  by  truncating  the  vertices 
of  a  regular  tetrahedron  so  as  to  leave  the  original  faces  hexagons. 
(By  the  truncation  of  a  vertex  or  edge  we  mean  the  cutting  away  of 
the  vertex  or  edge  by  a  plane  making  equal  angles  with  all  the  faces 
composing  the  vertex  or  with  the  two  faces  forming  the  edge.)  It 
is  bounded  by  4  triangular  and  4  hexagonal  faces ;  there  are  18  edges, 
and  12  vertices,  at  each  of  which  two  hexagons  and  one  triangle  are 
covertical. 

2.  The  cuboctahedron  is  a  tesserescae-decahedron  (Gr.  Teatrapes-Kax- 
5a<a,  fourteen)  formed  by  truncating  the  vertices  of  a  cube  so  as  to 
leave  the  original  faces  squares.  It  is  enclosed  by  6  square  and 
8  triangular  faces,  the  latter  belonging  to  a  coaxial  octahedron.  It 
is  a  common  crystal  form. 

3.  The  truncated  cube  is  formed  in  the  same  manner  as  the 
cuboctahedron,  but  the  truncation  is  only  carried  far  enough  to 
leave  the  original  faces  octagons.  It  has  6  octagonal  faces 
(belonging  to  the  original  cube),  and  8  triangular  ones  (belonging  to 
the  coaxial  octahedron). 

4.  The  truncated  octahedron  is  formed  by  truncating  the  vertices 
of  an  octahedron  so  as  to  leave  the  original  faces  hexagons ;  ,  con- 
sequently it  is  bounded  by  8  hexagonal  and  6  square  faces. 

5.  6.  Rhombicuboctahedra. — Two  Archimedean  solids  of  26 
faces  are  derived  from  the  coaxial  cube,  octahedron  and  semi- 
regular  (rhombic)  dodecahedron  (see  below).  The  "  small  rhombi- 
cuboctahedron  "  is  bounded  by  12  pentagonal,  8  triangular  and 
6  square  faces;  the  "  great  rhombicuboctahedra  "  by  12  decagonal, 
8  triangular  and  6  square  faces. 

7.  The  icosidodecahedron  or  dyocaetriacontahedron  (Gr.  Svo-koI- 
TpikKovTo,  thirty-two),  is  a  32-faced  solid,  formed  by  truncating  the 
vertices  of  an  icosahedron  so  that  the  original  faces  become  triangles. 
It  is  enclosed  by  20  triangular  faces  belonging  to  the  original  icosa- 
hedron, and  12  pentagonal  faces  belonging  to  the  coELxial  dodecahe- 
dron. 

8.  The  truncated  icosahedron  is  formed  similarly  to  the  icosidode- 
cahedron, but  the  truncation  is  only  carried  far  enough  to  leave  the 
original  faces  hexagons.  It  is  therefore  enclosed  by  20  hexagonal 
faces  belonging  to  the  icosahedron,  and  12  pentagonal  faces  belonging 
to  the  coaxial  dodecahedron. 

9.  The  truncated  dodecahedron  is  formed  by  truncating  the  vertices 
of  a  dodecahedron  parallel  to  the  faces  of  the  coaxial  icosahedron 
so  as  to  leave  the  former  decagons.  It  is  enclosed  by  20  triangular 
faces  belonging  to  the  icosahedron  and  12  decagons  belonging  to  the 
dodecahedron. 

10.  The  smi,b  cube  is  a  38-faced  solid  having  at  each  corner  4  tri- 
angles and  I  square;  6  faces  belong  to  a  cube,  8  to  the  coaxial 
octahedron,  and  the  remaining  24  to  no  regular  solid. 

11.  12.  The  rhombicosidodecahedra. — Two  62-faced  solids  are 
derived  from  the  dodecahedron,  icosahedron  and  the  semi-regular 


POLYMETHYLENES 


29 


triacontahedron.  In  the  "  small  rhombicosidodecahedron  "  there 
are  12  pentagonal  faces  belonging  to  the  dodecahedron,  20  triangular 
faces  belonging  to  the  icosahedron  ai^d  30  square  faces  belonging 
to  the  triacontahedron.  In  the  "  great  rhombicosidodecahedron  ' 
the  dodecahedral  faces  are  decagons,  the  icosahedral  hexagons 
and  the  triacontahedral  squares;  this  solid  is  sometimes  called  the 
"  truncated  icosidodecahedron." 

13.  The  snub  dodecahedron  is  a  Q2rfaced  solid  having  4  triangles 
and  a  pentagon  at  each  corner.  The  pentagons  belong  to  a  dodeca- 
hedron, and  20  triangles  to  an  icosahedron;  the  remaining  60  triangles 
belong  to  no  regular  solid. 

Semi-regular  Polyhedra.^-A\th.o\xgh.  this  term  is  frequently 
given  to  the  Archimedean  solids,  yet  it  is  a  convenient  de- 
notation for  solids  which  have  all  their  angles,  faces,  and  edges 
equal,  the  faces  not  being  regular  polygons.  Two  such  solids 
exist:  (1)  the  "  rhombic  dodecahedron, "  formed  by  trun- 
cating the  edges  of  a  cube,  is  bounded  by  12  equal  rhombs;  it 
is  a  comnion  crystal  form  (see  Crystallography);  and  (2)  the 
"  semi-regular  triacontahedron,"  which  is  enclosed  by  30  equal 
rhombs. 

_  The  interrelations  of  the  polyhedra  enumerated  above  are  con- 
siderably elucidated  by  the  introduction  of  the  following  terms: 
(i)  Correspondence.  Two  polyhedra  correspond  when  the  radii 
vectores  from  their  centres  to  the  mid-point  of  the  edges,  centre  of 
the  faces,  and  to  the  vertices,  can  be  brought  into  coincidence.  (2) 
Reciprocal.  Two  polyhedra  are  reciprocal  when  the  faces  and  ver- 
tices of  one  correspond  to  the  vertices  and  faces  of  the  other.  (3) 
Summital  or  facial.  A  polyhedron  (A)  is  said  to  be  the  summital 
or  facial  holohedron  of  another  (B)  when  the  faces  or  vertices  of  A 
correspond  to  the  edges  of  B,  and  the  vertices  or  faces  of  A  corre- 
spond to  the  vertices  and  faces  together  of  B.  (4)  Hemihedral. 
A  polyhedron  is  said  to  be  the  hemihedral  form  of  another  poly- 
hedron when  its  faces  correspond  to  the  alternate  faces  of  the  latter 
or  holohedral  form;  consequently  a  hemihedral  form  has  half  the 
number  of  faces  of  the  holohedral  form.  Hemihedral  forms  are  of 
special  importance  in  crystallography,  to  which  article  the  reader 
is  referred  for  a  fuller  explanation  of  these  and  other  modifications 
of  polyhedra  (tetartohedral,  enantiotropic,  &c.). 

It  is  readily  seen  that  the  tetrahedron  is  its  own  reciprocal,  i.e. 
it  is  self-reciprocal ;  the  cube  and  octahedron,  the  dodecahedron  and 
icosahedron,  the  small  stellated  dodecahedron  and  great  dodeca- 
hedron, and  the  great  stellated  dodecahedron  and  great  icosahedron 
are  examples  of  reciprocals.  We  may  also  note  that  of  the  Archime- 
dean solids:  the  truncated  tetrahedron,  truncated  cube,  and  trun- 
cated dodecahedron,  are  the  reciprocals  of  the  crystal  forms  triakis- 
tetrahedron,  triakisoctahedron  and  triakisicosahedron.  Since  the 
tetrahedron  is  the  hemihedral  form  of  the  octahedron,  and  the  octa- 
hedron and  cube  are  reciprocal,  we  may  term  these  two  latter  solids 
"  reciprocal  holohedra  "  of  the  tetrahedron.  Other  examples  of 
reciprocal  holohedra  are:  the  rhombic  dpdecahedron  and  cubbcta- 
hedron,  with  regard  to  the  cube  and  octahedron;  and  the  semi- 
regular  triacontahedron  and  icosidodecahedron,  with  regard  to  the 
dodecahedron  and  icosahedron.  As  examples  of  facial  holohedra 
we  may  notice  the  small  rhombicuboctahedroii  aiid  rhombic  dode- 
cahedron, and  the  small  rhombicosidodecahedron  and  the  serai- 
regular  triacontahedron.  The  correspondence  of  the  faces  of  poly- 
hedra is  also  of  importance,  as  may  be  seen  from  the  manner  in  which 
one  polyhedron  may  be  derived  from  another.  Thus  the  faces^ 
of  the  cuboctahedron,  the  truncated  cube,  and  truncated  octahe- 
dron, correspond ;  likewise  with  the  truncated  dodecahedron,  trun- 
cated icosahedrori,  and  icosidodecahedron;  and  with  the  smalland 
great  rhombicosidodecahedra. 

The  general  theory  of  polyhedra  properly  belongs  to  combinatorial 
analysis.  The  determination  of  the  number  of  different  polyhedra 
of  n  faces,  i.e.  M-hedrons,  is  reducible  to  the  problem:  In  how  many 
ways  can  multiplets,  i.e.  triplets,  quadruplets,  &c.,  be  made  with  n 
symbols,  so  that  (i)  every  contiguous  pair  of  symbols  in  one  multiplet 
are  a  contiguous  pair  in  some  other,  the  first  and  last  of  any  mul- 
tiplet being  considered  contiguous,  and  (2)  no  three  symbols  in  any 
multiplet  shall  occur  in  any  other.  This  problem  is  treated  by 
the  Rev  T.  P.  Kirkman  in  the  Manchester  Memoirs  .{185$,  1857- 
1860) ;  and  in  the  Phil.  Trans.  (1857). 

See  Max  Briickner,  Viekcke  und  Vielflache  (1900);  V.  Eberhard, 
Zur  Morphologic  der  Polyeder  (1891). 

POLYMETHYLENES,  in  chemistry,  cyclic  compounds,  the 
simplest  members  of  which  are  saturated  hydrocarbons  of 
general  formula  C^zn,  where  w  niay  be  i  to  9,  and  known  as 
tri-,  tetra-,  penta-,  hexa-,  and  hepta-methylene,  &c.,  or  cyclo- 
propane, -butane,  -pentane,  -hexane,  -heptane,  &c. : — 

,CH2,    CHsrCHz  /CH2-CH2  /CH2-CH2. 

CH/.I  II      CH<    I        I      CH<    ^  >CH2,&c. 

^CH2,     CftC-k  \CH2-CH2,         \cHrCH/ 

Cyc/o-propane,  -butane,  -pentane,       ,         -hexane, 

The  unsaturated  members  of  the  series  are  named  on  the 


Geneva  system  in  which  the  termination  -ane  is  replaced  hy-ene, 
-diene,  -triene,  according  to  the  number  of  double  linkages  in 
the  compound,  the  ■  position  of  such  double  linkages  being 
shown  by  a  numeral  immediately  following  the  suffix  -ene; 
for  example  I.  is  methyl-cycto-hexadiene — i.  3.  An  alterna- 
tive method  employs  A.  v.  Baeyer's  symbol  A.  Thus 
A  2-4  indicates  the  presence  of  two  double  bonds  in 
the  molecule  situated  immediately  after  the  carbon  atoms 
2  and   4;   for    example   11.    is    A    2-4   dihydrophthalic    acid. 

(2)     (3)  (2)  (3) 

//CH'CH.^^  /C(C02H):CH. 

(i)CH3-C<  ^Ctt(4),(i)H02C-CH/  Vh(4). 


'\ 


CHj-CHj/ 

(6)     (5) 
I. 


\CH2 CH^ 

(6)  (5) 

,11. 

As  to  the  stability  of  these  compounds,  most  trimethylene 
derivatives  are  comparatively  unstable,  the  ring  being  broken 
fairly  readily;  the  tetramethylene  derivatives  are  rather  more 
stable  and  the  penta-  and  hexa-methylene  compounds  are  very 
stable,  showing  little  tendency  to  form  open  chain  compounds 
under  ordinary  conditions  (see  Chemistry:  Organic). 

Isomerism. — 'No  isomerism  can  occur  in  the  monosubstitution 
derivatives  but  ordinary  position  isomerism  exists  in  the  di- 
and  poly-substitution  compounds.  Stereo-isomerism  may 
occur:  the  simplest  examples  are  the  dibasic  acids,  V/here  a  cis- 
(maleinoid)  form  and  a  trans-  (fumaroid)  forrn  have  been  ob- 
served. These  isomers,  may  frequently  be  distinguished  by 
the  facts  that  the  cw-acids  yield  anhydrides  niore  readily  than 
the  irans-a^dds,  and  are  generally  converted  into  the  trans-adds 
on  heating  with  hydrochloric  acid.  O.  Aschan  (Ber.,  1902,  35, 
p.  3389)  depicts  these  cases  by  representing  the  plane  of  the 
carbon  aitoms  of  the  ring  as  a  straight  line  and  denoting  the 
substituted  hydrogen  atoms  by  the  letters  X,  Y,  Z.  Thus  for 
dicarboxyhc  acids  (C02H  =  X)  the  possibihties  are  represented  by 

(cis), j^  (trans),. jj^ (I). 

The  trans  compovind  is  perfectly  asymmetric  and  so  its  mirror 
image  (I)  should  exist,  and,  as  all  the  trans  compounds  syn- 
thetically prepared  are  optically  inactive,  they  are  presuinably 
racemic  compounds  (see  O.  Aschan,  Ckemie  der  alicykUschen 
Verbindungen,  p.  346  seq.). 

General  Methods  of  Formation. — Hydrocarbons  may  be  ob- 
tained from  the  dihalogen  paraffins  by  the  action  of  sodium  or 
zinc  dust,  provided  that  the  halogen  atoms  are  not  attached 
to  the  same  or  to  adjacent  carbon  atoms  (A.  Freund,  Monats., 
1882,  3,  p.  625;  W.  H.  Perkin,  jun.,  Journ.  Chem.  Soc,  188S,  53, 
p.  213):— 

CH2-CH2-Br  ,    ^j.  _,T<r5iRi-4-?^2-CH2. 
CH2-CH2-Br,+?^^-2^^^'^+CH2-CH2' 

by  the  action  of  hydriodic  acid  and  phosphorus  or  of  phos- 
phonium  iodide  on  benzene  hydrocarbons  (F.  Wreden,  Ann., 
1877,  187,  p.  153;  A.  V.  Baeyer,  ibid.,  1870,  155,  p.  266),  ben- 
zene giving  methylpentamethylene;'  by  passing  the  vapour  of 
benzene  hydrocarbons  over  finely  divided  nickel  at  180-250°  C. 
(P.  Sabatier  and  J.  B.  Senderens,  Comptes  rendus,  1901,  132,  p. 
210  seq.);  and  from  hydrazines  of  the  type  C„H2„_i-NH-NH2 
by  oxidation  with  alkaline  potassium  ferricyanide  (N.  Kjjner, 
Journ.  prak.  Chem.,  1901,  64,  p.  113).  Unsaturated  hydro- 
carbons of  the  series  may  be  prepared  ■  from  the  corre- 
sponding alcohols  by  the  elimination  of  a  molecule  of  water, 
using  either  the  xanthogenic  ester  method  of  L.  Tschugaeff 
(Ber.  1899,  32,  p.  3332):  C„H2„_iONa^C„H2„_iO-CS-SNa(R) 
— >C„H2n_2+COS-l-R-SH;  or  simply  by  dehydrating  with 
anhydrous  oxalic  acid  (N.  Zehnsky,  Ber.,  1901,  34,  p.  3249); 
and  by  eliminating  the  halogen  acid  from  mono-  or  di-halogen 
polymethylene  compounds  by  heating  them  with  quinoUne. 

Alcohols  are  obtained  from  the  corresponding  halogen  com- 
pounds by  the  action  of  moist  silver  oxide,  or  by  warming  them 
with  silver  acetate  and  acetic  acid;  by  the  reduction  of  ketones 
with  metallic  sodium;  by  passing  the  vapours  of  monohydric 
phenols  and  hydrogen  over  finely  divided  nickel  (P.  Sabatier  and 
J.  B.  Senderens,  loc.  cil.);  by  the  reduction  of  cyclic  esters  with 


30 


POLYMETHYLENES 


sodium  and  alcohol  (L.  Bouveault  and  G.  Blanc,  Compies  rendus, 
1903,  136,  p.  1676;  137,  p.  60);  and  by  the  addition  of  the 
elements  of  water  to  the  unsaturated  cycKc  hydrocarbons  on 
boiling  with  dUute  acids. 

Aldehydes  and  Ketones. — The  aldehydes  are  prepared  in  the 
usual  manner  from  primary  alcohols  and  acids.    The  ketones 
are  obtained  by  the  dry  distillation  of  the  calcium  salts  of  di- 
basic saturated  aliphatic  acids  (J.  Wislicenus,  Ann.,  1893,  275, 
p.  309):   [CH2-.CH2-C02]2Ca-^[CH2-CH2]2CO;  by  the  action  of 
sodium  on  the  esters  of  acids  of  the  adipic  and  pimehc  acid 
series  (W.  Dieckmann,  Ber.,  1894,  27,  pp.  103,  2475): — 
CHz-CHi-CH^-COjR     CHj-CHj-CH^. 
CHz-CHa-COzR         ~*CH2-CH2C-0  " 
by  the  action  of  sodium  ethylate  on  5-ketonic  acids  (D.  Vor- 
lander,  Ber.,  1895,  28,  p.  2348): — 


< 


■CH2-CH2. 


>C0; 


/CH2'CH2\ 
CH2<  \C02H->  CH2-.  ,, 

\C0-CH3  \C0.CH2  / 

from  sodio-malonic  ester  and  a(3-unsaturated  ketones  or  ketonic 
esters: — 

/CH2 CO. 

(R02C)2CH2+Ph-CH:CH-CO-CH3-»PhCH<  >CH2; 

\CH(C02R)-C0/ 

from  aceto-acetic  ester  and  esters  of  a|3-unsaturated  acids, 
followed  by  elimination  of  the  carboxyl  group: — 

CH3-CO-CH2-C02R+R'2C:CH-C02R-*CO<'      '        '\CHCO2R; 

\CH2-C0  / 

by  the  Condensation  of  two  molecules  of  aceto-acetic  ester  with 
aldehydes  followed  by  saponification  (IE.  Knoevenagel,  Ann., 
1894,  281,  p.  2S;i896,  288,  p.  32i;£ej-.,  1904,  37,  p.  4461):— 

/CHj-CHR'. 
2CH3-CO-CH2-C02R-|-OHC-R'->CH3-C<  >CH2; 

Vh — CO  / 

from  I  •  5-diketones  which  contain  a  methyl  group  next  the 
keto-group  (W.  Kerp,  Ann.,  1896,  290,  p.  123): — 

/CH2-C(CH3)v\ 
3CH3-CO-CHy-*(CH3)2C<  >CH; 

\CH2 CO/ 

by  the  condensation  of  succinic  acid  with  sodium  ethylate,  fol- 
lowed by  saponification  and  elimination  of  carbon  dioxide: — 

n  Tj  rnr^  u^       CH^-CH^-CO 
2QH4(C02H)2->^Q_^jj^^j^^; 

and  from  the  condensation  of  ethyl  oxalate  with  esters  of  other 
dibasic  acids  in  presence  of  sodium  ethylate  (W.  Dieckmann, 
Ber.,  1897,  30,  p.  1470;  1899,  32,  p.  1933):— 

CO2R  .CO2R      C0-CH2. 

.  I         -I-CH2/  -^   I  >CH2. 

CO2R  \c02R    to-cn/ 

Acids  may  be  prepared  by  the  action  of  dihalogen  paraflins  on 
sodio-malonic  ester,  or  sodio-aceto-acetic  ester  (W.  H.  Perkin, 
jun.,  Journ.  Chem.  Soc.,  1888,  53,  p.  194): — 

C2H4Br2-|-2NaCH(C02R)2-^(CH2)2C(C02R)2-fCH2(C02R)2; 
ethyl  butane  tetracarboxylate  is  also  formed  which  may  be 
converted  into  a  tetramethylene  carboxylic  ester  by  the  action 
of  bromine  on  its  disodium  derivative  (W.  H.  Perkin  and 
Sinclair,  ibid.,  1829,  61,  p.  36).  The  esters  9f  the  acids  may 
also  be  obtained  by  condensing  sodio-malonic  ester  with 
a-halogen  derivatives  of  unsaturated  acids: — 

/CH-COjR 
CHs-CH :  CBr-C02R-|-NaCH(C02R)2-»CH3-CH<  .  |  ; 

\C(C0jR)2 
by  the  action  of  diazomethane  or  diazoacetic  ester  on  the  esters 
of  unsaturated  acids,  the  pyrazoline  carboxylic  esters  so  formed 
losing  nitrogen  when  heated  and,  yielding  acids  of  the  cyclo- 
propane series  (E.  Buchner,  Ber.,  1890,  23,  p.  703;^»».,  1895, 
284,  p.  212;  H.  V.  Pechmann,  Ber.,  1894,  27,  p.  1891) : — 

CH-COjR      N:N-CH-C02R  /CHCO2R 

CH2N2-I-    P.  -^11  -^H2C<  ; 

CH-COaR  H2C— CH-COaR  \CHCO2R 

and  by  the  Grignard  reaction,  (S.  Malmgren,  Ber.,  1903,  36,  pp. 
668,  2622;  N.Zelinsky,  ibid.,  1902,  35,  p.  2687). 


CycXo-propane  Group. 

Trimethylene,  C3H6,  obtained  by  A.  Freund  (Monats.,  1882,  3, 
p.  625)  by  heating  trimethylene  bromide  with  sodium,  is  a  gas,  which 
may  be  liquefied,  the  liquid  boiling  at  -35°  C.  (749  mm.).  It  dis- 
solves gradually  in  concentrated  sulphuric  acid,  forming  propyl 
sulphate.  Hydriodic  acid  converts  it  into  ^-propyl  iodide.  It  is 
decomposed  by  chlorine  in  the  presence  of  sunlight,  with  explosive 
violence.    It  is  stable  to  cold  potassium  permanganate. 

Cyclo-^ro^owe  carboxylic  acidi  CsHs-COaH,  is  prepared  by  heating 
the  i.i-dicarboxylic  acid;  and  by  the  hydrolysis  of  its  nitrile,  formed 
by  heating  7-chlorbutyro-nitrile  with  potash  (L.  Henry  and  P.  Dalle, 
Chem.  Centralblatt,  1901,  I,  p.  1357;  1902,  I'  P-  9I3)-  -It  is  a  colour- 
less oil,  moderately  soluble  in  water. 

The  I.I  dicarhoxylic  acid  is  prepared  from  ethylene  dibromide  and 
sodio-malonic  ester.  The  ring  is  split  by  sulphuric  or  hydrobromic 
acids.  The  cis  i.2-cyc\o-propane  dicarhoxylic  acid  is  formed  by  elimi- 
nating carbon  dioxide  from  cyc/o-propane  tricarboxylic  acid  -1.2,3 
(from  o/3-dibrompropionic  ester  and  sodio-malonic  ester).  The 
trans-acid  is  produced  on  heating  pyrazolin-4.5-dicarboxylic  ester, 
or  by  the  action  of  alcoholic  potash  on  a-broraglutaric  ester.  It 
does  not  yield  an  anhydride. 

Cyclo-Jafaree  Group. 
Cyclo-butane,  C4H8,  was  obtained  by  R.  Willstatter  (Ber.,  1907, 
40,  p.  3979)  by  the  reduction  of  cyclobutene  by  the  Sabatier  and 
Senderens  method.  It  is  a  colourless  liquid  which  boils  at  1 1-12°  C, 
and  its  vapour  burns  with  a  luminous  flame.  Reduction  at  180- 
200°  C.  by  the  above  method  gives  »-butane. 

Cydo-butene,  C4H6,  formed  by  distilling  trimethyl-cyc/o-butyK 
ammonium  hydroxide,  boils  at  1.5-2.0°  C.  (see  N.  Zelinsky,  ibid., 
p.  4744;  G.  Schweter,  ibid.,  p.  1604). 

When  sodio-malonic  ester  is  condensed  with  trimethylene  bromide 
the  chief  product  is  ethyl  pentane  tetracarboxylate,  tetramethylene 
1.1-dicarboxylic  ester  being  also  formed,  and  from  this  the  free 
acid  may  be  obtained  on  hydrolysis.  It  melts  at  154-156°  C, 
losing  carbon  dioxide  and  passing  into  cyrfo-butane  carboxylic  acid, 
C4H7CO2H.  This  basic  acid  yields  a  monobrom  derivative  which, 
by  the  action  of  aqueous  potash,  gives  the  corresponding  hydroxy- 
cycZo-butane  carboxylic  acid,  C4H6(OH)-C02H.  Attempts  to  elimi- 
nate water  from  this  acid  and  so  produce  an  unsaturated  acid  were 
unsuccessful;  on  warming  with  sulphuric  acid,-  carbon  monoxide 
is  eliminated  and  cycZo-butanone  (keto-tetramethylene)  is  probably 
formed. 

The  truxillic  acids,  C18H16O4,  which  result  by  the  hydrolytic  split- 
ting of  truxilline,  C38H46N2OS,  are  phenyl  derivatives  of  cyc/o-butane. 
Their  constitution  was  determined  by  C.  Liebermann  {Ber.,  1888, 
21;  p.  2342;  1889,  22,  p.  124  seq.).  They  are  polymers  of  cinnamic 
acid,  into  which  they  readily  pass  on  distillation.  The  a-acid 
on  oxidation  yields  benzoic  acid,  whilst  the  /3-acid  yields  benzil 
in  addition.  The  a-acid  is  diphenyl-2.4-cycto-butane  dicarhoxylic 
acid  -1.3;  and  the  /3-acid  diphenyl-3.4-cyclo-butane  dicarhoxylic 
acid  -1.2.  By  alkalis  they  are  transformed  into  stereo-isomers, 
the  a-acid  giving  7-truxillic  acid,  and  the  |8-acid  5-truxillic  acid. 
The  a-acid  was  synthesized  by  C.  N.  Riiber  {Ber.,  1902,  35,  p.  241 1; 
1904,  37>  P-  2274),  by  oxidizing  diphenyl-2.4-cyc/o-butane-bismethy- 
lene  malonic  acid  (iron  cinnamic  aldehyde  and  malonic  acid  in  the 
presence  of  quinoline)  with  potassium  permanganate. 

Cyclo-pentane  Group. 
Derivatives  may  be  prepared  in  many  cases  by  the  breaking  down 
of  the  benzene  ring  when  it  contains  an  accumulation  of  negative 
atoms  (T.  Zincke,  Ber.,  1886-1894;  A.  Hantzsch,  Ber.,  1887,  20,  p. 
2780;  1889,  22,  p.  1238),  this  type  of  reaction  being  generally  brought 
about  by  the  action  of  chlorine  on  phenols  in  the  presence  of  alkalis 
(see  Chemistry  :  Organic).  A  somewhat  related  example  is  seen  in 
the  case  of  croconic  acid,  which  is  formed  by  the  action  of  alkaline 
oxidizing  agents  on  hexa-oxybenzene : — 

HO-C-C(OH):C(OH)    HO-C-CG-CG    HG-C-Ca 
.'!  I       -^         II.         |->         II        >C0 

HO-C-C(OH)  :  C(OH)  HO-C-CG-CO  HO-C-CO^ 
Hexa-oxybenzene.  Rhodizonic  acid.  Croconic  acid. 
_  Cyclo-^CMfaree,  CsHio,  is  obtained  from  cyc/o-pentanone  by  reducing 
it  to  the  corresponding  secondary  alcohol,  converting  this  into  the 
lodo-compound,  which  is  finally  reduced  to  the  hydrocarbon  (J 
Wishcenus,  Ann.,  1893,  275,  p.  327).  It  is  a  colouriess  liquid  which 
boils  at  50-51  C.  Melhyl-cycXo-pentane,  CsHsCHs,  first  obtained 
by  F.  Wreden  {Ann.,  1877,  187,  p.  163)  by  the  action  of  hydriodic 
acid  and  red  phosphorus  on  benzene,  and  considered  to  be  hexahydro- 
benzene,  is  obtained  synthetically  by  the  action  of  sodium  on  1-5 
dibromhexane;  and  by  the  action  of  magnesium  on  acetylbutyl 
iodide  (N.  Zelinsky,_  Ber.,  1902,  35,  p.  2684).  It  is  a  liquid  boiling 
■l^  ^  ,''"'^  ^'^'^  (®J?-  Sr-  1-42)  oxidizes  it  to  succinic  and  acetic 
acids.  Cyclo-pewiene,  CsHa,  a  liquid  obtained  by  the  action  of 
alcoholic  potash  on  lodo-cyc/o-pentane,  boils  at  45°  C.  C^'clo- 
pentadtene,  C^U^,  is  found  in  the  first  runnings  from  crude  benzene 
distillations.  It  is  a  liquid  which  boils  at  41°  C.  It  rapidly  oolv- 
menzes  to  di-cyc/o-pentadiehe.  The  -CHa-  group  is  ^'ery  reactive 
and  behaves  in  a  similar  manner  to  the  grouping  -CG-CHa-CO-  in 
open  chain  compounds,  e.g.  with  aldeiiydes  and  ketones  it  gives  the 


POLYMETHYLENES 


31 


fidvenes,  substances  characterized  by  their  intense  orange-red  colour 

HC:CH 
(J.  Thiele,  Ber.,  1900,  33,  p.  669).   Phenylfuhen,         I       >C  :CHPh, 

HC.CW 
obtained  from  benzaldehyde  and  cyc/o-pentadiene,  forms  dark  red 
plates.  _  Diphenylfulven,  from  benzophenone  and  cyc/o-pentadiene, 
crystallizes  in  deep  red  prisms.  Dimethylfulven  is  an  orange- 
coloured  oil  which  oxidizes  rapidly  on  exposure.  Concentrated 
sulphuric  acid  converts  it  into  a  deep  red  tar. 

Cyclq-pentanone,  CsHsO,  first  prepared  pure  by  the  distillation  of 
calcium  adipate  (J.  Wislicenus,  Ann.,  1893,  275,  p.  312),  is  also  ob- 
tained by  the  action  of  sodium  on  the  esters  of  pimelic  acid;  by  the 
distillation  of  calcium  succinate;  and  by  hydrolysis  of  the  cyclo- 
pentanone  carboxylic  acid,  obtained  by  condensing  adipic  and 
oxalic  esters  in  the  presence  of  sodium  ethylate.  Reduction  gives 
cyc/o-pentanol,  C6H9OH. 

Croconic  acid  (dioxy-cyc/o-pentene-trione),  CeHjOe,  is  formed  when 
triquinoyl  is  boiled  with  water,  or  by  the  oxidation  of  hexa-oxyben- 
zene  or  dioxydiquinoyl  in  alkaline  solution  (T.  Zincke,  Ber.,  1887, 
20,  p.  1267).  It  has  the  character  of  a  quinone.  On  oxidation  it 
yields  cycio-pentane-pentanone  (leuconic  add). 

Derivatives  of  the  cycio-pentane  group  are  met  with  in  the  break- 
ing-down products  of  the  terpenes  (q.v.). 

Campholactone,  C9H14O2,  is  the  lactone  of  trimethyl-2-2-3-c3'c/o- 
pentanol-5-carboxylic  acid-3.  For  an  isomer,  isocampholactone 
(the  lactone  of  trimethyl-2-2-3-cyc/o-pentanol-3-carboxylic  acid-i) 
see  W.  H.  Perkin,  jun.,  Proc.  Chem.  Soc,  1903,  19,  p.  61.  Lauronolic 
acid,  C9H14O2,  is  trimethyl-2-2-3-C3ic/o-pentene-4-acid-l.  Isolauro- 
nolic  acid,  C9H14O2,  is  trimethyl-2-2-3-cycZo-pentene-3-acid-4. 

Campholic  acid,  QoHisOz,  is  tetramethyl-l'2-2-3-cyc/o-pentane 
acid-3.  Camphononic  acid,  C9H14O3,  is  trimethyl-2-2-3-cyc/o-penta- 
none- 1 -carboxylic  acid-3.  Camphorphorone,  C9H14O,  is  methyl-2- 
isobuty-lene-5-cydo-pentanone-l.  Isothujone,  CioHieO,  is  dim- 
ethyl-l-2-isopropyl-3-cj'do-pentene-l-one-5.  (F.  W.  Semmler,  Ber., 
1900,  33.  P-  275-) 

L.  Bouveault  and  G.  Blanc  {Comptes  rendus,  1903,  136,  p.  1460), 
prepared  hydrocarbons  of  the  cyc/o-pentane  series  from  cyclo- 
hexane  compounds  by  the  exhaustive  methylation  process  of  A.  W. 
Hofmann  (see  Pyridine).  For  phenyl  derivatives  of  the  cyclo- 
pentane  group  see  F.  R.  Japp,  Jour.  Chem.  Soc,  1897,  71,  pp.  139, 
144;  H.  Stobbe,  Ann.,  1901,  314,  p.  Iii;  315,  p.  219  seq. ;  1903, 
326,  p.  347, 

Cydo-hexane  Group. 

Hydrocarbons. — Cyclo-hexane,  or  hexahydro  benzene,  C6H12,  is 
obtained  by  the  action  of  sodium  on  a  boiling  alcoholic  solution  of 
l-6-dibromhexane,  and  by  passing  the  vapour  of  benzene,  mixed 
with  hydrogen,  over  finely  divided  nickel.  It  is  a  liquid  with  an  odour 
like  that  of  benzene.  It  boils  at  80-81°  C.  Nitric  acid  oxidizes  it  to 
adipic  acid.  When  heated  with  bromine  in  a  sealed  tube  for  some 
days  at  150-200°  C,  it  yields  i-2-4-5-tetrabrombenzene  (N.  Zelinsky, 
Ber.,  1901,  34,  p.  2803).  It  is  stable  towards  halogens  at  ordinary 
temperature.  Benzene  hexachloride,  CeHeCle,  is  formed  by  the 
action  of  chlorine  on  benzene  in  sunlight.  By  recrystallization 
from  hot  benzene,  the  a  form  is  obtained  in  large  prisms  which  melt 
at  157°  C,  and  at  their  boiling-point  decompose  into  hydrochloric 
acid  and  trichlorbenzene.  The  /S  form  results  by  chlorinating 
boiling  benzene  in  sunlight,  and  may  be  separated  from  the  a  variety 
by  distillation  in  a  current  of  steam.  It  sublimes  at  about  310°  C. 
Similar  varieties  of  benzene  hexabromide  are  known. 

Hexahydrocymene  (methyl- i-isopropyl-4-c3'do-hexane),  C10H20,  is 
important  since  it  is  the  parent  substance  of  many  terpenes  (q.v.). 
It  is  obtained  by  the  reduction  of  1-4  dibrommenthane  with  sodium 
(J.  de  Montgolfier,  Ann.  chim.  phys.,  1880  [5],  19,  p.  158),  or  of 
cymene,  limonene,  &c.,  by  Sabatier  and  Senderens's  method. 
It  is  a  colourless  liquid  which  boils  at  180°  C. 

Cyclo-Kexene  (tetrahydrobenzene),  CcHio,  was  obtained  by  A.  v. 
Baeyer  by  removing  the  elements  of  hydriodic  acid  from  iodo- 
cyc/o-hexane  on  boiling  it  with  quinoline.  It  is  a  liquid  which  boils 
at  82°  C.  Hypochlorous  acid  coiiverts  it  into  2-chlor-cyc/o-hexanol-l, 
whilst  potassium  permanganate  oxidizes  it  to  cycZo-hexandi-ol. 

Cydo-hexadiene  (dihydrobenzene) ,  CeHg. — Two  isomers  are  pos- 
sible, namely  cyc/o-hexadiene-i-3  and  cyc/o-hexadiene-i-4.  A.  v. 
Baeyer  obtained  what  was  probably  a  mixture  of  the  two  by 
heating  1-4  dibrom-cyc/o-hexane  with  quinoline.  C  Harries  (Ann., 
1903,  328,  p.  88)  obtained  them  tolerably  pure  by  the  dry  distillation 
of  the  phosphates  of  i-3-diamino  and  l-4-diamino-cyc/o-hexane. 
The  1-3  compound  boils  at  81-82°  C.  and  on  oxidation  yields  succinic 
and  oxalic  acids.  The  i'4  compound  also  boils  at  81-82°  C.  and  on 
oxidation  gives  succinic  and  malonic  acids. 

Alcohols. — Cydo-hexanol,  CeHnOH,  is  produced  by  the  reduction 
of  the  corresponding  ketone,  or  of  the'iodhydrin  of  quinite.  Nitric 
acid  oxidizes  it  to  adipic  acid,  and  chromic  acid  to  cydp-hexanone. 
Quinite  (cycfo-hexanediol-l  -4)  is  prepared  by  reducing  the  correspond- 
ing  ketone  with  sodium  amalgam,  cis-,  and  iTO»J-modifications 
being  obtained  which  may  be  separated  by  their  acetyl  derivatives. 
Phlordglucite  (cyc/o-hexane-triol-i-3-5)  is  obtained  by  reducing  an 
aqueous  Solution  of  phloroglucin  with  sodium  (y\[.  Wislieenu?,  Ber., 
1894,  27,  p.  357).  Quercite  (cy(;Zo-hexane-pentol-i-2-3-4-5),  isolated 
from  acorns  in  1849  by  H.  Braconnot  {Ann.  chim.  phys.  [3],  27, 


p.  392),  crystallizes  in  colourless  prisms  which  melt  at  234°  C.  When 
heated  in  vacuo  to  240°  C.  it  yields  hydroquinone,  quinone  and 
pyrogallol.  It  is  dextro-rotatory.  A  laevo-form  occurs  in  the 
leaves  of  Gymnema  sylvestre  (F.  B.  Power,  Journ.  Chem.  Soc,  1904, 
85,  p.  624'). 

Inosite  (cyc/o-hexane-hexol),  C8H6(OH)6.^ — The  inactive  form  occurs 
in  the  muscles  of  the  heart  and  in  other  parts  of  the  human  body. 
The  d-iorm  is  found  as  a  methyl  ether  in  pinite  (from  the  juice  of  Pinus 
lambertina,  and  of  caoutchouc  iromMateza  roritina  of  Madagascar), 
from  which  it  may  be  obtained  by  heating  with  hydriodic  acid. 
The  /-form  is  also  found  as  a  methyl  ether  in  quebrachite.  By 
mixing  the  d-  and  I-  forms,  a  racemic  variety  melting  at  253°  C.  is 
obtained.  A  dimethyl  ether  of  inactive  inosite  is  dambonite  which 
occurs  in  caoutchouc  from  Gabon. 

Ketones. — Cydo-hexanone,  CoHioO,  is  obtained  by  the  distillation 
of  calcium  pimelate,  and  by  the  electrolytic  reduction  of  phenol, 
using  an  alternating  current.  It  is  a  colourless  liquid,  possessing 
a  peppermint  odour  and  boiling  at  155°  C.  Nitric  acid  oxidizes  it 
to  adipic  acid.  It  condenses  under  the  influence  of  sulphuric  acid 
to  form  dodecahydrotriphenylene,  CigH24,  and  a  mixture  of  ketones 
(C.  Mannul,  Ber.,  1907,  40,  p.  153).  Methyl-l-cydo-hexanone-^, 
CH3-C6H90,  is  prepared  by  the  hydrolysis  of  pulegone.  It  is  an 
optically  active  liquid  which  boils  at  168-169°  C.  Homologues  of 
menthone  may  be  obtained  from  the  ketone  by  successive  treatment 
with  sodium  amide  and  alkyl  halides  (A.  Haller,  Comptes  rendus, 
1905,  140,  p.  127).  On  oxidation  with  nitric  acid  (sp.  gr.  1-4)  at 
60-70°  C.,  a  mixture  of  — and—  -methyl  adipic  acids  is  obtained 
(W.  Markownikoff,  Ann.,  1905,  336,  p.  299).  It  can  be  transformed 
into  the  isomeric  methyl-i-cydo-hexanone-2  (O.  Wallach,  Ann.,  1904, 
329,  p.  ,368).  For  methyl-i-cydo-hexanone-4.,  obtained  by  distilling 
7-methyl  pimelate  with  lime,  see  O.  Wallach,  Ber.,  1906,  39, 
p.  1492. 

Cydo-hexane-dione-l'Z  (dihydroresorcin),  C6H8O2,  was  obtained 
by  G.  Merling  {Ann.,  1894,  278,  p.  28)  by  reducing  resorcin  in  hot 
alcoholic  solution  with  sodium  amalgam.  Cydo-hexane-dione-i-/^  is 
obtained  by  the  hydrolysis  of  succino-succinic  ester.  On  reduction 
it  yields  quinite.  It  combines  with  benzaldehyde,  in  the  presence 
of  hydrochloric  acid,  to  form  2-benzyl-hydroquinone.  Cyclo- 
hexane-trione-i-2'5  (phloroglucin)  is  obtained  by  the  fusion  of  many 
.resins  and  of  resorcin  with  caustic  alkali.  It  may  be  prepared 
synthetically  by  fusing  its  dicarboxylic  ester  (from  malonic  ester 
and  sodio  malonic  ester  at  145°  C.)  with  potash  (C.  W.  Moore, 
Journ.  Chem.  Soc,  igOij.,  85,  p.  165).  It  crystallizes  in  prisms,  which 
melt  at  218°  C.  With  ferric  chloride  it  gives  a  dark  violet 
coloration.  It  exhibits  tautomerization,  since  in  many  of  its 
reactions  it  shows  the  properties  of  a  hydroxylic  substance. 
Rhodizonic  acid  (dioxydiquinoyl),  C6H2O6,  is  probably  the  enolic 
form  of  an  oxypentaketo-cyc/o-hexane.  It  is  formed  by  the 
reduction  of  triquinoyl  by  aqueous  sulphurous  acid,  or  in  the  form 
of  its  potassium  salt  by  washing  potassium  hexa-oxybenzene  with 
alcohol  (R.  Nietzki,  Ber.,  1885,  18,  pp.  513,  1838).  Triquinoyl 
(hexaketo-cycZo-hexane)  C606-8H20,  is  formed  on  oxidizing  rhodi- 
zonic acid  or  hexa-oxybenzene.  Stannous  chloride  reduces  it  to 
hexa-oxybenzene,  and  when  boiled  with  water  it  yields  croconic 
acid  (dioxy-cyc/o-pentene-trione). 

Cydo-hexenones. — Two  types  of  ketones  are  to  be  noted  in  this 
group,  namely  the  a/3  and  187  ketones,  depending  upon  the  position 
of  the  double  linkage  in  the  molecule,  thus: 

,CH2:CH,  ^.CH-CH; 


c{ 


'^CH2'CH2/ 


CO 


H2C/   *"        '^CO  H 

^CH2-CH2/ 

(o^)  _  (/St) 

These  two  classes  show  characteristic  differences  in  properties. 
For  example,  on  reduction  with  zinc  and  alcoholic  potash,  the  a/3 
compounds  give  saturated  ketones  and  also  bi-molecular  compounds, 
the  Py  being  unaffected ;  the  ^j  series  react  with  hydroxylamine 
in  a  normal  manner,  the  o/3  yield  oxamino-oximes. 

Methyl-l-cydo-hexene-l-one.-2l,Cii^■C^^O,  is  obtained  by  condens- 
ing sodium  aceto-acetate  with  methylene  iodide,  the  ester  so  formed 
being  then  hydrolysed.  Isocamphorphorone,  C9H14O,  is  trimethyl 
i-6-6.-cycZo-hexenerl-one  6.  Isocamphor,  CuHieO,  is  methyl-l- 
isopropyl-3-cycfo-hexene-l-one  6. 

Acids. — Hexahydrobenzoic  acid,  C6Hii-C02H,  is  obtained  by  the 
reduction  of  benzoic  acid,  or  by  the  condensation  of  1-5  dibrompen- 
tane  with  disodio-malonic  ester.  It  crystallizes  in  small  plates  which 
melt  at  30-31°  C.  and  boil  at  232-233°  C.  (J.  C.  Lumsden,  Journ. 
Chem.  Soc,  1905,  87,  p.  90).  The  sulphochloride  of  the  acid  on 
reduction  with  tin  and  hydrochloric  acid  gives  hexahydrothiophenol, 
CeHiiSH,  a  colourless  oil  which  boils  at  158-160°  C.  (W.  Borsche, 
Ber.,  1906,  39,  p.  392). 

Quinic  acid,  C6H7(OH)4C02H  (tetra-oxy-cydo-hexane  carboxylic 
acid),  is  found  in  coffee  beans  and  in  quinia  bark.  It  crystallizes 
in  colourless  prisms  and  is  optically  active.  When  heated  to  about 
250°  C.it  is  transformed  into  quinide,  probably  a  lactone,  which  on 
heating  with  baryta  water  gives  an  inactive  quinic  acid. 

Hexahydropjithalic  acids,  C6Hio(C02H)2  (cyrfo-hexanedicarboxylic 
acids).— Three  acids  ot  this  group  are  known,  containing. the  Carb- 
oxyl-groups  in  the  i-2,  1-3,  and  1-4  positions,  and  each  exists  in  two 
stereo-isomeric  forms  (cii- and  (rorei-).    The  anhydride  of  the  cis- 1 -2 


32 


POLYMETHYLENES 


acid,  obtained  by  heating  the  anhydride  of  the  «rows-ocid,  forms  prisms  i  with  acetic  anhydride.    When  boiled  with  caustic  soda  it  isomerizes 

which  melt  at  192°  C.    When  heated, with  hydrochloric  acid  it  passes  |  to  a  mixture  of  the  A^'^  and  A^'*  dihydrophthalic  acids.     Ihe  A  -^ 

into  the  trans-variety.    The  racemic  trans-acid  is  produced  by  the  \  acid  is  obtained  by  boiling  the  dihydro bromide  of^the  A^'"  acid  with 
reduction  of  the  dihydrobromide  of  A*-tetrahydrophthalic  acid  or 
A^'^  dihydrophthalic  acid.     It  is  split  into  its  active  components 


A2  and  A4  Teteahydro^ 
A 1  Tetrahydro 


Eydrobromide 
on  reduction 


Hexaitydro 


Sodium 


Sodium 
amalgam 


by  means  of  its  quinine  salt  (A.  Werner  and  H.  E.  Conrad,  Ber., 
1899,  32,  p.  3046).  Hexahydroisophthalic  acids,  {cydo-hexane-i-^- 
dicarboxylic  acids)  are  obtained  by  the  alction  of  methylene  iodide  on 
disodio-pentane  tetracarboxylic  ester  (W.  H.,  Perkin,  Journ.  Chem. 
Soc,  1891,  59,  p.  798);  by  the  action  of  trimethylene  bromide  on 
disodio-propane  tetracarboxylic  ester;  and  by  the  reduction  of 
isophthalic  acid  with  sodium  amalgam,  the,  tetrahydro  acids  first 
formed  being  converted  into  hydrobromides  and  further  reduced 
(A.  V.  Baeyer  and  V.  Villiger,  Ann.,  1893,  276,  p.  255).  The  cis- 
and  trans-  forms  can  be  separated  by  means  of  their  sodium  salts. 
The  trans-acid  is  a  racemic  compound,  which  on  heating  with  acetyl 
chloride  gives  the  anhydride  of  the  cii-acid. 

Hexahydroterephthalic  acids  (cydo-hexane-i-4-dicarboxylic  acids). 
These  acids  are  obtained  by  the  reduction  of  the  hydrobromides  of 
the  di-  and  tetra-hydroterephthalic  acids  or  by  the  action  of  ethylene 
dibromide  on  disodio-butane  tetracarboxylic  acid.  An  important 
derivative  is  succino-succinic  acid,  C6H602(C02H)2,  or  cydo-hexane- 
dione-2-5-dicarboxylic  acid-l-4,  which  is  obtained  as  its  ester 
by  the  action  of  sodium  or  sodium  ethylate  on  succinic  ester  (H. 
Fehling,    Ann.,    1844,  49,    p.  192 ;  F.  c-  j-  ,       ,.  n 

Hermann,_  4nre.,    1882,   211,   p.   306).  Sodium  amalgam  (.hoi) 

It  crystallizes  in  needles  or  prisms,  and 
•dissolves  in  alcohol  to  form  a  bright 
blue  fluorescent  liquid,  which  on  the 
addition    of    ferric    chloride    becomes 

cherry  red.    The  acid  on  heating  loses  1 1  gg^t  amalgam  Qwt) 

CO2  and  gives  cycZo-hexanedione-i-4. 

Tetrahydrobenzoic  acid  (cycio-h-jxene- 
l-carboxylic  acid-i),  C6H9-C02H.  Three 
structural  isomers  are  possible.  The 
A'  acid  results  on  boiling  the  A^  acid 
with  alkalis,  or  on  eliminating  hydro- 
bromic  acid  from  i-brom-cyc/o-hexane- 
carboxylic  acid- 1.  The  A^  acid  is 
formed  on  the  reduction  of  benzoic  acid 
with  sodium  amalgam.  The  A'  acid  is 
obtained  by  eliminating  the  elements  of 
water  from  4-oxy-cydo-hexane-i-carb- 

oxylic  acid  (W.  H.  Perkin,  iun.,  Journ.       ai-4Dihtoro< - 

Chem.  Soc,  1904,  85,  p.  431).  Shikimic 
acid  (3-4-6-trioxy-A^-tetrahydrobenzoic 
acid)  is  found  in  the  fruit  of  lUicium 
religiosum.  On  fusion  with  alkalis  it 
yields  para-oxybenzoic  acid,  and  nas- 
cent hydrogen  reduces  it  to  hydro- 
shikimic  acid.  Sedanolic  acid,  C12H20O3, 
which  is  found  along  with  sedanonic 
acid,  C12H18O3,  in  the  higher  boiling 
fractions   of   celery   oil,   is   an   ortho- 

oxyamyl- A  ^-tetrahydrobenzoic  acid,  sedanonic  acid  being  ortho- 
valeryl-A'-tetrahydrobenzoicaCid(G.  Ciamician  and  P.  Silber,  Ber., 
1897,  30,  pp.  492,  501,  1419  seq.).  Sedanolic  acid  readily  decom- 
poses into  water  and  its  lactone  sedanolid,  C12H18O2,  the  odorous 
constituent  of  celery  oil. 

Tetrahydrophthalic  acids  (cyclo  -  hexene  dicarboxylic  acids), 
C6H8(C02H)2.  Of  the  ortho-series  four  acids  are  known.  The 
A'  acid  is  obtained  as  its  anhydride  by  heating  the  A*  acid  to 
220°  C,  or  by  distilling  hydropyromellitic  acid.  Alkaline  potassium 
permanganate  oxidizes  it  to  adipic  acid.  The  A^  acid  is  formed 
along  with  the  A^  acid  by  reducing  phthalic  acid  with  sodium 
amalgam  in  hot  solutions.  The  A'*  acid  exists  in  cis-  and  trans- 
forms.  The  /ra»i-variety  is  produced  by  reducing  phthalic  acid, 
and  the  cis-acid  by  reducing  /^''  dihydrophthalic  acid. 

In  the  meta-series,  four  acids  are  also  known.  The  A^  acid  is  formed 
along  with  the  A^  (cis)  acid  bj^  reducing  i^phthalic  acid.  The 
trans  A*  acid  is  formed  by  heating  the  cis-acid  with  hydrochloric 
acid  under  pressure.  The  A'  acid  is  formed  when  the  anhydride 
of  tetrahydro  rimesic  acid  is  distilled  (W.  H.  Perkin,  junr.,  Journ. 
C/zew.  5oc.,  1905,  87,  p.  293).  _ 

In  the  para-series,  three  acids  are  known.  The  A'  acid  is  formed 
by  the  direct  reduction  bf  terephthalic  acid;  by  boiling  the  A'' acid 
with  caustic  soda;  and  by  the  reduction  (in  the  heat)  of  A^"*  dihydro- 
terephthalic  acid.  The  A'' acid  exists  in  cis-  and  trans-  forms;  these 
are  produced  simultaneously  in  the  reduction  of  A^'*  or  A^"'  dihydro- 
terephthalic  acids  by  sodium  amalgam. 

There  are  five  possible  dihydrobenzoic  acids.  One  was  obtained 
in  the  form  of  its  amide  by  the  reduction  of  benzamide  in  alkaline 
solution  with  sodium  amalgam  (A.  Hutchinson,  Ber.,  1891,  24, 
p.  177).  The  A'"'  acid  is  obtained  on  oxidizing  dihydrobenzalde- 
hyde  with  silver  oxide  or  by  the  reduction  of  meta-trimethyl- 
aminobenzoic  acid  (R.  Willstatter,  Ber.,  1904,  37,  p.  1859). 

Of  the  dihydrophthalic  acids,  five  are  known  in  the  ortho-series, 
two  of  which  are  stereo-isomers  of  the  cis-  and  trans-type,  and  a 
similar  number  are  known  in  the  para-series.  The  A^'^  acid  is 
obtained  as  its  anhydride  by  heating  A^'^  dihydrophthalic  anhydride 


alcoholic   potash   or   by   continued   boiling  of  the  A='-'=  acid   with 
caustic  soda.  .  ,  .      , 

The  A^'*  acid  is  formed  when  phthalic  acid  is  reduced  m  the  cold  by 
sodium  amalgam  or  by  heating  theA^"*  and  A'-*  acids  with  caustic 
soda.  The  /rores-modification of  A^'*  acid  is  produced  when  phthalic 
acid  is  reduced  by  sodium  amalgam  in  the  presence  of  acetic  acid. 
When  heated  for  some  time  with  acetic  anhydride  it  changes  to  the 
cM-form.  The  trans-acid  has  been  resolved  by  .means'  of  its 
strychnine  salts  into  two  optically  active  isomerides,  both  of  which 
readily  pass  to  A^'"  dihydrophthalic  acid  (A.  Neville,  Journ.,  Chem. 

Soc,  1906,  89,  p.  1744)-  '  ,,.,.,.,,, 

Of  the  dihydroterephthalic  acids,  the  A^''  acid  is  obtained  by  heat- 
ing the  dibromide  of  the  A^  tetrahydro  acid  with  alcoholic,  potash.  It 
cannot  be  prepared  by  a  direct  reduction  of  terephthalic  acid.  On 
warming  with  caustic  soda  it  is  converted  into  the  A^'^acid.  TheA'-' 
acid  is  also  obtained  by  the  direct  reduction  of  terephthalic  acid. 
It  is  the  most  stable  of  the  dihydro  acids.  The  A^'*  acid  is  obtained 
by  boiling  the  cis-  and  trans-C:}-^  acids  with  water,  which  are  obtained 
on  reducing  terephthalic  acid  with  sodium  amalgam  in  faintly  alka- 
line solution.  The  relationships  existing  between  the  various 
hydroplithalic  acids  may  be  shown  as  follows : — 


-  Phthalic  acid  - 


Sodium  amalgam  -}-  acetic  acid. 


Sodium  amalgam  (cold) 


i 


■  A  2-6  Dihydro  ^ 


Alkali 


Eydrobromide  with 
alcoholic  potash 


A3'5  Dihydro  (trans.) 

J,  Acetic  anhydride 
A3-5  Dihydro  (as.') 


A  2-4  Dihydro 


Anhydride  with 
acetic  anhydride 


A 14  Dihydro 
■  Terephthalic  acid 


Sodium  amalgam  in 
faintly  alkaline  solution 


A 2- 5  Dihydro 

J  Boil  with  water 
Ai'5  Dihydro 

Sodium  amalgam 


Sodium 

amalgam 

{hot) 


2  Tetrahvdro- 


Boil  +  NaOH 


Reduce 


-^A  1  Tetrahydro 


Dibromide  -\- 
alcoholic  potash 


A 1-3  Dihydro  <- 


Remove  E  Br  from 


Hydrohromide 
on  reduction 


-Hexahydro 


dibromide 

Cyclo-heptane  Group. 

Cyclo-heptane  (suberane),  C7H14,  obtained  by  the  reduction  of 
suberyl  iodide,  is  a  liquid  which  boils  at  117°  C.  On  treatment 
with  bromine  in  the  presence  of  aluminium  bromide  it  gives  chiefly 
pentabromtoluene.  When  heated  with  hydriodic  acid  to  230°  C. 
it  gives  methylhexameth>rlene.  On  oxidation  with  nitric  acid 
(sp.  gr.  ,1-4)  it  yields  pimelic  acid.  Disuberyl,  CtHu-CjHis,  a  thick 
oily  liquid,  boiling  at  290-291°  C,  is  obtained  by  the  reduction  of 
suberyl  bromide. 

Cyclo-heptene,  C;Hi2,  is  obtained  by  the  action  of  alcoholic  potash 
on  suberyl  iodide;  and  from  cydo-heptane  carboxylic  acid,  the  amide 
of  which  by  the  action  of  sodium  hypobromite  is  converted  into 
cydo-heptanamine,  which,  in  its  turn,  is  destructively  methylated 
(R.  Willstatter,  Ber.,  1901,  34,  131).  Cycio-heptadiene  1-3,  C7H10, 
IS  obtained  froin  cydo-heptene  (Willstatter,  loc.  cit.).  It  is  identical 
with  the  hydrotropilidine,  which  results  by  the  destructive  methyla- 
tion  of  trppane. 

£«tej-^eMe(trimethyl-i-4-4-cydo-heptadienei-5),CioHi6isprepared 
from  dihydroeucarveol.  By  the  action  of  hydrobromic  acid  (in 
glacial  acetic  acid  solution)  and  reduction  of  the  resulting  product 
It  yields  l-2-dimethyl-4-ethylbenzene  (A.  v.  Baeyer,  Ber.,  1897,  30, 
P.-„.^°75)-  Cydo-heptatrtene  (tropilidine),  CHg,  is  formed  on  dis- 
tilling tropine  with  baryta;  and  from  cydo-heptadiene  by  forming 
Its  addition  product  with  bromine  and  heating  this  with  quinoline 
to  150-160°  C  (R.  Willstatter,  loc  cit.).  Chromic  acid  oxidizes  it 
to  benzoic  acid  and  benzaldehyde.  With  bromine  it  forms  a  di- 
bromide, which  then  heated  to  110°  C.  decomposes  into  hydro- 
bromic acid  and  benzyl  bromide. 

Cycia-heptanol,  CiHuOH,  is  formed  by  the  reduction  of  suberone, 
and  by  the  action  of  silver  nitrite  on  the  hydrochloride  of  cyclo- 
hexanamine  (N.  Demjanow,  Centralblatt,  1904,  i.  p.  1214) 

Cydo-heptanone  (suberone),  CHijO,  is  formed  on  the  dis- 
tillation of  suberic  acid  with  lime,  and  from  a-brom-cydo-heptane 
carboxylic  acid  by  treatment  with  baryta  and  subsequent  distilla- 
tion over  lead  peroxide  (R.  Willstatter,  Ber..  1898,  31,  p.  2507). 
It  is  a  colourle^ss  liquid  having  a  peppermint  odour,  and  boiling 
at   i78-5-i79-5°  C.      Nitric   acid   oxidizes   it   to   n-pimelic    acid. 


POLYNESIA 


33 


Tropilene,  C7H10O,  is  obtained  in  small  quantities  by  the  distillation 
of  o-methyltropine  methyl  hydroxide,  and  by  the  hydrolysis  of  /3- 
methyltropidine  with  dilute  hydrochloric  acid.  It  is  an  oily  liquid, 
with  an  odour  resembling  that  of  benzaldehyde.  It  forms  a  benzal 
compound,  and  gives  an  oyxmethylene  derivative  and  cannot  be 
oxidized  to  an  acid,  reactions  which  point  to  it  being  a  ketone  con- 
taining the  grouping  -CH2-C0-.  It  is  thus  to  be  regarded  as  a 
cyc/o-heptene-i-one-7. 

Cyclo-keptane  carboxylic  acid  (suberanic  acid),  C7H1SCO2H,  is 
obtained  by  the  reduction  of  cydo-heptene-i -carboxylic  acid; 
from_  brom-cydo-heptane  by  the  Grignard  reaction;  and  by  the  re- 
duction of  hydrotropilidine  carboxylic  acid  by  sodium  in  alcoholic 
solution  (R.  Willstatter,  Ber.,  1898,  31,  p.  2504).  The  corresponding 
oxyacid  is  obtained  by  the  hydrolysis  of  the  nitrile,  which  is  formed 
by  the  addition  of  hydrocyanic  acid  to  suberone  (A.  Spiegel, \4re»., 
1882,  211,  p.  117). 

Four  cycto-heptene  carboxylic  acids  are  known.  CycXo-heptene-l- 
carboxylic  acid-l  is  prepared  from  oxysuberanic  acid.  This  acid 
when  heated  with  concentrated  hydrochloric  acid  to  120-130°  C. 
yields  a  chlor-acid,  which  on  warming  with  alcoholic  Jjotash  is  trans- 
formed into  the  cycZo-heptene  compound.  Cyc\o-heptene-2-carboxyUc 
acid-i  is  formed  by  the  reduction  of  cydo-hejjtatriene  _2-4-6-carb- 
oxylic  acid- 1.  On  boiling  with  caustic  soda  it  isomerizes  to  the 
corresponding  l-acid. 

Cyclo-heptatriene  carboxylic  acids, 
known.  According  to  F.  Buchner  {Ber 
be  represented  as  follows : — 

COjH  _CO,H 


C7H7CO2H.      All    four    are 
,  1898,  31,  p.  2242)  they  may 


W 


A.IA5.ret.  AI^,eorp.  il,4.6orr  m.iarl 

The  a-acid  (a-isophenylacetic  acid)  is  obtained  by  the  hydrolysis 
of  pseudophenylacetamide,  formed  by  condensing  diazoacetic  ester 
with  benzene,  the  resulting  pseudophenyl  acetic  ester  being  then  left 
in  contact  with  strong  animonia  for  a  long  time.  P-Isophenylacetic 
acid  is  formed  by  strongly  heating  pseudophenylacetic  ester  in  an 
air-free  sealed  tube  and  hydrolysing  the  resulting  ;8-isophenylacetic 
ester.  y-Isophenylacetic  acid  is  obtained  by  heating  the  /3  and  S 
acids  for  a  long  time  with  alcoholic  potash  (A.  Einhorn,  Ber.,  1894, 
27,  p.  2828;  E.  Buchner,  Ber.,  1898,  31,  p.  2249).  5-Isophenyi- 
acetic  acid  is  obtained  by  heating  the  iodmethylate  of  anhydro- 
ecgonine  ester  with  dilute  caustic  soda  (A.  Einhorn,  Ber.,  1893,  26, 
P-  329)- 

Numerous  amino-derivatives  of  the  cycZo-heptane  series  have  been 
prepared  by  R.  Willstatter  in  the  course  of  his  investigations  on  the 
constitution  of  tropine  {g_.v.).  Amino-cydo-heptane  (suberylamine) 
is  obtained  by  the  reduction  of  suberone  oxime  or  by  the  action  of 
sodium  hypobromite  on  the  amide  of  cycloheptane  carboxylic  acid. 

Cyclo-octoree  Group. 

Few  members  of  this  group  are  known.  By  the  distillation  of  the 
calcium  salt  of  azelaic  acid  H.  Mayer  {Ann.,  1893,  275,  p.  363) 
obtained  azelain  ketone,  CsHiiO,  a  liquid  of  peppermint  odour. 
It  boils  at  90-91°' C.  (23  mm.)  and  is  readily  oxidized  by  potassium 
permanganate  to  oxysuberic  acid.  It  is .  apparently  cyc/o-octanone 
(see  also  W.  Miller  and  A.  Tschitschkin,  Centralblatt;  1899,  2., 
p.  181). 

Pseudopelletierine  (thethyl  granatonihe),  CgHisNO,  an  alkaloid  of 
the  pomegranate,  is  a  derivative  of  cyc/o-octane,  and  resembles 
tropine  in  that  it  contains  a  nitrogen  bridge  between  two  carbon 
atoms.  It  is  an  inactive  base,  and  also  has  ketonic  properties. 
On  oxidation  it  yields  methyl  granatic  ester,  which,  by  the  exhaustive 
methylation  process,  is  converted  into  homopiperylene  dicarboxylic 
ester,  HOjCCHiCHCHjCHzCHiCHCOzH,  from  which  suberic 
acid  may  be  obtained  on  reduction.  When  reduced  in  alcoholic 
solution  by  means  of  sodium  amalgam  it  yields  methyl  granatoline, 
QHisOH-NCHa;  this  substance,  on  oxidation  with  cold  potassium 
permanganate,  is  converted  into  granatoline,  CsHjsNO,  which  on 
distillation  over  zinc  dust  yields  pyridine.  Methyl  granatoline  on 
treatment  with  hydriodic  acid  and  red  phosphorus,  followed  by 
caustic  potash,  yields  methyl  grana,tinine,  CsHisN,  which  when  heated 
with  hydriodic  acid  and  phosphorus  to  240°  C.  is  converted  into 
methyl  granatanine,  CsHu.NCHs,  and  granatanine,  CsH^NH.  The 
hydrochloride  of  the  latter  base  when  distilled  over  zinc  dust  yields 
o-propyl  pyridine.  By  the  electrolytic  reduction  of  pseudopellet- 
ierine, iV-methyl  gi'anatanine  is  obtained,  and  this  by  exhaustive 
methylation  is  converted  into  A  ''rfei-dimethyl  granatanine.  This 
latter  compound  readily  forms  an  iodmethylate,  which  on  treatment 
with  silver  oxide  yields  the  corresponding  ammonium  hydroxide. 
The  ammonium  hydroxide  on  distillation  decomposes  into  trimethyl- 
amine,  water  and  cydo-octadiene'i-3. 


CH2CH— CH2 
CHaNMe  CO  - 
CHaCH— CH2 
Pseudopelletierine 

XXII.  2 


CH2CH— CH2 

» CH2isrMe  CH2  ■ 
CH2CH— CHa 
JV-methyl 
granatanine 


CH2 — CH— CH2 

*CH2HONMe2CH2- 

CH2— CH— CH2 


CH2CH— CH2    CH2 CH— CH2      CH2CH:CH 

CHzNMeCHz^CHzHO-  NMesCHa^-CHs         CH 
CH2CH=CH      CH2 CH=CH      CH2CH2CH 

A-''des-methyl  cycio-octadiene 

granatanine 

Cyclo-octadiene,  CsHij,.  as  above  prepared,  is  a  strong-smelling  oil 
which  decolorizes  potassium  permanganate  solution  instantaneously. 
It  readily  polymerizes  to  a  di-cyc/o-octadiene  and  polymer  (CsHu)™ 
(R.  Willstatter,  Ber.,  1905,  38,  pp.  1975,  1984;  G.  Ciamician  and  P. 
Silber,  Ber.,  1893,  26,  p.  2750;  A.  Piccinini,  Gazz.,  1902,  32,  i  p.  260). 
ff-cyclo-octadiene  has  been  prepared  from  methyl  granatinine 
iodmethylate. 

Cyclo-ocfaree,  CsHie  is  obtained  by  the  reduction  of  the  above 
unsaturated  hydrocarbon  by  the  Sabatier  and  Senderens's  method. 
It  is  a  liquid  which  boils  at  l46-.3-i48°  C.  and  possesses  a  strong 
camphor  odour.  On  oxidation  it  yields  suberic  acid  (R.  Willstatter, 
Ber.,  1907,  40,  pp.  957).  O.  Doebner  {Ber.,  1902,  35,  pp.  2l2g, 
2538;  1903,  36,  p.  4318)  obtained  compounds,  which  in  all  probabi- 
lity are  cyc/o-octadienes,  by  the  distillation  of  /3-vinylacrylic  acid, 
sorbic  acid,  and  cinnamenyl  acrylic  acid  with  anhydrous  baryta. 

Cydo-nonane  Group. 
According  to  N.  Zelinsky  {Ber.,  1907,  40,  p.  780)  cyclononanone, 
C9H10O,  a  liquid  boiling  at  95-;97°  C,  is  formed  on  distilling  sebacic 
acid  with  lime,  and  from  this,  by  reduction  to  the  corresponding 
secondary  alcohol,  conversion  of  the  latter  into  the  iodide,  and 
subsequent  reduction  of  this  with  zinc,  cydo-nonane,  C9H18,  a  liquid 
boiling  at  170-172°  C.  is  obtained. 

POLYNESIA,  (Or.  iroKiis,  many,  and  i*^ cos,  island),  a  terni 
sometimes  used  to  cover  the  whole  of  the  oceanic  islands  in 
the  central  and  western  Pacific,  but  properly  for  the  eastern 
of  the  three  great  divisions  of  these  islands.  The  chief  groups 
thus  included  are  Hawaii,  the  Ellice,  Phoenix,  Union,  ManihiJd 
and  Marquesas  groups,  Samoa  and  Tonga,  the  Cook,  Society, 
Tubuai  and  Tuamotu  groups,  and  many  other  lesser  islands. 
(See  Pacific  Ocean,  section  on  Island,  a,nd  separate  articles 
on  the  principal  groups,  &c.) 

The  Polynesian  Race. — For  the  ethnological  problems  offered 
by  Polynesia  no  thoroughly  satisfactory  solutions  have  yet  been 
found.  By  some  the  term  Pol3mesian  has  been  treated  as  a 
synonym  for  Malayo-Polynesian,  and  has  been  made  to  include 
all  the  brown  races  of  Malaysia,  Melanesia,  Micronesia  and 
Polynesia.  Linguistically,  physically  and  mentally  this  view 
is  untenable.  Whatever  be  the  origin  of  the  Polynesians,  they 
are  not  Malays,  though,  themselves  of  mixed  blood,  they  have 
probably  certain  racial  elements  in  common  with  the  latter, 
who  are  undoubtedly  hybrids.  There  is  every  reason  to  be- 
lieve that  the  Polynesians  are  ethnologically  a  far  older  race 
than  the  Malays,  who,  as  they  now  exist,  are  a  comparatively 
modern  pfeople;'and  thus  Friedrich  Miiller's  and  D.  G.  Brinton's 
theory,  that  they  form  a  branch  of  the  Malays,  fails.  Joseph 
Deniker  declares  the  Polynesians  a  separate  ethnic  group  of 
the  Indo-Pacific  area,  and  in  this  view  he  is  followed  by  A.  H. 
Keane,  who  suggests  that  they  are  a  branch  of  the  Caucasic 
division  of  mankind  who  possibly  migrated  in  the  Neolithic 
period  from  the  Asiatic  mainland.  Of  the  migration  itself  no 
doubt  is  now  felt,  but  the  first  entrance  of  the  Polynesians  into 
the  Pacific  must  have  been  an  event  so  remote  that  neither  by 
tradition  nor  otherwise  can  it  be  even  approximately  fixed. 
The  journey  of  these  Caucasians  would  naturally  be  in  stages. 
Their  earliest  halting  place  was  probably  the  Malay  Archi- 
pelago, where  a  few  of  their  kin  linger  in  the  Mentawi  Islands 
on  the  west  coast  of  Sumatra.  Thence  at  a  date  within  historic 
times  a  migration  eastward  took  place.  The  absence  of  San- 
skrit roots  in  the  Polynesian  languages  appears  to  indicate  that 
this  migration  was  in  pre-Sanskritic  times.  Whether  anything 
like  a  definite  date  can  be  fixed  for  it  may  well  be  questioned. 
Abraham  Fornander'  has,  however,  with  great  probability, 
traced  back  the  history  of  the  Hawaiians  to  the  5th  century. 
He  has  studied  the  folk-lore  of  those  islands  exhaustively,  and 
from  this  source  comes  to  the  conclusion  that  the  Polynesian 
migration  from  the  Indian  Archipelago  may  be  approximately 
assigned  to  the  close  of  the  ist  or  to  the  2nd  century.  The 
traditions  of  many  of  the  Polynesian  peoples  tend  to  make 
Savaii,  the  largest  of  the  Samoan  Islands,  their  ancestral  home 
in  the  East  Pacific,  and  linguistic  and  other  evidence  goes  to 
'■     i^w  Account  of  the  Polynesian  Race  (1878),  i.  168. 


34 


POLYNESIA 


support  the  theory  that  the  first  Polynesian  settlement  in  the 
East  Pacific  was  in  Samoa,  and  that  thence  the  various  Ijranches 
of  the  race  made  their  way  in  all  directions.  Most  likely  Samoa 
was  the  first  group  permanently  occupied  by  them.  Owing 
to  the  admixture  of  the  Polynesians  with  the  Papuans  in  Fiji 
some  authorities  have  thought  the  first  settlement  was  in 
those  islands,  and  that  the  settlers  were  eventually  driven  thence 
by  the  Papuan  occupiers.  We  can,  however,  account  for  the 
presence  of  Polynesian  blood  in  Fiji  in  another  way,  viz.  by  the 
intercourse  that  has  been  kept  up  between  the  people  of  Tonga 
and  Fiji.  If  the  first  resting-place  of  the  Polynesians  was  in 
that  group,  there  is  good  reason  to  beheve  that  Samoa  was  the 
first  permanent  home  of  the  race. 

It  used  to  be  doubted  whether  these  people  could  have  gone 
from  the  Indian  archipelago  so  far  eastward,  because  the  pre- 
vailing winds  and  currents  are  from  the  east.  But  it  is  now 
well  known  that  at  times  there  are  westerly  winds  in  the  region 
over  which  they  would  have  to  travel,  and  that  there  would  be  no 
insuperable  difficulties  in  the  way  of  such  a  voyage.  The  Poly- 
nesians are  invariably  navigators.  There  is  ample  evidence 
that  in  early  times  they  were  much  better  seamen  than  they 
are  at  present.  Indeed  their  skill  in  navigation  has  greatly 
declined  since  they  have  become  known  to  Europeans.  They 
used  to  construct  decked  vessels  capable  of  carrying  one  or  two 
hundred  persons,  with  water  and  stores  sufiicient  for  a  voyage 
of  some  weeks  duration.  These  vessels  were  made  of  planks 
well  fitted  and  sewn  together,  the  joints  being  caulked  and 
pitched.^  It  is  only  in  recent  times  that  the  construction  of 
such  vessels  has  ceased.  The  people  had  a  knowledge  of 
the  stars,  of  the  rising  and  setting  of  the  constellations  at 
different  seasons  of  the  year;  by  this  means  they  determined 
the  favourable  season  for  making  a  voyage  and  directed  their 
course. 

The  Polynesians  were  by  no  means  a  savage  people  when 
they  entered  the  Pacific.  Indeed  their  elaborate  historical 
legends  show  that  they  possessed  a  considerable  amount  of 
civilization.  Those  who  are  familiar  with  these  legends,  and 
have  studied  native  manners  and  customs,  see  many  unmis- 
takable proofs  that  the  Polynesians  had,  at  their  migration, 
considerable  knowledge  and  culture,  and  that  the  race  has 
greatly  deteriorated. 

The  Polynesians  are  physically  a  very  fine  race.  On  some 
islands  they  average  s  ft.  lo  in.  in  height.  De  Quatrefages, 
in  a  table  giving  the  stature  of  different  races  of  men,^  puts  the 
natives  of  Samoa  and  Tonga  as  the  tallest  people  in  the  world. 
He  gives  5  ft.  9-92  in.  as  their  average  height.  They  are  well 
developed  in  proportion  to  their  height.  Their  colour  is  a  brown, 
lighter  or  darker  generally  according  to  the  amount  of  their 
exposure  to  the  sun — being  darker  on  some  of  the  atolls  where 
the  people  spend  much  time  in  fishing,  and  among  fishermen 
on  the  volcanic  islands,  and  lighter  among  women,  chiefs  and 
others  less  exposed  than  the  bulk  of  the  people.  Their  hair 
is  dark  brown  or  black;  smooth  and  curly,  very  different  from 
the  frizzly  mop  of  the  Papuan  or  the  lank  straight  locks  of  the 
Malay.  They  have  very  Httle  beard.  Their  features  are  gen- 
erally fairly  regular  and  often  beautiful;  eyes  invariably  black, 
and  in  some  persons  oblique;  jaws  not  projecting,  except  in  a 
few  instances;  lips  of  medium  thickness;  the  noses  are  naturally 
long,  well  shaped  and  arched,  but  many  are  artificially  flat- 
tened at  the  bridge  in  infancy.  Their  foreheads  are  fairly  high, 
but  rather  narrow.  The  young  of  both  sexes  are  good-looking. 
The  men  often  have  more  regular  features  than  the  women. 
Formerly  the  men  paid  more  attention  to  personal  appearance 
than  the  women.  Polynesians  generally  are  of  singularly 
cleanly  habits,  love  bathing,  and  have  a  taste  for  neatness  and 
order.  Their  clothing  is  simple:  a  loin  cloth  for  the  men  and 
for  the  women  a  girdle  or  petticoat  of  leaves.  Sometimes 
women  cover  the  shoulders,  and  on  great  occasions  the  men 
robe   themselves  in  tapa,   bark-cloth.     The   men   are  usually 

1  Coco-nut  fibre  and  the  gum  which  exudes  from  the  bread-fruit 
tree  are  generally  used  for  "  caulking  "  and  "  pitching  "  canoes. 
^  The  Human  Species  (International  Scientific  Series),  pp.  57-60. 


tattooed  in  elaborate  designs  from  the  navel  to  the  thigh,  and 
often  around  mouth  and  eyes. 

As  a  race  the  Polynesians  are  somewhat  apathetic.  An 
enervating  cHmate  and  lavish  natural  resources  incline  them  to 
lead  easy  lives.  On  the  more  barren  islands,  and  on  those  more 
distant  from  the  equator,  they  show  more  energy.  Under 
certain  circumstances  they  become  excitable,  and  manifest  a 
kind  of  care-for-nothing  spirit.  As  savages  they  were  strict 
in  their  religious  observances  and  religion  came  into  almost 
every  action  of  life,  and  they  have  been,  in  most  instances,  easily 
led  to  accept  Christianity.  Their  essential  trait  is  their  per- 
ennial cheerfulness,  and  their  fondness  for  dance  and  song  and 
every  sort  of  amusement.'  They  are  shrewd,  intelligent  and 
possess  much  common  sense.  Where  they  have  from  early 
years  enjoyed  the  advantages  of  a  good  education,  Polynesian 
youths  have  proved  themselves  to  possess  intellectual  powers 
of  no  mean  order.  They  are  almost  invariably  fluent  speakers; 
with  many  of  them  oratory  seems  to  be  a  natural  gift;  it  is  also 
carefully  cultivated.  An  orator  will  hold  the  interest  of  his 
hearers  for  hours  together  at  a  political  gathering,  and  in  his 
speech  he  will  bring  in  historical  allusions  and  precedents,  and 
will  make  apt  quotations  from  ancient  legends  in  a  manner  which 
would  do  credit  to  the  best  parliamentary  orators.  Many  of 
them  are  very  brave,  and  think  little  of  self-sacrifice  for  others 
where  duty  or  family  honour  is  concerned. 

Polynesian  society  is  divided  into  the  family  and  the  clan.  Each 
clan  has  a  name  which  is  usually  borne  by  one  of  the  oldest  members, 
who  is  the  chief  or  head  for  the  time  being.  This  clan  system  no 
doubt  generally  prevailed  in  early  times,  and  was  the  origin  of  the 
principal  chieftainships.  But  changes  have  been  made  in  most  of 
the  islands.  In  some  the  head  of  one  clan  has  become  king  over 
several.  In  many  cases  large  clans  have  been  divided  into  sections 
under  secondary  heads,  and  have  even  been  subdivided. 

As  a  rule  near  relations  do  not  intermarry.  In  some  islands  this 
rule  is  rigidly  adhered  to.  There  have  been  exceptions,  however, 
especially  in  the  case  of  high  chiefs;  but  usually  great  care  is  taken 
to  prevent  the  union  of  those  within  the  prescribed  limits  of  con- 
sanguinity. Children  generally  dwell  with  their  kin  on  the  father's 
side,  but  they  have  equal  rights  on  the  mother's  side,  and  sometimes 
they  take  up  their  abode  with  their  mother's  family.  The  only 
names  used  to  express  particular  relationships  are  father  and 
mother,  son  and  daughter,  brother  and  sister.  There  is  usually 
no  distinction  between  brothers  (or  sisters)  and  cousins,  all  the 
children  of  brothers  and  sisters  speak  of  each  other  as  brothers  and 
sisters,  and  they  call  uncles  and  aunts  fathers  and  mothers.  Above 
the  relationship  of  parents  all  are  simply  ancestors,  no  term  being 
used  for  grandfather  which  would  not  equally  apply  to  any  more 
remote  male  ancestor.  In  the  same  way  there  is  no  distinctive 
term  for  grandchild.  A  man  speaks  of  his  grandchild  as  his  son 
or  daughter,  or  simply  as  his  child.*  Polygamy  was  often  practised, 
especially  by  chiefs,  and  also  concubinage.  In  some  places  a  widow 
was  taken  by  the  brother  of  her  deceased  husband,  or,  failing  the 
brother,  by  some  other  relative  of  the  deceased,  as  an  additional  wife. 
Divorce  was  an  easy  matter,  and  of  frequent  occurrence ;  but,  as  a 
rule,  a  divorced  wife  would  not  marry  again  without  the  consent  of 
her  former  husband.  An  adulterer  was  always  liable  to  be  killed 
by  the  aggrieved  husband,  or  by  some  member  of  his  clan.  If 
the  culprit  himself  could  not  be  reached,  any  member  of  the  clan 
was  liable  to  suffer  in  his  stead.  In  some  islands  female  virtue  was 
highly  regarded.  Perhaps  of  all  the  groups  Samoa  stood  highest 
in  this  respect.  There  was  a  special  ordeal  through  which  a  bride 
passed  to  prove  her  virginity,  and  a  proof  of  her  immorality  brought 
disgrace  upon  all  her  relatives.  But  in  other  islands  there  was  much 
freedom  in  the  relations  of  the  sexes.  Owing  to  the  almost  promis- 
cuous intercourse  which  prevailed  among  a  portion  of  the  race,  in 
some  groups  titles  descended  through  the  mother  and  not  through 
the  father.     In  Hawaii  there  was  a  peculiar  system  of  marriage 


Wrestling  and  boxing,  a  kind  of  hockey  and  football,  canoe  and 
foot  races,  walking-matches,  swimming,  archery,  cockfighting, 
fishing-matches  and  pigeon-catching  are  among  their  pastimes. 
Of  indoor  games  they  have  a  number,  many  being  of  a  gambling 
nature.  Much  time  is  spent,  especially  after  the  evening  meal, 
in  asking  riddles,  in  rhyming,  &c.  The  recital  of  songs  and  myths 
IS  a  common  amusement,  and  on  special  occasions  there  is  dancing 
The  night-dances  were  generally  accompanied  by  much  indecency 
and   immorality. 

<  Dr  Lewis  H.  Morgan,  in  Ancient  Society,  pp.  419-423,  makes  the 
Polynesians  to  have  distinctive  terms  for  grandfather,  grandmother 
grandson  and  granddaughter.  In  this  he  is  mistaken.  It  is  evident 
from  his  own  lists  that  the  Hawaiian  kupima  means  simply  an 
ancestor.  In  like  manner  moopuna  simply  means  a  descendant 
of  any  generation  after  the  first. 


POLYNESIA 


35 


relationship,"  brothers  with  their  wives,  and  sisters  with  their 
lausbands,  possessing  each  other  in  common."  There  also,  especially 
in  the  case  of  chiefs  and  chieftainesses,  brothers  and  sisters  some- 
times intermarried.  But  these  customs  did  not  prevail  in  other 
groups.  It  is  almost  certain  that  they  did  not  prevail  in  Hawaii  in 
early  times,  but  that  they  were  the  result  of  that  deterioration  in  the 
race  which  their  traditions  and  many  of  their  customs  indicate.^ 

Women  have  always  occupied  a  relatively  high  position  among 
the  Polynesians.  In  most  groups  they  have  great  influence  and  are 
treated  with  much  respect.  In  some  cases  they  take  hereditary 
titles  and  hold  high  offices.  As  among  their  congeners  in  Mada- 
gascar, so  also  in  parts  of  Polynesia,  there  may  be  a  queen  or  a  chief- 
tainess  in  her  own  right;  and  a  woman  in  high  position  will  command 
as  much  respect,  and  will  exercise  as  great  authority,  as  a  man  would 
in  the  same  position.  Everywhere  infanticide  prevailed;  in  some 
of  the  smaller  islands  it  was  regulated  by  law  in  order  to  prevent 
over-population.  It  was  also  a  very  common  practice  to  destroy 
the  foetus,  but  parents  were  afifectionate  towards  their  children. 
The  practice  of  adopting  children  was,  and  still  is,  common.  Often 
there  is  an  exchange  made  between  members  of  the  same  clan; 
but  sometimes  there  is  adoption  from  without.  Tattooing  generally 
prevailed  among  the  men,  different  patterns  being  followed  in  differ- 
ent groups  of  islands.  In  some  a  larger  portion  of  the  body  is 
tattooed  than  in  others.  A  youth  was  considered  to  be  in  his 
minority  until  he  was  tattooed,  and  in  former  times  he  would  have 
no  chance  of  marrying  until  he  had,  by  submitting  to  this  process, 
proved  himself  to  be  a  man.  Puberty  in  the  other  sex  was  generally 
marked  by  feasting,  or  some  other  demonstration,  among  the  female 
friends.  Old  age  is  generally  honoured.  Often  an  inferior  chief 
will  give  up  his  title  to  a  younger  man,  yet  he  himself  will  lose  but 
little  by  so  doing.     The  neglect  of  aged  persons  is  extremely  rare. 

Property  belonging  to  a  clan  is  held  in  common.  Each  clan 
usually  possesses  land,  and  over  this  no  one  member  has  an  exclusive 
right,  but  all  have  an  equal  right  to  use  it.  The  chief  or  recognized 
head  of  the  clan  or  section  alone  can  properly  dispose  of  it  or  assign 
its  use  for  a  time  to  an  outsider ;  and  even  he  is  expected  to  obtain 
the  consent  of  the  heads  of  families  before  he  alienates  the  property. 
Thus  land  is  handed  down  through  successive  generations  under  the 
nominal  control  of  the  recognized  head  of  the  clan.  Changes 
have  been  made  in  many  islands  in  this  respect;  but  there  can  be 
little  reason  to  doubt  that  the  joint  ownership  of  property  in  clans 
was  common  among  the  entire  race  in  former  times. 

In  early  times  the  head  of  each  clan  was  supreme  among  his 
own  people,  but  in  all  matters  he  had  associated  with  him  the 
principal  men  or  heads  of  families  in  the  clan.  Their  united 
authority  extended  over  all  the  members  and  the  possessions  of  the 
clan,  and  they  were  independent  of  every  other  clan.  There  are  in 
some  places  vestiges  of  this  primitive  state  of  society  still  remaining ; 
the  transition  to  a  limited  or  to  a  despotic  monarchy  may  be  traced 
by  means  of  the  ancient  legends  in  some  islands,  and  in  others  it  is 
a  matter  of  recent  history.  One  clan  being  more  numerous  and 
stronger  than  another,  and  its  chief  being  ambitious,  it  is  easy  to 
see  how  by  conquering  a  neighbouring  clan  he  increased  the  import- 
ance of  his  clan  and  extended  his  own  power.  In  some  of  the  islands 
this  transition  process  has  hardly  yet  developed  into  an  absolute 
monarchy.  We  may  even  see  two  or  three  stages  of  the  progress. 
In  one  instance  a  certain  clan  has  the  right  to  nominate  the  principal 
chief  over  an  entire  district ;  though  it  is  known  as  the  ruling  clan, 
its  rule  is  mainly  confined  to  this  nomination,  and  to  decision  for  or 
against  war.  In  all  other  respects  the  district  enjoys  the  privilege 
of  self-government.  In  another  case  the  nominal  king  over  a  dis- 
trict, or  over  an  entire  island,  can  be  elected  only  from  among  the 
members  of  a  certain  clan,  the  monarchy  being  elective  within  that 
alone;  but  this  king  has  little  authority.  In  other  cases  a  more 
despotic  monarchy  has  grown  up — the  prowess  of  one  man  leading 
to  the  subjugation  of  other  clans.     Even  in  this  case  the  chiefs  or 

'  '  Morgan  has  founded  one  of  his  forms  of  family — the  consanguine 
— on  the  supposed  existence  in  former  times  among  the  Malaj^s  and 
Polynesians  of  the  custom  of  "  intermarriage  of  brothers  and  sisters, 
own  and  collateral,  in  a  group."  All  the  evidence  he  finds  in  support 
of  this  is  (i)  the  existence  of  the  custom  above  mentioned  in  Hawaii; 
and  (2)  the  absence  of  special  terms  for  the  relationship  of  uncle, 
aunt  and  cousin,  this  indicating,  he  thinks,  that  these  were  regarded 
as  fathers,  mothers,  brothers  and  sisters.  He  admits  that  "  the 
usages  with  respect  to  marriage  which  prevailed  when  the  system 
was  formed  may  not  prevail  at  the  present  time."  But  he  adds, 
"  To  sustain  the  deduction  it  is  not  necessary  that  they  should  " 
(Ancient  Society,  p.  408);  Morgan  has  given  special  terms  for  grand- 
father and  grandmother,  because  it  would  prove  too  much  to  show 
that  the  people  had  no  grandfathers,  &c.  But  these  terms  are  used 
for  ancestors  of  any  generation.  The  terms  used  for  grandchildren, 
in  like  manner,  are  used  for  any  generation  of  descendants.  He 
says  (p.  406)  the  terms  of  husband  and  wife  are  used  in  common  by 
a  group  of  sisters  or  brothers,  but  the  fact  is  that  the  words  used  for 
husband  and  wife  in  Hawaii  simply  mean  male  and  fernale.  In 
some  islands  there  are  terms  used  for  wife  in  the  most  strict  sense. 
The  word  wife  is  not  used  more  exclusively  among  us  than  among 
some  Polynesian  people. 


heads  of  clans  sometimes  still  hold  their  property  and  rule  over  their 
own  people,  only  rendering  a  kind  of  feudal  service  and  paying 
tribute  to  the  king. 

The  Polynesians  are  exceedingly  fond  of  rank  and  of  titles.  Much 
deference  is  paid  to  chiefs  and  to  persons  of  rank;  and  special 
terms  are  generally  employed  in  addressing  these.  Every  part  of  a 
chief's  body  and  all  his  belongings  have  names  different  from  those 
employed  for  common  people.  The  grade  of  rank  which  a  person 
occupies  will  often  be  indicated  by  the  language  in  which  he  is 
addressed.  Thus,  in  Samoa  there  are  four  different  terms  for  to 
come:  sau  is  for  a  common  man;  maliu  mai  is  a  respectful  term 
for  a  person  without  a  title;  susu  mai  ior  a  titled  chief;  and  afio 
mai  for  a  member  of  the  royal  family.  In  addressing  chiefs,  or 
others  to  whom  one  wishes  to  be  respectful,  the  singular  number 
of  the  personal  pronoun  is  rarely  used;  the  dual  is  employed  instead, 
— the  dual  of  dignity  or  of  respect. 

Offices  and  titles  are  seldom  hereditary  in  our  sense  of  the  term, 
as  descending  from  father  to  son.  They  are  rather  elective  within 
the  limits  of  the  clan,  or  the  division  of  a  clan.  A  common  practice 
is  for  the  holder  of  a  high  title  to  nominate  a  successor;  and  his 
nomination  is  generally  confirmed  by  the  chiefs,  or  heads  of  house- 
holds, with  whom  the  right  of  election  rests.  In  ancient  times  the 
authority  of  a  high  chief  or  king  did  not  usually  extend  to  any 
details  of  government.  But  in  Hawaii  there  are  traditions  of  a  wise 
king  who  interested  himself  in  promoting  the  social  well-being  of 
the  people,  and  made  good  laws  for  their  guidance.^  Usually  all 
matters  affecting  a  district  or  an  island  were  settled  by  the  chiefs 
of  the  district,  while  those  of  a  single  village  were  settled  by  a 
council  consisting  of  the  chiefs  and  heads  of  households  in  thevillage. 
In  some  islands  each  clan,  or  each  village,  would  feel  itself  at  liberty 
to  make  war  on  another  clan  or  village  without  consulting  the  views 
of  any  higher  authority.  Indeed  the  rule  was  for  each  clan  or  dis- 
trict to  settle  its  own  affairs.  In  the  case  of  offences  against 
individuals,  either  the  person  injured,  or  another  member  of  his 
clan,  would  avenge  the  injury  done.  For  most  offences  tliere  was 
some  generally  recognized  punishment — such  as  death  for  murder 
or  adultery;  but  often  vengeance  would  fall  upon  another  person 
instead  of  the  wrongdoer.  In  avenging  wrong,  a,  member  of  the 
village  or  of  the  clan  to  which  the  offender  belonged  would  serve 
equally  well  to  satisfy  their  ideas  of  justice  if  the  culprit  himself 
could  not  be  easily  reached.  Sometimes  all  the  members  of  the 
family,  or  of  a  village,  to  which  a  culprit  belonged  would  flee  from  their 
homes  and  take  refuge  in  another  village,  or  seek  the  protection  of  a 
powerful  chief.  In  some  places,  in  cases  of  crime,  the  members  of 
the  family  or  village  would  convey  the  culprit  bound — sometimes 
even  carrying  him  like  a  pig  that  is  to  be  killed — and  place  him  with 
apologies  before  those  against  whom  he  had  transgressed.  The 
ignominy  of  such  a  proceeding  was  generally  considered  sufficient 
atonement  for  the  gravest  offences.  There  were  slaves  in  many 
islands,  either  persons  conquered  in  war,  or  those  who  had  been 
condemned  to  lose  their  personal  liberty  on  account  of  evil  conduct. 

Pottery  was  not  manufactured  by  the  Polynesians:  a  fact  which, 
it  has  been  argued,  goes  far  to  prove  the  remoteness  of  the  Poly- 
nesian migration  from  the  Malay  Archipelago,  where  there  is  not  a 
single  tribe  which  does  not  possess  the  art.  It  may,  however,  be 
that,  moving  among  small  coral  islands  for  scores  of  generations  and 
thus  without  materials,  they  lost  the  art.  Those  of  them  who 
possessed  pottery  obtained  it  from  the  Papuans.  In  most  of  their 
manufactures  they  were,  however,  in  advance  of  the  Papuans. 
They  made  use  of  the  vegetable  fibres  abounding  in  the  islands,  the 
women  manufacturing  cloth,  chiefly  from  the  bark  of  the  paper 
mulberry  {Morus  papyrifera),  but  also  in  some  islands  from  the 
bark  of  the  bread-fruit  tree  and  the  hibiscus.  This  in  former 
times  furnished  them  with  most  of  their  clothing.  They  also  made 
various  kinds  of  mats,  baskets  and  fans  from  the  leaves  of  the  pan- 
danus,  the  bark  of  the  hibiscus,  from  species  of  bohmeria  or  other 
Urticaceous  plants.  Some  of  their  mats  are  very  beautifully  made, 
and  in  some  islands  they  are  the  most  valuable  property  the  people 
possess.  The  people  also  use  the  various  fibre-producing  plants  for 
the  manufacture  of  ropes,  coarse  string  and  fine  cord,  and  for  making 
fishing  nets.  The  nets  are  often  very  large,  and  are  netted  with  a 
needle  and  mesh  as  in  hand-netting  among  ourselves. 

The  Polynesians,  who  have  always  been  entirely  without  metals, 
are  clever  workers  in  wood.  Canoe  and  house  building  are  trades 
usually  confined  to  certain  families.  The  large  canoes  in  which  they 
formerly  made  long  voyages  are  no  longer  built,  but  various  kinds 
of  smaller  canoes  are  made,  from  the  commonest,  which  is  simply 
a  hoUowed-out  tree  cut  into  form,  to  the  finely  shaped  one  built 
upon  a  keel,  the  joints  of  the  various  pieces  being  nicely  fitted,  and 
the  whole  stitched  together  with  cord  made  from  the  husk  of  coco- 
nuts. Some  of  the  larger  canoes  are  ornamented  with  rude  carving ; 
and  in  some  islands  they  are  somewhat  elaborately  decorated  with 
inlaid  mother-of-pearl.  The  houses  are  generally  well  and  elabor- 
ately made,  but  nearly  all  the  ornamentation  is  put  on  the  inside  of 
the  roof. 

They  manufacture  several  wooden  utensils  for  household   use, 

2  See  a  remarkable  example  in  Fornander's  Account  of  the  Poly- 
nesian Race,  ii.  89, 


36 


POLYNESIA 


such  as  dishes  or  deep  bowls,  head-rests  and  stools.  Having  no 
metal  or  other  vessels  in  which  to  boil  water,  all  cooking  is  done  by 
baking,  generally  in  holes  in  the  ground.  They  also  make  wooden 
gongs,  or  drums.  They  used  to  make  wooden  fishhooks,  clubs, 
spears  and  bows.  They  still  make  wooden  fishspears  and  carved  and 
inlaid  combs.  They  employ  the  bamboo  for  making  drums  and 
flutes.  Formerly  knives  were  made  of  bamboo,  which  is  still  some- 
times used  for  that  purpose.  In  the  manufacture  of  these  things 
they  employed  adzes  made  of  stone,  shell  or  hard  wood,  and  a  wooden 
drill  pointed  with  stone,  shell  or  bone.  They  made  mother-of-pearl 
fishhooks,  and  they  still  use  a  part  of  those  old  hooks — or  artificial 
bait— in  combination  with  steel  hooks,  the  native-made  portion 
being  generally  shaped  like  a  small  fish.  For  water-vessels,  &c., 
they  employ  gourds  and  large  coco-nut  shells,  in  preparing  which 
they  pour  in  water  and  allow  the  pulp  or  the  kernel  to  decay,  so  that 
it  may  be  removed  without  brealang  the  rind  or  shell.  Their  drink- 
ing cups  are  made  of  half  a  coco-nut  shell.  Sharks'  teeth,  shells 
and  bamboo  were  formerly  generally  used  as  cutting  instruments 
for  shaving  and  surgical  operations.  They  employ  vegetable  dyes 
for  painting  their  bark-cloth,  calabashes,  &c.  In  some  islands  they 
also  use  a  red  earth  for  this  purpose.  Their  cloth  is  generally 
ornamented  with  geometrical  patterns.  Any  drawings  of  animals, 
&c.,  which  they  make  are  exceedingly  inartistic,  and  no  attempt 
is  made  at  perspective.  Their  musical  instruments  are  few  and  rude 
— consisting  of  the  drums  and  flutes  already  mentioned,  and  shell 
trumpets. 

The  Polynesians  were  all  polytheists.  Without  doubt  many  of 
their  gods  are  deified  men;  but  it  is  clear  that  some  are  the  forces 
of  Nature  personified,  while  others  appear  to  represent  human 
passions  which  have  become  identified  with  particular  persons  who 
have  an  existence  in  their  historical  myths.'  But  the  conception 
which  they  had  of  Tangaloa  (Taaroa  and  Kanaloa  in  some  islands) 
is  of  a  higher  order.  Among  the  Tahitians  he  was  regarded  as 
"the  first  and  principal  god,  uncreated  and  existing  from  the 
beginning,  or  from  the  time  he  emerged  from  po,  or  the  world  of 
darkness."^  "  He  was  said  to  be  the  father  of  all  the  gods,  and 
creator  of  all  things,  yet  was  scarcely  reckoned  an  object  of  worship."' 
Dr  Turner  says,  "the  unrestricted,  or  unconditioned,  may  fairly 
be  regarded  as  the  name  of  this  Samoan  Jupiter."* 

The  worship  of  certain  of  the  great  gods  was  common  to  all  the 
people  in  a  group  of  islands.  Others  were  gods  of  villages  or  of 
families,  while  others  were  gods  of  individuals.  The  gods  of  clans 
were  probably  the  spirits  of  the  ancestors  in  their  own  line.  In 
some  islands,  when  the  birth  of  a  child  was  expected,  the  aid  of  the 
gods  of  the  family  was  invoked,  beginning  with  the  god  of  the  father. 
The  god  prayed  to  at  the  instant  of  birth  became  the  god  of  the 
child.  In  other  places  the  name  of  the  child's  god  was  declared 
when  the  umbilical  cord  was  severed.  The  gods  were  supposed  to 
dwell  in  various  animals,  in  trees,  or  even  in  inanimate  objects,  as  a 
stone,  a  shell,  &c.  In  some  islands  idols  bearing  more  or  less  resem- 
blance to  the  human  shape  were  made.  But  in  all  cases  the  material 
objects  were  regarded  simply  as  the  abodes  of  the  immaterial  spirits 
of  the  gods. 

Their  temples  were  either  national,  for  a  single  village,  or  for 
the  god  of  a  family.  They  were  sometimes  large  stone  enclosures 
{marae),  sometimes  a  grove,  or  a  house.  The  principal  priests  were 
a  particular  order,  the  priesthood  being  hereditary.  In  some  cases, 
however,  the  father  of  a  family  was  priest  in  his  own  household  and 
presented  offerings  and  prayers  to  the  family  god. 

In  some  islands  human  sacrifices  were  of  frequent  occurrence;  in 
others  they  were  offered  only  on  very  rare  and  exceptional  occasions, 
when  the  demand  was  made  by  the  priests  for  something  specially 
valuable.  The  usual  offerings  to  the  gods  were  food.  The  system 
of  taboo  was  connected  with  their  religious  rites.  There  were  two 
ways  by  which  things  might  become  taboo:  (i)  by  contact  with 
anything  belonging  to  the  god,  as  his  visible  representation  or  his 
priest.  Probably  it  was  thought  that  a  portion  of  the  sacred  essence 
of  the  god,  or  of  a  sacred  person,  was  directly  communicable  to 
objects  which  they  touched.  (2)  Things  were  made  taboo  by  being 
dedicated  to  the  god ;  and  it  is  this  form  of  faJoo' which  is  still  kept  up. 
If,  e.g.,  any  one  wishes  to  preserve  his  coco-nuts  from  being  taken, 
he  will  put  something  upon  the  trees  to  indicate  that  they  are  sacred 
or  dedicated.  They  cannot  then  be  used  until  the  taboo  is  removed. 
Disease  and  death  were  often  connected  with  the  violation  of  taboo, 
the  offended  gods  thus  punishing  the  offenders.  Disease  was 
generally  attributed  to  the  anger  of  the  gods.  Hence  offerings,  &c., 
were  made  to  appease  their  anger.  The  first-fruits  of  a  crop  were 
usually  dedicated  to  the  gods  to  prevent  them  from  being  angry; 
and  new  canoes,  fishing-nets,  &c.,  were  dedicated  by  prayers  and 
offerings,  in  order  that  the  gods  might  be  propitious  to  their  owners 
in  their  use. 

1  The  following  books  may  be  consulted  on  this  subject :  Rev. 
W.  W.  Gill's  Myths  and  Songs  from  the  South  Pacific;  Dr  Turner's 
Samoa;  and  Mr  Shortland's  Maori  Religion  and  Mythology;  Sir 
George  Grey,  Polynesian  Mythology. 

2  Polynesian  Researches  i.  323. 
'  Tahitian  Dictionary. 

*  Samoa,  p.  52. 


The  Polynesians  invariably  believe  in  the  existence  of  the  spirit 
of  man  after  the  death  of  the  body.  Their  traditions  on  the  condi- 
tion of  the  dead  vary  considerably  in  different  groups ;  yet  there  is  a 
general  agreement  upon  main  points.  Death  is  caused  by  the 
departure  of  the  spirit  from  the  body.  The  region  of  the  dead  is 
subterranean.  When  the  spirit  leaves  the  body  it  is  conveyed  by 
waiting  spirits  to  the  abode  of  spirits.  In  most  islands  the  place 
of  descent  is  known.  It  is  generally  towards  the  west.  In  some 
traditions  there  is  a  distinction  between  chief  and  common  people 
in  the  spirit  world.  In  others  all  are  much  alike  in  condition.  Some 
traditions  indicate  a  marked  distinction  between  the  spirits  of 
warriors  and  those  of  others:  the  former  go  to  a  place  where  they 
are  happy  and  are  immortal,  while  the  latter  are  devoured  by  the 
gods  and  are  annihilated.  In  some,  however,  the  spirits  are  said  to 
live  again  after  being  eaten.  Some  speak  of  the  abode  of  spirits 
as  being  in  darkness ;  but  usually  the  condition  of  things  is  similar 
to  that  which  exists .  upon  earth.  Amongst  all  the  people  it  is 
believed  that  the  spirits  of  the  dead  are  able  to  revisit  the  scenes  of 
their  earthly  life.  'The  visits  are  generally  made  in  the  night,  and 
are  often  greatly  dreaded,  especially  when  there  may  be  any  supposed 
reason  for  spite  on  the  part  of  the  dead  towards  living  relatives. 
Some  writers  have  connected  Polynesian  cannibalism  with  religion. 
In  the  Cook  and  Society  Islands,  when  a  human  being  was  offered 
as  a  sacrifice,  the  priest  presented  an  eye  of  the  victim  to  the  king, 
who  either  ate  it  or  pretended  to  do  so.  Probably  the  earliest 
human  sacrifices  were  the  bodies  of  enemies  slain  in  battle.  As 
it  was  supposed  by  some  that  the  spirits  of  the  dead  were  eaten  by 
the  gods,  the  bodies  of  those  slain  in  battle  may  have  been  eaten  by 
their  victors  in  triumph.  Mr  Shortland  appears  to  think  that 
cannibalism  among  the  Maories  of  New  Zealand  may  have  thus 
originated.^  Among  the  Polynesians  generally  it  appears  to  have 
been  the  practice  at  times  to  eat  a  portion  of  a  slain  enemy  to 
make  his  degradation  the  greater.  But  where  cannibalism  was 
practised  as  a  means  of  subsistence,  it  probably  originated  in  times 
of  actual  want,  such  as  may  have  occurred  during  the  long  voyages 
of  the  people. 

The  Polynesian  race  has  been  continuously,  and  in  some 
places  rapidly,  decreasing  since  their  first  contact  with  Euro- 
peans. Doubts  have  been  thrown  on  the  current  statements 
regarding  the  rate  of  decrease,  which  some  good  authorities 
believe  to  be  not  so  great  as  is  commonly  represented.  They 
hold  that  former  estimates  of  the  number  of  inhabitants  in  the 
various  insular  groups  were  mere  guesswork.  Thus  it  is  pointed 
out  that  Cook's  estimate  of  240,000  for  the  Society  Archipelago 
(Tahiti)  was  at  the  time  reduced  by  his  associate,  Forster,  to 
150,000,  so  that  the  300,000  credited  by  him  to  the  Sandwich 
Islands  should  also  be  heavily  discounted.  That  is  probably 
true,  and  it  may  be  admitted  that,  as  a  rule,  the  early  calcula- 
tions erred  on  the  side  of  excess.  But  when  full  allowance  is 
made  for  all  such  exaggerations,  the  following  facts  will  show 
that  the  decrease  has  been  excessive.  The  Tahitians,  150,000 
in  1774,  fell  from  17,600  in  1880  to  10,300  in  1899;  and  in  this 
group,  while  the  pure  stock  appears  to  be  dying  out,  there  is 
a  small  increase  amongst  the  half-breeds.  When  New  Zealand 
was  occupied  (1840)  the  Maori  were  said  to  number  120,000, 
and  were  doubtfully  stated  to  be  still  56,000  in  1857;  since  then 
the  returns  of  the  1881  and,i89i  censuses  gave  44,000  and  40,000 
respectively.  During  the  last  two  decades  of  the  19th  century 
the  decrease  has  been  from  30,000  to  17,500  in  Tonga;  from 
11,500  to  8400  in  the  Cook  group;  from  8000  to  3600  in  Wallis; 
from  1600  to  100  in  Manahiki;  from  1400  to  1000  in  Tubuai; 
and  from  600  to  100  in  Easter  Island.  A  general  decline  seems 
thus  to  be  placed  beyond  doubt,  though  it  may  be  questioned 
whether  it  is  to  be  attributed  to  a  decayed  vitality,  as  some 
hold,  or  to  external  causes,  as  is  the  more  general  opinion.  The 
prevalence  of  elephantiasis  and  the  occurrence  of  leprosy,  for 
instance,  m  Hawaii,  would  seem  to  point  at  least  in  some  places 
to  a  racial  taint,  due  perhaps  to  the  unbridled  licentiousness  of 
past  generations.  On  the  other  hand,  such  a  decrease  as  has 
occurred  m  Tahiti  and  Tonga,  can  be  accounted  for  only  by  an 
accumulation  of  outward  causes,  such  as  wars,  massacres,  and 
raidmgs  for  the  Australian  and  South  American  labour  mar- 
kets before  this  traffic  was  suppressed  or  regulated.  Other 
destructive  agencies  were  epidemics,  such  especially  as  measles 
and  small-pox,  which  swept  away  30,000  Fijians  in  1875-  the 
introduction  of  strong  drinks,  including,  besides  vile  spirits 
a  most  pernicious  concoction  brewed  in  Tahiti  from  oranges; 
"  Maori  Religion  and  Mythology,  p.  26. 


POLYP— POLYPHEMUS 


37 


the  too  sudden  adoption  of  European  clothing,  rendering  the 
body  supersensitive  to  changes  of  temperature;  lastly,  the  action 
of  over-zealous  missionaries  in  suppressing  the  dances,  merry- 
making and  free  joyous  Kfe  of  pagan  times,  and  the  preaching 
of  a  sombre  type  of  Christianity,  with  deadening  effects  on  the 
buoyant  temperament  of  these  children  of  Nature.  Most  of 
these  abuses  have  been  checked  or  removed,  and  the  results 
may  perhaps  be  detected  in  a  less  accelerated  rate  of  decHne, 
which  no  longer  proceeds  in  geometric  proportion,  and  seems 
even  almost  arrested  in  some  places,  as  in  Samoa  and  New 
Zealand.  If  such  be  indeed  the  case,  perhaps  the  noblest  of  all 
primitive  races  may  yet  be  saved  from  what  at  one  time  seemed 
inevitable  extinction;  and  the  Maori,  the  Samoans,  and  Tahi^ 
tians  may,  like  the  Hawaiians, ;  take  their  place  beside  the 
Europeans  as  free  citizens  of  the  various  states  of  which  they 
are  now  subjects! 

Authorities. — Jean  L.  A.  de  Quatrefages,  Les  Polyn&siens  et  leur 
migrations  (Paris,  1866);  G.  Turner,  Nineteen  Years  in  Polynesia 
(London,  1861) ;  Pierre  Adolphe  Lesson,  Les  Polynesiens,  leur 
ofigine,  &c.  (Paris,  1 880-1 884);  Henri  Mager,  Le  Monde  polyntsiin 
(Paris,  1902);  Maximilien  Albert  H.  A.  Le  Grand,  Au  pays  des 
Canaques  (Paris,  1 893) ;  Sir  George  Grey,  Polynesian  Mythology 
(London,  1855);  T.  A.  Moerenhout,.  Voyages^  aux  ties  du  Qrand 
Ocean,  See.  (Paris,  1837);  Abraham  Fbrnander,  An  Account  of  the 
Polynesian  Rate  (1878).  The  account  given  above  reproduces  the 
main  descriptive  passages  in  the  Rev.  S.  J.  Whitmee's  article  in  the 
9th  ed.  of  the  Ency.  Brit. 

POLYP,  the  name  given  by  zoologists  to  the  form  of  animal 
especially  characteristic  of  the  subphylum  Gnidaria  of  the 
Coelentera  {q.v.).  In  the  subdivision  Anthozoa,  comprising  the 
sea-anemones  and  corals,  the  individual  is  always  a  polyp;  in 
the  Hydrozoa,  however,  the  individual  may  be  either  a  polyp  or  a 
medusa  {q.v.). 

A  good  example  of  a  polyp  may  be  seen  in  a  common 
sea-anemone  or  in  the  well-known  fresh-water  polyp.  Hydra 
(fig.  i).     The  body  may  be  roughly  compared  in  structure  to 

a  sac,  the  wall  of  which  is 
composed  of  two  layers  of 
cells.  The  outer  layer  is 
known  technically  as  the 
ectoderm,  the  inner  layer 
as  the  endoderm.  Between 
ectoderm  and  endoderm  is 
a  supporting  layer  of  struc- 
tureless gelatinous  substance 
,.•  termed  mesogloea,  secreted 
by  the  ceU-layers  of  the 
body-wall;  the  mesogloea 
may  be  a  very  thin  layer,  or 
may '  reach  a  fair  thickness, 
and  then  sonietimes  contains 
skeletal  elements  formed  by 
cells  which  have  migrated 
into  .  it  from  the  ectoderm. 
The  sac-like  body  buUt :  up 
in  this  way  is  attached 
usually;  to  some  firm  object 
by  its  blind  endj  and  bears 
at  the  upper  end  the  mouth 
Fig.  I. — ffy<ZmMWd«>,  the  fresh-,  surrounded!  by  a  circle  of 
water  polyp.  The  animalis  attached  tentacles.  Each  tentacle  is 
to  the  stem  of  a  plant,  and  is  repre-  ,         n  ..,  ,        , 

sented  with  the  base  of  attachment  ^  glove-finger-hke  outpush- 
uppermost;' the  mouth,  not  actually  mg  of  the  whole r  wall  of:  the 
seen;  in  the  drawing,  is  at  the  lower  sac  and  contains  typically 
extremity  of  the  body,  surrounded  a  prolongation^  of  its  internal 
by  the  circle  of  tentacles,  av,  Uvary :  „     ■.  ii.  j.     _•        -i    iv 

/e,  testis.  •"  cavity,  so ,  that  pnmarily  the 

1  tentacles  are  hoUow;    but 'in 

some  cases  the  tentacle  may  become  sohd  by  obliteration  of  its 
ca,vity.  The  tentacles  are  organs  which  serve  both  for  the  tactile 
sense  ^nd  for,  the  capture  of  food.-  By  means  of  the  stinging 
nettle-cells  or  nematoCysts  with  which  the  tentacles ;  are  thickly 
covered,  living  organisms  of  various  kinds  are  firmly  held  and  at 
the  same  time  paralysed  or  killed,  and: by  means  of  longitudinal 
muscular  fibrils   formed  from  .the  cells  of  the  ectoderm  the 


tentacles  are  contracted  and  convey  the  food  to  the  mouth. 
By  means'^  of  circularly  disposed  muscular  fibrils  formed  from 
the  endoderm  the  tentacles  can  be  protracted  or  thrust  out 
after  contraction.  By  muscle-fibres  belonging  to  the  same  two 
systems  the  whole  body  may  be  retracted  or  protruded. 

We  can  distinguish  therefore  in  the  body  of  a  polyp  the 
column,  circular  or  oval  in  section,  forming  the  trunk,  resting 
on  a  base  or  foot  and  surmounted  by  the  crown  of  tentacles, 
which  enclose  an  area  termed  the  peristome,  in  the  centre  of  which 
again  is  the  mouth.  As  a  rule  there  is  no  other  opening  to  the 
body  except  the  mouth,  but  in  some  cases  excretory  pores  are 
known  to  occur  in  the  foot,  and  pores  may  occur  at  the  tips  of 
the  tentacles.  Thus  it  is  seen  that  a  polyp  is  an  animal  of  very 
simple  structure. 

The  name  polyp  was  given  to  these  organisms  from  their 
supposed  resemblance  to  an  octopus  (Fr.  poulpe),  with  its 
circle  of  writhing  arms  round  the  mouth.  This  comparison, 
though  far-fetched,  is  certainly  more  reasonable  than  the  common 
name  "  coral-insects  "  apphed  to  the  polyps  which  form  coral. 
It  cannot  be  too  emphatically  stated  that  a  coral-polyp  is  as 
far  removed  in  organization  from  either  an  octopus  or  an 
insect  as  it  is  from  man  himself. 

The  external  form  of  the  polyp  varies  greatly  in  different 
cases.  In  the  first  place  the  column  may  be  long  and  slender, 
or  may  be,  on  the  contrary,  so  short  in  the  vertical  direction  that 
the  body  becomes  disk-like.  The  tentacles  may  number  many 
hundreds  or  may  be  very  few,  in  rare  cases  only  one  or  two,  or 
even  absent  altogether;  they  may  be  long  and  filamentous,  or 
short  and  reduced  to  mere  knobs  or  warts;  they  may  be  simple 
and  unbranched,  or  they  may  be  feathery  in  pattern.  AU.  these 
types  are  well  illustrated  by  different  species  of  British  sea- 
anemones.  The  mouth  may  be  level  with  the  surface  of  the 
peristome,  or  may  be  projecting  and  trumpet-shaped.  As  regards 
internal  structure,  polyps  exhibit  two  well-marked  types  of 
organization,  each  characteristic  of  one  of  the  two  classes, 
Hydrozoa  and  Anthozoa. 

It  is  an  almost  universal  attribute  of  polyps  to  possess  the 
power  of  reproducing  themselves  non-sexuaUy  by  the  method 
of  budding.  This  mode  of  reproduction  may  be  combined 
with  sexual  reproductiveness,  or  may  be  the  sole  method  by 
which  the  polyp  produces  offspring,  in  which  case  the  polyp 
is  entirely  without  sexual  organs.  In  many  cases  the  buds 
formed  do  not  separate  from  the  parent  but  remain  in  con- 
tinuity with  it,  thus  forming  colonies  or  stocks,  which  may 
reach  a  great  size  and  contain  a  vast  number  of  individuals. 
Slight  differences  in  the  method  of  budding  produce  great  varia- 
tions in  the  form  of  the  colonies,  which  may  be  distinguished 
in  a  general  way  as  spreading,  massive  or  arborescent.  The 
reef-building  corals  are  polyp-colonies,  strengthened  by  the 
formation  of  a  firm  skeleton.  For  further  details  of  colony- 
formation  the  reader  is  referred  to  the  articles  Anthozoa 
and  Hydromedusae. 

For, figures  of  polyps  see  P.  Gosse,  A  History  of  the  British  Sea- 
Anemones  and  Corals  (London,  i860) ;  A.  Andres,  "  Le  Attinie,"  in 
Fauna  and  Flora  des  Golf es  von  Ne'apel,  ix.  I  (Leipzig,  1884);  G.  J. 
Allman,  A  Monograph  of  the  Gymnoblastic  or  Tubularian  Hydroids 
(Ray  Society,,  1871^1872).  (E.  A.  M.) 

POLYPERCHON  (incorrectly  Polysperchon) ,  one  of  Alex- 
ander's generals,  and  the  successor  of  Antipater  as  regent  in 
Macedonia  in  319  B.C.  He  was  driven  out  by  Cassander  in 
317  B.C.  (See  Phogion.) 

POLYPHEMUS,  in  Greek  mythology,  the  most  famous  of  the 
Cyclopes,  son  of  Poseidon  and  the  nymph  Thoosa.  He  dwelt 
in  a  cave  in  the  south-west  comer  of  Sicily,  and  was  the  owner 
of  large  flocks  and  herds.  He  was  of  gigantic  stature,  with 
one  eye  in  the  middle  of  his  forehead,  a  consumer  of  human 
flesh,  without  respect  for  the  laws  of  god  or  man.  Odysseus, 
having  been  cast  ashore  on  the  coast  of  Sicily,  fell  into  the  hands 
of  Polyphemus,  who  shut  him  vp  with  twelve  of  his  companions 
in  his  cave,  and  blocked  the  entrance  with  an  enormous  rock. 
Odysseus  at  length  succeeded  in  making  the  giant  drunk,  blinded 
him  by  plunging  a ,  burning  stake  into  his  eye  while  he  lay 
asleep,  and  with  six  of  his   friends    (the   others   having  been 


38 


POLYPODIUM— POLYTECHNIC 


devoured  by  Polyphemus)  made  his  escape  by  cKnging  to  the 
bellies  of  the  sheep  let  out  to  pasture.  Euripides  in  the  Cyclops 
essentially  follows  the  Homeric  account.  A  later  story  asso- 
ciates Polyphemus  with  Galatea  (see  Acis). 

Homer,  Odyssey,  ix. ;  Ovid,  Metam.  xiii.  749 ;  Theocritus  xi. 
See  W.  Grimm,  Die  Sage  von  Polyphem.  (1857);  G.  R.  Holland, 
in  Leipziger  Studien  (1884),  vii.  139-312. 

POLYPODIUM,  in  botany,  a  .large  genus  of  true  ferns  {q.v), 
widely  distributed  throughout  the  world,  but  specially  developed 
in  the  tropics.  The  name  is  derived  from  Or.  -iroXvs,  many, 
and  TToSwv,  a  little  foot,  on  account  of  the  foot-like  appear- 
ance of  the  rhizome  and  its  branches.  The  species  differ  greatly 
in  size  and  general  appearance  and  in  the  character  of  the  frond; 
the  sori  or  groups  of  spore-cases  (sporangia)  are  borne  on  the 
back  of  the  leaf,  are  globose  and  naked,  that  is,  are  not  covered 
with  a  membrane  {indusium)  (see  fig.  1).  The  common  poly- 
pody (fig.  2)  (P.  vulgare)  is  widely  diffused  in  the  British  Isles, 
where  it  is  found  on  walls, 
banks,  trees,  &c.;  the  creep- 
ing, densely-scaly  rootstock 
bears  deeply  pinnately  cut 
fronds,  the  fertile  ones  bear- 
ing on  the  back  the  bright 
yellow  naked  groups  of 
sporangia  (sori).  It  is  also 
known  as  adder's  foot, 
golden  maidenhair  and 
wood-fern,  and  is  the  oak- 
fern   of    the    old    herbals.  ^^ 


Fig.  I. — Portion  of  a  pinna  Fig.     2. — Polypodium     vulgare, 

of  leaf  of  Polypodium  bearing  common  polypody  (about  \  nat. 
sori,  s,  on  its  back.  size). 

I.  Group  of  spore-cases  (iorMj)  on 
back  of  leaf  (X  4). 

There  are  a  large  number  of  varieties,  differing  chiefly 
in  the  form  and  division  of  the  pinnae;  var.  cambricwm  (origin- 
ally found  in  Wales)  has  the  pinnae  themselves  deeply  cut 
into  narrow  segments;  var.  cornubiense  is  a' very  elegant  plant 
with  finely-divided  fronds;  var.  cristatum  is  z  handsome  variety 
with  fronds  forking  at  the  apex  and  the  tips  of  all  the  pinnae 
crested  and  curled.  P  dryopteris,  generally  known  as  oak- 
fern,  is  a  very  graceful  plant  with  delicate  fronds,  6  to  12  in. 
long,  the  three  main  branches  of  which  are  themselves  pinnately 
divided;  it  is  found  in  dry,  shady  places  in  mountain  districts 
in  Great  Britain,  but  is  very  rare  in  Ireland.  P  phegopteris 
(beechfern)  is  a  graceful  species  with  a  black,  slender  root-stock, 
from  which  the  pinnate  fronds  rise  on  long  stalks,  generally 
about  12  in.  long,  including  the  stalk;  it  is  characterized  by 
having  the  lower  pinnae  of  the  frond  deflexed;  it  is  generally 
distributed  in  Britain,  though  not  common.  Many  other 
species  from  different  parts  of  the  world  are  known  in  green- 
house cultivation. 

POLYPUS,  a  term  signifying  a  tumour  which  is  attached  by 
a  narrow  neck  to  the  walls  of  a    cavity  lined  with    mucous 


membrane.  A  polypus  or  polypoid  tumour  may  belong  to  any 
variety  of  tumour,  either  simple  or  malignant.  The  most  com- 
mon variety  is  a  polypus  of  the  nose  of  simple  character  and 
easily  removed.  Polypi  are  also  met  with  in  the  ear,  larynx, 
uterus,  bladder,  vagina,  and  rectum.     (See  Tumour.) 

POLYTECHNIC  (Gr.  ttoMs,  many,  and  Ttxvri,  an  art),  a 
term  which  may  be  held  to  designate  any  institution  formed 
with  a  view  to  encourage  or  to  illustrate  various  arts  and  sciences. 
It  has,  however,  been  used  with  different  applications  in  several 
European  countries.  In  France  the  first  Scole  polytechnique 
was  founded  by  the  National  Convention  at  the  end  of  the  1 8th 
century,  as  a  practical  protest  against  the  almost  exclusive 
devotion  to  hterary  and  abstract  studies  in  the  places  of  higher 
learning.  The  institution  is  described  as  one  "  ou  Ton  instruit 
les  jeunes  gens,  destines  a  entrer  dans  les  6coles  speciales 
d'artillerie,  du  genie,  des  mines,  des  ponts  et  chaussees,  cree  en 
1794  sous  le  nom  d'ecole  centrale  des  travaux  publiques,  et 
en  179s  sous  celui  qu'elle  porte  aujourd'hui  "  (LittrS).  In  Ger- 
many there  are  nine  technical  colleges  which,  in  like  manner, 
have  a  special  and  industrial  rather  than  a  general  educational 
purpose.  In  Switzerland  the  principal  educational  institution, 
which  is  not  maintained  or  administered  by  the  communal 
authorities,  but  is  non-local  and  provided  by  the  Federal  govern- 
ment, is  the  Polytechnikum  at  Zurich.  In  all  the  important 
towns  of  the  Federation  there  are  trade  and  technical  schools 
of  a  more  or  less  special  character,  adapted  to  the  local  indus- 
tries; e.g.  schools  for  silk-weaving,  wood-carving,  watchmaking, 
or  agriculture.  But  the  Zurich  Polytechnikum  has  a  wider  and 
more  comprehensive  range  of  work.  It  is  a  college  designed 
to  give  instruction  and  practical  training  in  those  sciences  which 
stand  in  the  closest  relation  to  manufactures  and  commerce 
and  to  skilled  industry  in  general  and  its  work  is  of  university 
rank. 

To  the  English  public  the  word  polytechnic  has  only  recently 
become  familiar,  in  connexion  with  some  London  institutions  of 
an  exceptional  character.  In  the  reign  of  WilHam  The  First 
IV.  there  was  an  institution  in  London  called  after  Polytechnics 
the  name  of  his  consort— "  The  Adelaide  Gallery"  '^Bngland. 
— and  devoted  rather  to  the  display  of  new  scientific  inven- 
tions and  curiosities  than  to  research  or  to  the  teaching  of 
science.  It  enjoyed  an  ephemeral  popularity,  and  was  soon 
imitated  by  an  institution  called  the  Polytechnic  in  Regent 
Street,  with  a  somewhat  more  pretentious  programme,  a  diving- 
bell,  electrical  and  mechanical  apparatus,  besides  occasional 
illustrated  lectures  of  a  popular  and  more  or  less  recreative 
character.  In  the  popular  mind  this  institution  is  inseparably 
associated  with  "  Professor  "  Pepper,  the  author  of  The  Boy's 
Playbook  of  Science  and  of  Pepper's  Ghost.  Both  of  these 
institutions,  after  a  few  years  of  success,  failed  financially;  and 
in  1880  Mr  Quintin  Hogg,  an  active  and  generous  philan- 
thropist, purchased  the  disused  building  in  Regent  Street,  and 
reopened  it  on  an  altered  basis,  though  still  retaining  the  name 
of  Polytechnic,  to  which,  however,  he  gave  a  new  significance. 
He  had  during  sixteen  years  been  singularly  successful  in 
gathering  together  young  shopmen  and  artisans  in  London  in 
the  evenings  and  on  Sunday  for  rehgious  and  social  intercourse, 
and  in  acquiring  their  confidence.  But  by  rapid  degrees  his 
enterprise,  which  began  as  an  evangelistic  effort,  developed  into 
an  educational  institution  of  a  novel  and  comprehensive  char- 
acter, with  classes  for  the  serious  study  of  science,  art,  and 
literature,  a  gymnasium,  Ubrary,  reading  circles,  laboratories 
for  physics  and  chemistry,  conversation  and  debating  clubs, 
organized  country  excursions,  swimming,  rowing,  and  natural 
history  societies,  a  savings  bank,  and  choral  singing,  besides 
religious  services,  open  to  all  the  members,  though  not  obli- 
gatory for  any.  The  founder,  who  from  the  first  took  the 
closest  personal  interest  in  the  students,  well  describes  his  own 
aims:  "  What  we  wanted  to  develop  our  institute  into  was  a 
place  which  should  recognize  that  God  had  given  man  more  than 
one  side  to  his  character,  and  where  we  could  gratify  any  reason- 
able taste,  whether  athletic,  intellectual,  spiritual  or  social. 
The  success  of  this  effort  was  remarkable.     In  the  first  winter 


POLYTECHNIC 


39 


6800  members  joined,  pajring  fees  of  3s.  per  term,  or  los.  6d.  per 
year;  and  the  members  steadily  increased,  untU  in  1900  they 
reached  a  total  of  15,000  The  average  daUy  attendance  is 
4000;  six  hundred  classes  in  different  grades  and  subjects  are 
held  weekly;  and  upwards  of  forty  clubs  and  societies  have  been 
formed  in  connexion  with  the  recreative  and  social  departments. 

The  precedent  thus  established  by  private  initiative  has  since 
been  followed  in  the  formation  of  the  public  institutions  which, 
Later  Under  the  name  of    "  Polytechnics,"    have   become 

lastitutlons  SO  prominent  and  have  exercised  such  beneficent 
otihis  influence  among  the  working  population  of  London. 
Class,  ■pjjg    principal    resources    for    the    foundation    and 

maintenance  of  these  institutions  have  been  derived  from  two 
funds — that  administered  under  the  City  Parochial  Charities 
Act  of  1883,  and  that  furnished  by  the  London  County  Council, 
at  first  under  the  terms  of  the  Local  Taxation  (Customs  and 
Excise)  Act  of  1890,  and  the  Technical  Instruction  Act  1889, 
but  since  the  ist  of  May  1904  under  the  Education  Act  1902, 
as  applied  to  London  by  the  act  of  1903.  More  detailed  refer- 
ence to  these  two  acts  seems  to  be  necessary  in  this  place. 

The  royal  commission  of  inquiry  into  the  parochial  char- 
ities of  London  was  appointed  in  1878,  mainly  at  the  instance 
The  City  °^  ^"^  James  Bryce,  and  under  the  presidency  of 
Parochial  the  Duke  of  Northumberland.  Its  report  appeared 
Charities  in  1880,  giving  particulars  of  the  income  of  the 
'*"'■  parishes,  and  revealing  the  fact  that  the  funds  had 

largely  outgrown  the  original  purposes  of  the  endowments, 
which  were  ill  adapted  to  the  modern  needs  of  the  class  for 
whose  benefit  they  were  intended.  The  act  of  parhament  of 
1883  was  designed  to  give  effect  to  the  recommendations  of 
the  commissioners.  It  provided  that  while  five  of  the  largest 
parishes  were  to  retain  the  management  of  their  own  charitable 
funds,  the  endowments  of  the  remaining  107  parishes  in  the 
city  should  be  administered  by  a  corporate  body,  to  be  en- 
titled "  the  Trustees  of  the  London  Parochial  Charities"  (other- 
wise known  in  relation  to  the  polytechnics  as  "  the  Central 
Governing  Body"  ),  this  body  to  include  five  nominees  of  the 
Crown  and  four  of  the  corporation  of  London.  The  remaining 
members  were  to  be  chosen  under  a  subsequent  scheme  of  the 
charity  commission,  which  added  four  nominees  of  the  Lon- 
don County  Council,  two  of  the  Ecclesiastical  Commissioners, 
and  one  each  appointed  by  the  university  of  London,  Univer- 
sity College,  King's  College,  the  City  and  Guilds  institute,  and 
the  governing  bodies  of  the  Bishopsgate  and  the  Cripplegate 
foundations.  For  the  purpose  of  framing  the  scheme,  a  special 
commissioner,  Mr  James  Anstie,  Q.C.,  was  temporarily  attached 
to  the  charity  commission,  and  it  thus  became  the  duty  of  the 
commission  to  prepare  a  statement  of  the  charity  property 
possessed  by  the  107  parishes,  distinguishing  between  the  secular 
and  the  ecclesiastical  parts  of  the  endowments.  The  annual 
income  derived  from  the  ecclesiastical  fund  was  £35,000,  and 
that  from  the  secular  portion  of  the  fund  £50,000.  The 
scheme  assigned'  capital  grants  amounting  to  £155,000  to  the 
provision  of  open  spaces,  and  £149,500  to  various  institutions, 
including  free  libraries  in  Bishopsgate  and  Cripplegate,  the 
People's  Palace,  the  Regent  Street  and  Northampton  Institutes, 
and  the  Victoria  Hall.  A  capital  sum  of  £49,355  out  of  the 
ecclesiastical  fund  was  devoted  to  the  repair  of  city  churches; 
and  the  balance  of  the  annual  income  of  this  fund,  after 
allowances  for  certain  vested  interests,  was  directed  to  be  paid 
to  the  Ecclesiastical  Commissioners.  This  balance  has  varied  by 
slight  increases  from  year  to  year,  and  amounted  in  1906  to 
£20,875.  The  remaining  fund  thus  set  free  for  secular  purposes 
was  by  the  scheme  largely  devoted  to  the  erection  and  main- 
tenance of  polytechnic  institutions,  or  "  industrial  institutes," 
as  they  were  at  first  called.  It  was  the  opinion  of  Mr  Anstie 
and  his  fellow-commissioners  that  in  this  way  it  would  be  possible 
to  meet  one  of  the  most  urgent  of  the  intellectual  needs  of  the 
metropolis,  and  to  render  service  nearly  akin  to  the  original 
purposes  of  the  obsolete  charitable  endowments.  For  the  year 
1906-1907  the  grants  made  to  the  polytechnics  and  kindred 
institutions  (the  Working  Men's  College,  College  for  Working 


Women,  &c.)  by  the  Central  Governing  Body  amounted  to 
£39,140,  and  the  total  amount  contributed  hy  the  Central 
Governing  Body  since  its  creation  amounts  to  £543,000. 

The  general  scope  and  aims  of  the  institutions  thus  con- 
templated by  the  commissioners  are  defined  in  the    ^  Tyeical 
"  general  regulations  ior  the  management  of  an  Indus-    Scheme 
trial  institute,"  which  are  appended  as  a  schedule  to    uodertbe 
the  several  schemes,  and  which  run  as  follows: —  ■^'*' 

The  object  of  this  institution  is  the  promotion  of  the  industrial 
skill,  general  knowledge,  health  and  well-being  of  young  men  and 
women  belonging  to  the  poorer  classes  by  the  following  means: — 

i.  Instruction  in — 

a.  The  general  rules  and  principles  of  the  arts  and  sciences 

applicable  to  any  handicraft,  trade  or  business. 

b.  The    practical    application    of    such    general    rules    and 

principles  in  any  handicraft,  trade  or  business. 

c.  Branches  or  details  of  any  handicraft,  trade  or  business, 

facilities  for  acquiring  the  knowledge  of  which  cannot 
usually  be  obtained  in  the  workshop  or  other  place 
of  business. 

The  classes  and  lectures  shall  not  be  designed  or  arranged  so  as 
to  be  in  substitution  for  the  practical  experience  of  the  workshop 
or  place  of  business,  but  so  as  to  be  supplementary  thereto. 

ii.  Instruction  suitable  for  persons  intending  to  emigrate. 

iii.  Instruction  in  such  other  branches  and  subjects  of  art, 
science,  language,  literature  and  general  knowledge  as  may  be 
approved  by  the  governing  body. 

iv.  Public  lectures  or  courses  of  lectures,  musical  and  other 
entertainments  and  exhibitions. 

V.  Instruction  and  practice  in  gymnastics,  drill,  swimming  and 
other  bodily  exercises. 

vi.  Facilities  for  the  formation  and  meeting  of  clubs  and  societies. 

vii.  A  library,  museum  and  reading  room  or  rooms. 

Within  the  limits  prescribed,  the  governing  body  may  from  time 
to  time,  out  of  the  funds  at  their  disposal,  provide  and  maintain 
buildings  and  grounds,  including  workshops  and  laboratories  suit- 
able for  all  the  purposes  herein  specified,  and  the  necessary  furniture, 
fittings,  apparatus,  models  and  books,  and  may  provide  or  receive 
by  gift  or  on  loan  works  of  art  or  scientific  construction,  or  objects 
of  interest  and  curiosity,  for  the  purpose  of  the  institute,  and  for 
the  purpose  of  temporary  exhibition. 

Other  provisions  in  the  scheme  require:  (1)  that  the  educa- 
tional benefits  of  the  institute  shaU.  be  available  for  both  sexes 
equally,  but  that  common  rooms,  refreshment  rooms,  gymnasia 
and  swimming-baths  may  be  established  separately,  under  such 
suitable  arrangements  as  may  be  approved  by  the  governing 
body;  (2)  that  the  fees  and  subscriptions  shall  be  so  fi^ed  as  to 
place  the  benefits  of  the  institute  within  the  reach  of  the  poorer 
classes;  (3)  that  no  intoxicating  liquors,  smoking  or  gambling 
shall  be  allowed  in  any  part  of  the  building;  (4)  that  the  build- 
ings, ground  and  premises  shaU  not  be  used  for  any  political, 
denominational  or  sectarian  purpose,  although  this  rule  shall 
not  be  deemed  to  prohibit  the  discussion  of  political  subjects 
in  any  debating  society  approved  by  the  governing  body;  (5) 
that  no  person  under  the  age  of  sixteen  .or  above  twenty-five 
shall  be  admitted  to  membership  except  on  special  grounds, 
and  that  the  number  thus  specially  admitted  shall  not  exceed 
5  %  of  the  total  number  of  members. 

These  and  the  like  provisions  have  formed  the  common  basis 
for  all  the  metropolitan  polytechnics.     In  1890  a  large  sum 
was  placed  by  the  Local  Taxation   (Customs   and 
Excise)  Act  at  the  disposal  of  the  county  and  county  ^/^.a/^gj!^ 
borough  councils  for  the  general  purposes  of  tech- 0/ tie 
nical  education,   and  in   1893   the  London   County  ^<"'<'<"' 
Council  determined  to  devote  a  considerable  portion  ?""'-r, 
ot  this  revenue  to  the  further  development  and  sus- 
tentation  of  polytechnics.     While  the  funds  granted  by  the 
Central  Governing  Body  may  be  employed  in  aid  of  the  social 
and   recreative   as   well   as   the   educational  purposes  of  the 
various  institutes,  it  is  a  statutory  obligation  that  the  sums 
contributed  by  the  London  County  Council  should  be  applied 
to  educational  work  only. 

Dr  William  Garnett,  the  educational  adviser  of  the  London 
County  Council,  has,  in  a  published  lecture  delivered  before 
the  international  congress  on  technical  education  in  June 
1897,  thus  described  the  conditions  under  which  the  council 
offers  financial  help  to  the  London  polytechnics: — 


40 


POLYTECHNIC 


The  objects  which  the  technical  education  board  has  had  in 
view  in  its  dealings  with  the  polytechnics  have  been : — 

1.  To  allow  to  the  several  governing  bodies  the  greatest  possible 
freedom  in  the  conduct  of  social,  recreative  and  even_  religious 
work  within  the  provisions  of  the  schemes  of  the  Charity  Com- 
missioners. 

2.  To  secure  to  each  polytechnic  the  services  of  an  educational 
principal,  who  should  be  responsible  to  his  governing  body  for 
the  organization  and  conduct  of  the  whole  of  the  work  of  the 
institution. 

3.  To  provide  in  each  polytechnic  a  permanent  staff  of  teachers, 
who  should  be  heads  of  their  respective  departments  and  give 
their  whole  time  to  the  work  of  the  institution,  and  thus  to 
establish  a  corporate  or  collegiate  life  in  the  polytechnic. 

4.  To  ensure  that  all  branches  of  experimental  science  are  taught 
experimentally,  and  that  the  students  have  the  opportunity  of 
carrying  out  practical  laboratory  work,  at  an  inclusive  fee  not 
exceeding  ten  shillings  for  any  one  subject. 

5.  To  provide  efficient  workshop  instruction  in  all  practical  trade 
subjects. 

6.  To  secure  that  the  number  of  students  under  the  charge  of 
any  one  teacher  in  laboratory  or  workshop  classes,  or  in  other 
classes  in  which  personal  supervision  is  of  paramount  importance, 
shall  not  exceed  a  stated  limit  (fifteen  in  the  workshop,  or  twenty 
in  the  laboratory). 

7.  To  exclude  from  classes  students  who,  for  want  of  preliminary 
training,  are  incapable  of  profiting  by  the  instruction  provided; 
and  to  this  end  to  restrict  the  attendance  at  workshop  classes  to 
those  who  are  actually  engaged  in  the  trades  concerned,  and  have 
thus  opportunities  of  acquiring  the  necessary  manual  dexterity  in 
the  performance  of  their  ciaily  duties. 

8.  To  furnish  an  adequate  fixed  stipend  for  all  teachers,  in  place 
of  a  contingent  interest  in  fees  and  grants. 

9.  To  encourage  private  subscriptions  and  donations. 
ID.  To  establish  an  efficient  system  of  inspection. 

11.  To  facilitate  the  advertisement  of  polytechnic  classes,  and 
especially  to  invite  the  co-operation  of  trade  societies  in  supporting 
their  respective  classes. 

12.  To  encourage  the  higher  development  of  some  special  branch 
of  study  in  each  polytechnic. 

13.  To  utilize  the  polytechnic  buildings  as  far  as  possible  in  the 
daytime  by  the  establishment  of  technical  day  schools,  or  otherwise. 

14.  To  secure  uniformity  in  the  keeping  of  accounts. 

The  regulations  under  which  the  council  has 
attempted  to  secure  its  objects  by  means  of 
grants  have  been  changed  from  time  to  time  as 
the  work  of  the  polytechnics  has  developed, 
but  they  provide  that  the  council's  aid  should 
be  partly  in  the  form  of  a  fixed  grant  to  each 
institution,  partly  a  share  of  the  salaries  of  the 
principal  and  the  permanent  teachers,  partly 
a  grant  on  attendance,  the  scale  depending  on 
the  subject  and  character  of  the  instruction,  and 
partly  a  subsidy  (15%)  on  voluntary  contri- 
butions. In  addition  to  the  annual  grants  for 
maintenance,  substantial  grants  for  building 
and  equipment  are  made  from  time  to  time. 

The  scale  of  grants  adopted  by  the  council  for  the 
session  1907-1908  was  the  following: — 

i.  A  fixed  grant  assigned  to  each  polytechnic. 

ii.  Three-fourths  of  the  salary  of  the  principal 
(subject  to  certain  conditions). 

iii.  Fifty  per  cent,  of  the  salaries  of  heads  of  approved 
departments. 

iv.  Ten  per  cent,  of  the  salaries  of  other  teachers. 

v.  Fifteen  per  cent,  on  (voluntary)  annual  subscriptions  or 
donations. 

vi.  Attendance  grants  on  evening  classes  varying  from  id.  to 
6d.  per  student-hour  (subject  to  certain  conditions  of  minimum 
attendance,  eligibility,  &c.). 

vii.  Special  grants  not  exceeding  £50  for  courses  of  lectures  on 
particular  subjects  required  or  approved  by  the  council. 

viii.  Special  grants  towards  any  departments  which  the  council 
may  desire  to  see  established  or  maintained. 

ix.  Equipment  grants  and  building  grants  in  accordance  with 
the  special  requirements  of  the  institutions. 

The  above  grants  are  independent  of  any  contributions  which 
the  council  may  make  towards  secondary  day  schools  or  day 
schools  of  domestic  economy  or  training  colleges  of  domestic  economy 
in  the  polytechnics. 

With  a  view  to  a  due  division  of  labour,  and  also  to  the  co- 
operation of  the  public  bodies  concerned,  the  "  London  Poly- 
technic Council"    was  created  in  1894.     It  was  composed  of 


representatives  of  the  Central  Governing  Body,  the  technical 
education  board  of  the  London  County  Council,  and  the 
City  and  Guilds  of  London  Institute,  and  its  duty  was  to  consult 
as  to  the  appropriation  of  funds,  the  organiza- ionrfon 
tion  of  teaching,  the  holding  of  needful  exumina- Pofytecbnlc 
tions,  and  the  supervision  of  the  work  generally.  ^"""^  • 
After  ten  years  of  work  the  London  polytechnic  council 
was  dissolved  in  the  summer  of  1904  in  consequence  of  the 
abolition  of  the  technical  education  board  of  the  London 
County  Council,  when  the  council  became  responsible  for  all 
grades  of  education.  A  statement  below  shows  the  number 
and  names  of  the  several  institutions,  and  the  extent  to  which 
they  have  been  severally  aided  by  the  Central  Governing  Body 
and  the  London  County  Council. 

The  "  People's  Palace"  owes  its  origin  in  part  to  the  popu- 
larity of  a  novel  by  Sir  Walter  Besant,  entitled  All  Sorts  and 
Conditions  of  Men,  in  which  the  writer  pointed  out  The 
the  sore  need  of  the  inhabitants  of  East  London  People's 
for  social  improvement  and  healthy  recreation,  P^i^ce. 
and  set  forth  an  imaginary  picture  of  a  "  Palace  of  Delight," 
wherein  this  need  might  be  partly  satisfied.  Much  pubUc 
interest  was  awakened,  large  subscriptions  were  given,  and 
the  Central  Governing  Body  aided  the  project;  but  the 
munificence  of  the  drapers'  company  in  setting  aside  £7000  a 
year  for  its  permanent  maintenance  released  the  London  County 
Council  from  any  obligation  to  make  a  grant.  Apart  from  the 
social  and  recreative  side  of  this  popular  institution,  the  edu- 
cational section,  under  the  name  of  the  East  London  Technical 
College,  steadily  increased  in  numbers  and  influence  under  the 
fostering  care  of  the  drapers'  company  and  has  now  been  re- 
cognized as  a  "school"  of  the  university  of  London  under 
the  title  of  "  The  East  London  College"  and  is  being  utilized 
by  the  London  County  Council  in  the  same  way  as  other  "  schools 
of  the  university." 


Grants  to  the  London  Polytechnics  during  the  Session  1906-1907. 


Central  Governing  Body.  London  County  Council. 

Under 
Scheme. 

Voluntary 
Grants. 

Buildings 

and 

Equipment. 

Main- 
tenance. 

Battersea  Polytechnic     . 
Birkbeck  College  .... 
Borough  Road  Polytechnic 
City  of  London  College 
East  London  College 
Northampton  Institute 
Northern  Polytechnic 
Regent  Street  Polytechnic 
South- Western  Polytechnic 
Woolwich  Polytechnic 
Sir  John  Cass's  Institute  . 

Total     .                       £ 

2,500 
1,000 
2,500 
1,000 
3.500 
3.350 
1,500 
3.500 
1,500 

nil 

nil 

1,701 
1,005 

1.563 
901 
224 

1.555 
2,183 

3.916 

2,091 

1,000 

50 

1.545 
445 
820 

515 
nil 

3.415 
2,660 

965 
1.275 
2,525 

510 

4.760 
3.450 
5.285 
3.725 
nil 

4.525 
4.145 
7.665 
6,265 

5.495 
2,400 

20,350 

16,189 

14.675 

47.715 

In  the  above  table  the  grants  are  given  to  the  nearest  pound. 
Up  to  July  1907  the  total  expenditure  of  the  council  upon  the 
polytechnics,  apart  from  the  day  schools,  training  colleges,  &c., 
conducted  in  them,  vv'as  about  £525,000,  almost  exactly  the 
same  as  that  of  the  Central  Governing  Body.  The  voluntary 
grants  from  the  central  governing  body  include  a  contribution 
towards  a  compassionate  fund,  and  a  pension  fund  based  on 
endowment  assurances  for  all  permanent  oflScers  of  the  poly- 
technics in  receipt  of  salaries  of  not  less  than  £100  a  year. 

The  grants  received  from  the  board  of  education  amount 
to  about  £30,000  a  year,  while  the  fees  of  students  and  members 
produce  about  £45,000.  Voluntary  subscriptions,  including 
those  from  city  companies  and  other  sources  of  income,  pro- 
duce about  £30,000  in  addition,  so  that  out  of  a  total  expendi- 
ture of  about  £200,000  a  year  the  council  now  contributes  30%, 
the  Central  Governing  Body  18%,  fees  221%,  the  board 
of  education  15%  and  city  companies  and  other  subscribers 
iS%- 


POLYTECHNIC 


41 


The  Goldsmiths'  Institute  at  New  Cross  owed  its  existence 
and  its  annual  maintenance  to  the  generous  initiative  of  the 
ancient  city  gild  whose  name  it  bore.  It  was  therefore  entirely 
independent  ot  pecuniary  subsidy  from  any  other  pubUc  body. 
In  the  year  1900  the  number  of  class  entries  to  this  institute 
was  7S74.  In  1904  the  goldsmiths'  company  presented  the 
premises,  together  with  an  annual  subsidy,  to  the  university  of 
London  for  the  purposes  of  a  training  coUege  for  teachers,  so 
that  from  that  date  it  ceased  to  be  one  of  the  London  poly- 
technics, although,  pending  the  provision  of  other  premises,  many 
of  the  technical  evening  classes  have  been  continued  under 
the  London  County  Council  by  permission  of  the  university 
with  the  approval  of  the  company.  The  clothworkers'  com- 
pany has  also  contributed  £18,000  to  the  Northern  Polytechnic 
at  Holloway. 

In  all  these  institutions  the  general  aims  have  been  practically 
the  same,  although  special  features  have  been  differentiated 
Aimsaad  in>  order  to  meet  the  local  needs  and  the  wishes  of 
Methods,  the  inhabitants.  In  all  there  are  laboratories  and 
lecture  rooms,  trade  classes,  art  studios,  gymnasia,  provision 
for  manual  training  and  domestic  economy  and  applied  science. 
In  nearly  all,  at  first,  mechanical  and  manual  instruction 
were  the  prominent  objects  in  view,  partly  owing  to  the 
conditions  under  which  grants  were  made  by  the  science 
and  art  department.  But  of  late  increased  attention  has  been 
paid  year  by  year  to  literary  and  humaner  studies,  and  to 
general  mental  cultivation,  pursued  pari  passu  with  technical 
and  scientific  training.  The  aid  of  the  London  organization  for 
university  extension,  now  a  department  of  the  university, 
has  been  especially  serviceable  in  providing  courses  of  lectures 
and  classes  in  literary  subjects  at  nearly  all  the  polytechnics. 
As  subsidiary  to  their  main  work,  some  of  them  have  estab- 
lished junior  continuation  schools,  with  a  view  to  provide 
suitable  instruction  for  scholars  who  have  left  the  public  ele- 
mentary schools  and  are  not  yet  prepared  to  enter  the  technical 
and  trade  classes.  Although  the  workshops  and,  the  classes  for 
artisans  are  used  chiefly  in  the  evenings,  there  is  an  increasing 
number  of  day  students  :  e.g.  at  the  Northampton  Polytechnic 
Institute  in  ClerkenweU  there  is  a  very  important  day  school 
of  engineering  conducted  on  the  "sandwich  'system,"  the 
students  entering  engineering  works  for  the  summer  months 
and  returning  to  the  polytechnic  for  the  winter'  session;  at  the 
Battersea  Polytechnic  there  is  a,  very  important  training  col- 
lege for  teachers  of  domestic  economy;  at  Regent  Street  there 
are  day  schools  in  engineering, ,  architecture,  photo-process  and 
carriage-building;  at  the  South- Western  Polytechnic  there  are 
important  schools  of  mechanical  and  electrical  engineering  a;nd 
a  training  college '  for  women  teachers  of  physical  exercises; 
at  the  Northern  Polytechnic,  as  at,  Battersea,  there  is  a  training 
college  for  teachers  of  domestic  economy,  and  there  are 
departments  of  commerce  and  of  physics  and  chemistry,  while 
the  Woolwich  Polytechnic  receives  in  the  daytime,  by  special 
arrangement  with  the  war  office,  a  large  number  of  engineering 
apprentices  employed  in  the  arsenal.  •  In  short,  the  schemes  of 
the  several  institutions  are  so  elastic  that  the  governing  bodies 
are  at  liberty  to  open  any  classes  or  to  try  any  educational  or 
recreative  experiment  for  which  they  can  find  a  genuine  local 
demand.  The  total  number  of  scholars  in  the  polytechnics 
and  their  branch  institutions  is  variously  estimated  at  from 
40,000  to  50,000,  and  the  total  number;  of  regular  scholars  in  the 
evening  schools  of  the  council  does  not,  exceed  100,000.  These 
figures  may  be  usefully  compared  with  the  census  returns, 
which  show  that  within  the  metropolitan  area  there  are 
764,414  persons '  between  the  ages  of  thirteen  and  twenty- 
one.  It  is  a  noteworthy  fact  that,  whereas  in  the  population 
statistics  for  the  whole  of  England  and  Wales  the  number 
at  each  year  of  age  is  regularly  diminished  by  d«ath  from 
eight  years  onwards,  there  is'  a  steady  increase  in  London, 
year  by  year,  from  fourteen,  up  to  the  age  of  thirty.  This  fact 
is  owing  to  the  constant  immigration  of  young  men  and  women 
from  the  provinces  to  the  metropoUs.  The  census  commis- 
sioners in  their  report  for  1901  (p.  15)  computed  that  more  than 


one-third  of  the  population  of  London  were  not  natives.  They 
show  also  that,  if  all  England  and  Wales  be  taken  together, 
the  number  of  persons  between  twenty  and  twenty-one  is  less 
by  1 2 '8%  than  the  number  between  thirteen  and  fourteen; 
but  that,  taking  London  alone,  the  number  of  persons  between 
twenty  and  twenty-one  is  greater  by  14-4%  than  the  number 
between  thirteen  and  fourteen.  Hence,  the  proportion  of  the 
inhabitants  who  are  of  an  age  to  benefit  by  polytechnics  and 
continuation  schools  is  in  London  exceptionally  large.  It 
would  not  be  right  for  Londoners  to  complain  that  there  is  thus 
cast  upon  them  the  duty  of  providing  suitable  instruction  for  so 
many  immigrants,  for  if  the  great  city  drains  the  rural  districts 
of  some  of  their  best  brain  and  muscle,  she  gains  much  from 
their  industry  and  productive  power.  The  figures,  however, 
point  to  the  necessity  for  taking  every  means  possible  to 
raise  the  standard,  both  physical  and  intellectual,  of  the 
London  boy.  The  immigration  into  London  of  youths  and 
young  men  means  to  a  great  extent  the  substitution  of  the 
provinciaUy  trained  improver  or  artisan  for  the  less  fit  London 
boy,  who  consequently  falls  into  the  ranks  of  the  unskilled, 
then  of  the  unemployed  and  ultimately  of  the  unemployable. 

But  it  follows  from  the  particulars  thus  given  that  neither 
the  supply  of  suitable  provision  for  mental  improvement  and 
rational  recreation  for  the  wage-earning  classes,  nor  the  demand 
for  such  provision  on  the  part  of  the  workers  themselves  is 
commensurate  with  the  moral  and  intellectual  needs  of  a  com- 
munity of  nearly  seven  millions  of  people  (four  and  a  half 
millions  within  the  administrative  county).  The  provision  in 
evening  schools,  institutes,  classes  and  polytechnics  is  still  in 
some  respects  far  inferior  to  that  which  is  to  be  found  in  most 
German  and  Swiss  towns,  and  needs  to  be  greatly  increased. 
In  matters  relating  to  the  higher  life,  demand  does  not  always 
precede  supply;  it  is  simply  which  is  needed  not  only  to  satisfy 
the  public  demand,  but  to  create  it.  As  new  and  well-devised 
opportunities  for  mental  culture  are  placed  within  reach, 
they  will  be  more  and  more  appreciated,  new  and  healthier 
appetites  will  be  stimulated,  the  art  of  employing  leisure 
wisely  and  happily  wiU  be  more  systematically  studied,  and  the 
polytechnics  will  become  still  more  important  centres  of 
civilizing  and  educating  influence  than  they  have  hitherto 
been. 

In  particular,  the  reconstituted  university  of  London  has 
been  placed  in  new  and  most  helpful  relation  to  the  best  of  the 
polytechnics.  By  the  statutes  the  senate  of  the  university  is 
empowered  to  include  in  the  list  of  "  schools  of  the  university  " 
aU  institutions  which  are  duly  equipped  and  able  to  furnish 
suitable  instruction  of  an  advanced  and  scholarly  type;  and 
also  to  recognize  all  thoroughly  qualified  professors  in  their 
several  faculties  and  subjects  as  "  teachers  of  the  university," 
although'  some  of  their  classes  may  meet  in  the  evening  only, 
and  no  student  is  to  be  prevented  from  taking  a  degree  as  an 
internal  student  of  the  university  solely  because  he  can  attend 
classes  only  in  the  evening.  There  is  thus  a  way  open  for  the 
due  recognition  of  the ,  polytechnics  as  part  of  the  teaching 
machinery  of  the  university,  and  for  the  admission  of  the  best 
students  as  undergraduates,  with  all  the  rights  of  internal 
students.  The  great  possibilities  of  the  metropolitan  univer- 
sity under  its  new  conditions  were  at  first  hardly  revealed  or 
accurately  foreseen.  But  there  were  during  the  session  1906-1907 
no  less  than  eighty-six  recognized  "teachers  of  the  university" 
on  the  staffs  of  the  London  polytechnics  and  more  than  750 
students  who  were  working  for  London  University  degrees 
in  the  polytechnic  classes.  There  is  no  reason  to  fear  that 
the  recreative,  social;  manual  and  industrial  training,  to  which 
at  first  the  special  attention  of  the  founder  of  the  Regent  Street 
Polytechnic  was  directed,  will  suffer  from  a  fuller  expansion 
of  the  academic  and  literary  side  of  "  polytechnic  "  life.  Rather 
it  may  be  hoped  that  the  due  co-ordination  of  the  practical  with 
the  purely  intellectual  purposes  of  these  institutions  will  serve 
to  give  to  all  the  students,  whatever  their  future  destination 
may  be,  a  truer  and  broader  conception  of  the  value  of  mental 
culture  for  its  own  sake. 


42 


POLYXENA— POLYZOA 


See  also  a  paper  by  Mr  Sidney  Webb,  The  London  Polytechnic 
Institutes,  in  the  second  volume  of  special  reports  on  educational 
subjects  (1898)  issued  by  the  Education  Department;  the  Report 
of  the  Central  Governing  Body  of  the  London  Parochial  Charities; 
the  Annual  Reports  of  the  London  County  Council;  the  Polytechnic 
Magazine,  published  from  time  to  time  at  the  institute  in  Regent 
Street;  and  various  memoirs  and  papers  contained  in  the  Proceed- 
ings of  the  International  Congress  on  Technical  Education  (1897), 
especially  two — that  by  Mr  Quintin  Hogg,  detailing  his  own  early 
experience  in  founding  the  first  polytechnic,  and  that  of  Dr  William 
Garnett,  then  secretary  of  the  Technical  Education  Board. 

(J.  G.  F.;  W.  G.) 

POLYXENA,  in  Greek  legend,  daughter  of  Priam,  king  of 
Troy,  and  Hecuba.  She  had  been  betrothed  to  Achilles,  who 
was  slain  by  Paris  in  the  temple  of  ApoUo  Thymbraeus,  where 
the  marriage  was  to  have  been  celebrated  (Hyginus,  Fab.  no). 
The  shade  of  Achilles  afterwards  appeared  to  the  returning 
Greeks  in  the  Thracian  Chersonese  and  demanded  the  sacrifice 
of  Polyxena,  who  was  put  to  death  by  Neoptolemus,  son  of 
Achilles,  on  his  father's  grave  (Ovid,  Metam.  xiii.  440  sqq.). 
The  tragic  story  is  the  subject  of  the  Hecuba  of  Euripides,  the 
Troades  of  Seneca  and  the  Polyxena  of  Sophocles,  of  which  only 
a  few  fragments  remain.  According  to  Philostratus  (Heroica, 
20,  18),  Polyxena  fled  to  the  Greeks  after  the  murder  of  Achilles 
and  committed  suicide  on  his  tomb. 

POLYZOA,  in  zoology,  a  term  (introduced  by  J.  V.  Thompson, 
1830)  synonymous  with  Bryozoa  (Ehrenberg,  1831)  for  a  group 
commonly  included  with  the  Brachiopoda  in  the  Molluscoidea 
(Milne  Edwards,  1843).  The  correctness  of  this  association  is 
questionable,  and  the  Polyzoa  are  here  treated  as  a  primary 
division  or  phylum  of  the  animal  kingdom.  They  may  be 
defined  as  aquatic  animals,  forming  colonies  by  budding;  with 
ciliated  retractile  tentacles  and  a  U-shaped  alimentary  canal. 
The  phylum  is  subdivided  as  follows. 

Class  I.  Entoprocta  (Nitsche).  Lophophore  circular,  in- 
cluding both  mouth  and  anus.  Tentacles  infolded,  during 
retraction,  into  a  vestibule  which  can  be 
closed  by  a  sphincter.  Body-wall  not 
calcified,  body-cavity  absent.  Definite 
excretory  organs  present.  Reproductive 
organs  with  ducts  leading  to  the  vesti- 
bule. Zooids  possessing  a  high  degree 
of  individuality.  Loxosoma  Pedicellina 
(fig.  i),   Unatella. 

Class  II.  EcTOPROCTA  (Nitsche). 
Lophophore  circular  or  horseshoe 
shaped,  including  the  mouth  but  not 
the  anus.  Tentacles  retractile  into  an 
introvert  ("  tentacle-sheath  ").  Body- 
wall  membranous  or  calcified,  body- 
cavity  distinct.  Specific  excretory 
organs  absent,  with  the  doubtful  excep- 
tion of  the  Phylactolaemata.  Repro- 
ductive organs  not  continuous  with  ducts. 
Zooids  usually  connected  laterally  with 
their  neighbours. 

Order   i.     Gymnolaemata   (Allman). — 

(After  van  Beneden.)         Lophophore    circular,     with    no    epistome. 

Fig.  I. — Part  of  the  Body-cavities    of    zooids     not    continuous 

creeping    stolon,    with  with  one  another.    Body-wall  not  muscular. 

zooids,    of    Pedicellina      Sub-order    i.    Trepostomata    (Ulrich); 

belgica.  Fossil. — Zooecia,   long   and  coherent,   pris- 

a,  c.  Stalks  of  zooids  matic  or  cylindrical,  with  terminal  orifices, 

of    different    ages;    J,  their    wall    thin    and    simple    in    structure 

jjy^  proximally,     thickened     and     complicated 

distally.    Cavity  of  the  zooeciura  subdivided 

by  transverse  diaphragms,   most  numerous  in  the  distal  portion. 

Orifices  of  the  zooecia  often  separated  by  pores  (mesopores). 

Sub-order  2.  Cryptostomata  (Vine);  Fossil. — Zooecia  usually 
short.  Orifice  concealed  at  the  bottom  of  a  vestibular  shaft,  sur- 
rounded by  a  solid  or  vesicular  calcareous  deposit. 

Sub-order  3.  Cyclostomata  (Busk). — Zooecia  prismatic  or 
cylindrical,  with  terminal,  typically  circular  orifice,  not  protected 
by  any  special  organ.  The  ovicells  are  modified  zooecia,  and 
contain  numerous  embryos  which  in  the  cases  so  far  investigated 
arise  by  fission  of  a  primary  embryo  developed  from  an  egg.  Crisia 
(fig.  2),  TubuKpora,  Hornera,  Lichenopora. 
Sub-order  A.  Ctenostomata  CBusk). — Zooecia  with  soft  uncalci- 


fied'  walls,  the  external  part  of  the  introvert  being  closed  during 
retraction  by  a  membranous  collar.  Zooecia  either  arising  from 
a  stolon,  without  lateral  connexion  with  one  another,  or  laterally 
united  to  form  sheets.  Alcyonidium,  Flustrella,  Bowerbankia 
(fig.  3),  Farrella,  Victorella,,PaludiceUa. 


(After  Hincks.) 

Fig.  2. — Part  of  a  Branch  of  Crisia  eburnea. 
g,  zooecia ;  x,  imperfectly  developed  ovicell. 

Sub-order  5.  Cheilostomata  (Busk). — Zooecia  with  more  or 
less  calcified  walls.  Orifice  closed  by  a  lid-like  operculum.  Poly- 
morphism usually  occurs,  certain  individuals  having  the  form  of 

avicularia  or  vibracula.  The 
ovicells  commonly  found  as 
globular  swellings  surmounting 
:'  the  orifices  are  not  direct 
modifications  of  zooecia,  and 
each  typically  contains  a  single 
egg  or  embryo.  Membranipora, 
Flustra,  Onychocella,  Lunu- 
lites,  Steganoporella,  Scrupo- 
cellaria,  Menipea,  Caberea, 
Bicellaria,      Bugula,      Beania, 


(After  Hincks.) 


(After  Hincks.) 


Fig.  3. — Part  of  a  branch  of        Fig.  4. — Zooecia  of  UmbonuLa 

Bowerbankia  pustulosa,   showing  pavonella,     showing    a    pair    of 

the  thread-like  stolon  from  which  minute  avicularia  on  either  side 

arise  young  and  mature  zooecia.  of  the  orifice  of  each  zooecium. 
The   tentacles  are  expanded   in 
some  of  the  latter. 

Membraniporella,  Cribrilina,  Cellaria,  Micropora,  Selenaria,  Vm- 
bonula  (fig.  4),  Lepralia,  Schizoporella,  Cellepora,  Mucronella, 
Smittia,  Retepora,  Catenicella,  Microporella,  Adeona. 

Order  2.  Phylactolaemata  (Allman). — Lophophore  horse-shoe 
shaped,  or  in  Fredericella  circular.  Mouth  guarded  by  an  epistome. 
Body-cavities  of  zooids  continuous  with  one  another.  Body-wall 
uncalcified  and  muscular.  Reproduction  sexual  and  by  means  of 
"  statoblasts,"  peculiar  internal  buds  protected  by  a  chitinous  shell. 
Fredericella,  Plumatella  (fig.  5),  Lophopus,  Cristatella,  Pectitiatella. 

Hatschek  (1888)  treated  the  Entoprocta  as  a  division  of  his 
group  Scolecida,  characterized  by  the  possession  of  a  primary 
body-cavity  and  of  protonephridia;  while  he  placed  the  Ecto- 
procta,  with  the  Phoronida  and  Brachiopoda,  in  a  distinct  group, 
the  Tentaculata.  Against  this  view  may  be  urged  the  essential 
similarity  between  the  processes  of  budding  in  Entoprocta  and 
Ectoprocta  (cf.  Seehger,  Zeitschr.  luiss.  Zool.  xlix.  168;  1.,  560), 
and  the  resemblances  in  the  development  of  the  two  classes. 

Of  the  forms  above  indicated  there  is  no  palaeontological  evidence 
with  regard  to  the  Entoprocta.  The  Trepostomata  are  in  the 
main  Palaeozoic,  although  Heteropora,  of  which  recent  species  exist, 
IS  placed  by  Gregory  in  this  division.  The  Cryptostomata  are  also 
Palaeozoic,  and  include  the  abundant  and  widely-distributed 
genus  Fenesiella.  The  Cyclostomata  are  numerous  in  Palaeozoic 
rocks,  but  attained  a  specially  predominant  position  in  the  Creta- 
ceous strata,  where  they  are  represented  by  a  profusion  of  genera 
and  species;  while  they  still  survive  in  considerable  numbers  at 
the  present  day.  The  Ctenostomata  are  ill  adapted  for  preserva- 
tion as  fossils,  though  remains  referred  to  this  group  have  been 

'  Calcareous  spicules  have  been  described  by  Lomas  in  Alcyoni- 

,  dium  gelatinosum. 


POLYZOA 


43 


described  from  Palaeozoic  strata.  They  constitute  a  small  proportion 
of  the  recent  Polyzoa.  The  Cheilestomata  are  usually  believed  to 
have  made  their  appearance  in  the  Jurassic  period.  They  are  the 
dominant  group  at  the  present  day,  and 
are  represented  by  a  large  number  of 
genera  and  species.  The  Phylactolaemata 
are  a  small  group  confined  to  fresh  water, 
and  possess  clear  indications  of  adaptation 
to  that  habitat.  The  fresh-water  fauna 
also  contains  a  representative  of  the 
Entoprocta  (Urnatella),  two  or  three 
Ctenostomes,  such  as  Victorella  and  Palu- 
dicella,  and  one  or  two  species  of  Cheilo- 
stomata.  With  these  exceptions,  the 
existing  Polyzoa  are  marine  forms,  occur- 
ring from  between  tide-marks  to  abyssal 
depths  in  the  ocean. 

The  Polyzoa  are  colonial  animals,  the- 
colony  (zoarium)  originating  in  most 
cases  from  a  free-swimming  larva,  which 
attaches  itself  to  some  solid  object  and 
becomes  metamorphosed  into  the  primary 
individual,  or  "  ancestrula."  In  the 
Phylactolaemata,  however,  a  new  colony 
may  originate  not  only  from  a  larva,  but 
also  from  a  peculiar  form  of  bud  known 
as  a  statoblast,  or  by  the  fission  of  a 
fully-developed  colony.  The  ancestrula 
(After  AUman.)  inaugurates   a   process   of   budding,    con- 

FlG.  5.  —  Zooid  of  tinned  by  its  progeny,  and  thus  gives 
Plumatella,  with  ex-  rise  to  the  mature  colony.  In  Loxosoma 
panded  tentacles.  the  buds  break  off  as  soon  as  they  become 

a.    Anus ;  mature,  and  a  colonial  form  is  thus  hardly 

br,  Tentacles,  arranged  assumed.  In  other  Entoprocta  the  buds 
on  a  horseshoe  retain  a  high  degree  of  individuality,  a 
shaped  lopho-  thread-like  stolon  giving  off  the  cylindrical 
phore;  stalks,   each  of  which  dilates  at  its  end 

i,     Ectocyst;  into  the  body  of  a  zooid.     In  some  of  the 

V,  Caecum  of  stomach.  Ctenostomata  the  colony  is  similarly 
constituted,  a  branched  stolon  giving 
off  the  zooids,  which  are  not  connected  with  one  another.  In 
the  majority  of  Ectoprocta  there  is  no  stolon,  the  zooids  growing 
out  of  one  another  and  being  usually  apposed  so  as  to  form  con- 
tinuous sheets  or  branches.  In  the  encrusting  type,  which  is 
found  in  a  large  proportion  of  the  genera,  the  zooids  are  usually 
in  a  single  layer,  with  their  orifices  facing  away  from  the  sub- 
stratum; but  in  certain  species  the  colony  becomes  multilarainar 
by  the  continued  superposition  of  new  zooids  over  the  free  surfaces 
of  the  older  ones,  whose  orifices  they  naturally  occlude.  The 
zoarium  may  rise  up  into  erect  growths  composed  of  a  single  layer 
of  zooids,  the  orifices  of  which  are  all  on  one  surface,  or  of  two  layers 
of  zooids  placed  back  to  back,  with  the  orifices  on  both  sides  of 
the  fronds  or  plates.  The  rigid  Cheilostomes  which  have  this 
habit  were  formerly  placed  in  the  genus  Eschara,  but  the  bilaminar 
type  is  common  to  a  number  of  genera,  and  there  can  be  no  doubt 
that  it  is  not  in  itself  an  indication  of  affinity.  The  body-wall  is 
extensively  calcified  in  the  Cyclostomata  and  in  most  Cheilo- 
stomata,  which  may  form  elegant  network-like  colonies,  as  in  the 
unilaminar  genus  Retepora,  or  may  consist  of  wavy  anastomosing 
plates,  as  in  the  bilaminar  Lepralia  foliacea  of  the  British  coasts, 
specimens  of  which  may  have  a  diameter  of  many  inches.  In 
other  Cheilostomes  the  amount  of  calcification  may  be  much  less, 
the  supporting  skeleton  being  largely  composed  of  the  organic 
material  chitin.  In  Flustra  and  other  forms  belonging  to  this 
type,  the  zoarium  is  accordingly  flexible,  and  either  bilaminar 
or' unilaminar.  In  many  calcareous  forms,  both  Cheilostomes  and 
Cyclostomes,  the  zoarium  is  rendered  flexible  by  the  interposition 
of  chitinous  joints  at  intervals.  This  habit  is  characteristic  of  the 
genera  Crisia,  Cellaria,  Catenicella  and  others,  while  it  occurs  in 
certain  species  of  other  genera.  The  form  of  the  colony  may  thus 
be  a  good  generic  character,  or,  on  the  contrary,  a  single  genus  or 
even  species  may  assume  a  variety  of  different  forms.  While 
nearly  all  Polyzoa  are  permanently  fixed  to  one  spot,  the  colonies 
of  Cristatella  and  Lophopus  among  the  Phylactolaemata  can  crawl 
slowly  from  place  to  place. 

Anatomy. — The  zooids  of  which  the  colonies  of  Ectoprocta  are 
composed  consist  of  two  parts:  the  body- wall  and  the  visceral 
imass  (figs.  6,  9).  These  were  at  one  time  believed  to  represent 
two  individuals  of  different  kinds,  together  constituting  a  zooid. 
The  visceral  mass  was  accordingly  termed  the  "  polypide  "  and 
the  body-wall  which  contains  it  the  "  zooecium."  This  view 
depended  principally  on  the  fact  that  the  life  of  the  polypide  and 
of  the  zooecium  are  not  coextensive.  It  is  one  of  the  most  re- 
markable facts  in  the  natural-  history  of  the  Polyzoa  that  a  single 
zooecium  may  be  tenanted  by  several  polypides,  which  successively 
degenerate.  The  periodical  histolysis  -  may  be  partly  due  to  the 
absence  of  specific  excretory  organs  and  to  the  accumulation  of 
pigrnented  excretory  substances  in  the  wall  of  the  alimentary 
canal.  ::0n  the  degeneration  of  thei  polypide,  its  nutritive  material 
is  apparently  absorbed  for  the  benefit  of  the  zooid,  while  the  pig- 


mented substances  assume  a  spheroidal  form,  which  either  remains 
as  an  inert  "  brown  body  "  in  the  body-cavity  or  is  discharged  to 
the  exterior  by  the  alimentary  canal  of  the  new  polypide.  This 
is  formed  as  a  two-layered  "  polypide-bud,"  which  usually  develops 
from  the  inner  side  of  the  zooecial  wall,  and  soon  occupies  the  place 
of  the  previous  polypide.  The  inner  layer  of  the  polypide-bud 
gives  rise  to  the  structures  usually  regarded  as  ectodermic  and 
endodermic,  the  outer  layer  to  the  mesodermic  organs. 

The  polypide  consists  of  a  "  lophophore  "  bearing  a  series  of 
ciliated  tentacles  by  which  Diatoms  and  other  microscopic  bodies 
are  collected  as  food,  of  a  U-shaped  alimentary  canal,  and  of  a 
central  nervous  system.  While  the  mouth  is  invariably  encircled 
by  the  bases  of  the  tentacles,  the  anus  lies  within  the  series  in  the 
Entoprocta  and  outside  it  in  the  Ectoprocta.  The  lophophore  is 
a  simple  circle  in  all  Polyzoa  except  in  the  Phylactolaemata,  where 
it  typically  has  the  form  of  a  horse  shoe  outlined  by  the  bases  of 
the  tentacles.  In  Fredericella  belonging  to  this  order  it  is,  however, 
circular,  but  the  systematic  position  of  the  genus  is  sufficiently 
indicated  by  its  possession  of  an  "  epistome,"  a  lip-like  structure 
guarding  the  anal  side  of  the  mouth  in  all  Phylactolaemata  and 
absent  throughout  the  Gymnolaemata.  The  cavities  of  the  hollow 
tentacles  open  into  a  circular  canal  which  surrounds  the  oesophagus 
at  the  base  of  the  lophophore.  This  is  continuous  with  the  general 
body-cavity  in  the  Phylactolaemata,  while  in  the  Gymnolaemata 
it  develops  in  the  bud  as  a  part  of  the  body-cavity,  from  which 
it  becomes  completely  separated.  In  the  Entoprocta  the  tentacles 
are  withdrawn  by  being  infolded  into  the  "  vestibule,"  a  depression 
of  the  oral  surface  which  can  be  closed  by  a  sphincter  muscle.  In 
the  Ectoprocta  they  are  retractile  into  an  introvert,  the  "  tentacle- 
sheath  "  (fig.  9),  the  external  opening  of  which  is  the  "  orifice  "  of 
the  zooecium.  In  the  Cyclostomata,  further  distinguished  by  the 
cylindrical  or  prismatic  form  of  their  highly  calcified  zooecia,  the 
orifice  is  typically  circular,  without  any  definite  closing  organ. 
In  the  Cheilostomata  it  is  closed  by  a  chitinous  (rarely  calcareous) 
"  operculum  "  (fig.  9,  C),  while  in  the  Ctenostomata  it  is  guarded 
by  a  delicate  membrane  similar  to  a  piece  of  paper  rolled  into  a 
longitudinally  creased  cylinder.  During  retraction  this  "  collar  " 
lies  concealed  in  the  beginning  of  the  introvert.  It  becomes  visible 
when  the  polypide  begins  to  ' 
protrude  its  tentacles,  making 
its  appearance  through  the 
orifice  as  a  delicate  hyaline 
frill  through  which  the  ten- 
tacles are  pushed. 

In  the  Phylactolaemata  the 
outermost  layer  of  the  body- 
wall  is  a  flexible,  uncalcified 
cuticle  or  "  ectocyst,"  be- 
neath which  follow  in  suc- 
cession the  ectoderm,  the 
muscular  layers  and  the 
coelomic  epithelium.  In  a 
few  Gymnolaemata  the  ec- 
tocyst is  merely  chitinous, 
although  in  most  cases  the 
four  vertical  walls  and  the 
basal  wall  of  the  zooecium 
are  calcareous.  The  free 
(frontal)  wall  may  remain 
membranous  and  uncalcified, 
as  in  Membranipora  (figs. 
8  A,  9  A),  but  in  many 
Cheilostomes  the  frontal 
surface  is  protected  by  a  cal- 
careous shield,  which  grows 
from  near  the  free  edges  of 
the  vertical  walls  and  com- 
monly increases  in  thickness 
as  the  zooecium  grows  older 
by  the  activity  of  the  "  epi- 
theca,"  a  layer  of  living 
tissue  outside  it.  The'body- 
wall  is  greatly  simplified  in 
the  Gymnolaemata,  in  cor- 
relation with  the  functional 
importance  of  the  skeletal 
part  of  the  wall.  Even  the 
ectoderm  can  rarely  be  recog- 
iiized  as  an  obvious  epithe- 
lium except  in  regions  where 
budding  is  taking  place,  while 
muscular  layers  are  always 
absent  and  a  coelomic  epi- 
thelium can  seldom  be  ob- 
served. The  body-cavity  is, 
however,  traversed  by  mus- 
cles, and  by  strands  of  meso- 
dermic "  funicular  tissue," 
usually  irregular,  but  sometimes  constituting  definite  funiculi  (fig. 
6,  X,  x').     This  tissue  is  continuous  from  zooecium  to  zooecium 


of     Paludicella 
ehrenbergi). 


(After  Allman.) 

Fig.  6. — Zooid 
articulata  (  = 
Anus. 

Expanded  tentacles. 
Ectocyst. 

Parietovaginal  muscles. 
Retractor  muscle. 
Ovary. 
Oesophagus. 
Caecum  of  stomach, 
testis. 
Funiculi. 


a, 
br, 


mr, 
0, 


t, 

X,  X 


44 


POLYZOA 


through  perforated  "  rosette-plates "  in  the  dividing  walls.  In 
the  Phylactolaemata  a  single  dehnite  funiculus  passes  from  the  body- 
wall  to  the  apex  of  the  stomach.  This  latter  organ  is  pigmented 
in  all  Polyzoa,  and  is  produced,  in  the  Ectoprocta,  beyond  the 
point  where  the  intestine  leaves  it  into  a  conspicuous  caecum 
(fig.  6,  v).  The  nervous  system  is  represented  by  a  ganglion 
situated  between  the  mouth  and  the  anus.  The  ovary  (o)  and 
the  testis  (t)  of  Ectoprocta  are  developed  on  the  body-wall,  on  the 
stomach,  or  on  the  friniculus.  Both  kinds  of  reproductive  organs 
may  occur  in  a  single  zooecium,  and  the  reproductive  elements  pass 
when  ripe  into  the  body-cavity.  Their  mode  of  escape  is  unknown 
in  most  cases.  In  some  Gymnolaemata,  polypides  which  develop 
an  ovary  possess  a  flask-shaped  "  intertentacular  organ,"  situated 
between  two  of  the  tentacles,  and  affording  a  direct  passage  into  the 
introvert  for  the  eggs  or  even  the  spermatozoa  developed  in  the  same 
zooecium.  In  other  cases  the  reproductive  cells  perhaps  pass  out  by 
the  atrophy  of  the  polypide,  whereby  the  body-cavity  may  become 
continuous  with  the  exterior.  The  statoblasts  of  the  Phylactolaemata 
originate  on  the  funiculus,  and  are  said  to  be  derived  partly  from  an 
ectodermic  core  possessed  by  this  organ  and  partly  from  its  external 
mesoderm  (Braem),  the  former  giving  rise  to  the  chitinous  envelope 
and  to  a  nucleated  layer  (fig.  7,  ect),  which  later  invaginates  to  form 
the  inner  vesicle  of  the  polypide-bud.  The  mesodermic  portion 
becomes  charged  with  a  yolk-like  material  (y),  and,  on  the  germina- 
tion of  the  statoblast,  gives  rise  to  the  outer  layer  (mes)  of  the  bud. 
The  production  of  a  polypide  by  the  statoblast_  thus  differs  in  no 
essential  respect  from  the  formation  of  a  polypide  in  an  ordinary 
zooecium.  The  statoblasts  require  a  period  of  rest  before  germina- 
tion, and  Braem  has  shown  that  their  property  of  floating  at  the 
surface  may  be  beneficial  to  them  by  exposing  them  to  the  action 

of  frost,  which  in  some 
cases  improves  the  ger- 
minating power.  The 
occurrence  of  Phylac- 
tolaemata in  the  tropics 
would  show,  however, 
without  further  evidence, 
that  frost  is  not  a  factor 
essential  for  germination. 
The  withdrawal  of  the 
extended  polypide  is 
effected  ^by  the  contrac- 
tion of  the  retractor 
muscles  (fig.  6,  mr),  and 
must  result  in  an  in- 
crease in  the  volume  of 
the  contents  of  the  body- 
cavity.  The  alternate 
increase  and  diminution 
of  volume  is  easily  under- 
stood in  forms  with  flex- 
ible zooecia.  Thus  in  the 
Phylactolaemata  the  con- 
traction of  the  muscular 
body-wall  exerts  a  pressure  on  the  fluid  of  the  body-cavity  and  is 
the  cause  of  the  protrusion  of  the  polypide.  In  the  Gymno- 
laemata protrusion  is  effected  by  the  contraction  of  the  parietal 
muscles,  which  pass  freely  across  the  body-cavity  from  one  part 
of  the  body-wall  to  another.  In  the  branching  Ctenostomes  the 
entire  body-wall  is  flexible,  so  that  the  contraction  of  a  parietal 
muscle  acts  equally  on  the  two  points  with  which  it  is  connected. 
In  encrusting  Ctenostomes  and  in  the  Membranipora-like  Cheilo- 
stomes  (figs.  8  A,  9  A)  the  free  surface  or  frontal  wall  is  the  only 

one  in  which  any  consider- 
able amount  of  movement 
can  take  place.  The  parie- 
tal muscles  {p.m.),  which 
pass  from  the  vertical  walls 
to  the  frontal  wall,  thus 
act  by  depressing  the  latter 
and  so  exerting  a  pressure 
on  the  nuid  of  the  body- 
FlG.  8.— Diagrammatic  Transverse  cavity.  In  Cheilostomata 
Sections  with    a    rigid    frontal    wall 

A,  of  Membranipom;  B,  of  an  J""!^"  showed  that  pro- 
immature  zooecium  of  Cnin7ma;  *™«'°"  f'^'^  ""^traction  were 
p.m.,  Parietal  muscles.  "tendered    possible    by    the 

'^      '  _         ^  existence  01   a     compensa- 

tion-sac,'' in  communication  with  the  external  water. 

In  its  most  fully-developed  condition  (fig.  9,  C)  the  compensation- 
sac  (c.s.)  is  a  large  cavity  which  lies  beneath  the  calcified  frontal 
wall  and  opens  to  the  exterior  at  the  proximal  border  of  the  oper- 
culum (fig.  10).  It  is  joined  to  the  rigid  body-wall  by  numerous 
muscle-fibres,  the  contraction  of  which  must  exert  a  pressure  on 
the  fluid  of  the  body-cavity,  thereby  protruding  the  polypide. 
The  exchange  of  fluid  in  the  sac  may  well  have  a  respiratory  signifi- 
cance, in  addition  to  its  object  of  facilitating  the  movements  of 
the  tentacles. 

The  evolution  of  the  arrangements  for  protruding  the  polypide 
seems  to  have  proceeded  along  several  distinct  lines;  (i.)  In  certain 


(After  Braem.) 

Fig.  7. — Section  of  a  Germinating 
Statoblast  of  Cristatella  mucedo. 
ann,  Chitinous  annulus,  containing  air- 
cavities  which  enable  the  stato- 
blast to  float. 
Thickened    part    of   the   ectoderm, 
which  will  give  rise  to  the  inner 
layer  of  the  polypide-  bud. 
mes,  Mesoderm,  forming  the  outer  layer 

of  the   bud. 
sp.     Anchoring  spines  of  the  statoblast. 
y.      The  yolk-like  mesodermic  mass. 


ect, 


species  oi  Membranipora  the  "  frontal  membrane,"  or  membranous 
free-wall,  is  protected  by  a  series  of  calcareous  spines,  which  start 
from  its  periphery  and  arch  inwards.     In  Cribrilina  similar  spines 


■p.m- 


f.m. 


Fig.      id. — Zooecium 


Fig.  9. — Diagrammatic  Longitudinal  Sections  of  Cheilostomatous 
;  Zooecia. 

A,  Membranipora  (after  Nitsche) ;  B,  Cribrilina;  C,  Some 
of  the  Lepralioid  forms,  b.c.  Body-cavity,  cr.,  Cryptocyst.  t.s.. 
Compensation-sac.  f.m..  Frontal  membrane.  0.,  Orifice,  through 
which  the  tentacles  are  protruded,  op.,  Operculum,  p.m..  Parietal 
muscles,  t.s..  Tentacle-sheath. 

are  developed  in  the  young  zooecium,  but  they  soon  unite  with  one 
another  laterally,  leaving  rows  of  pores  along  the  sutural  lines 
(fig.  10).  The  operculum  retains  its  op_ 
continuity  with  the  frontal  membrane  ""■■ 
(fig.  9,  B)  into  which  the  parietal  muscles 
are  still  inserted.  As  indications  that 
the  conditions  described  in  Membranipora 
and  Cribrilina  axe  of  special  significance 
may  be  noted  the  fact  that  the  ancestrula 
of  many  genera  which  have  well-developed 
compensation-sacs  in  the  rest  of  their 
zooecia  is  a  Membranipora-\ik.&  individual 
with  a  series  of  marginal  calcareous  spines, 
and  the  further  fact  that  a  considerable 
proportion  of  the  Cretaceous  Cheilos- 
tomes  belong  either  to  the  IVIembrani- 
poridae  or  to  the  Cribrilinidae.  (ii.)  In 
Scrupocellaria,  Menipea  and  Caberea  a 
single,  greatly  dilated  marginal  spine,  the 

"scutum"  or  "fornix,"  may  protect  the  r'^''^'.,  .)""  ■^of'^cium 
frontal  membrane.  (iii.)  In  Umbonula  °i  Cnbrihna,  showing 
the  frontal  membrane  and  parietal  "^  entrance  to  the 
muscles  of  the  young  zooecium  are  like  compensation -sac  on 
those  of  Membranipora,  but  they  become  *^^  proximal  side  of  the 
covered  by  the  growth,  from  the  proximal  operculum  {op). 
and  lateral  sides,  of  a  calcareous  lamina  covered  externally 
by  a  soft  menjbrane.  The^  arrangement  is  perhaps  derivable 
from  a  Cribrilina-like  condition  in  which  the  outer  layer  of  the 
spines  has  become  membranous  while  the  apines  themselves  are 
laterally  united  from  the  first.  ^  (iv.)  In  the  Microporidae  and 
Steganoporellidae  the  body-cavity  becomes  partially  subdivided 
by  a  calcareous  lamina  ("  cryptocyst,"  Jullien)  which  grows  from 
the  proximal  and  lateral  sides  in  a  plane  parallel  to  the  frontal 
membrane  and  not  far  below  it.  The  parietal  muscles  are  usually 
reduced  to  a_  single  pair,  which  may  pass  through  foramina 
("opesiules  ")  in  the  cryptocyst  to  reach  their  insertion.  There  is 
no  compensation-sac  in  these  families,  (v.)  iVIany  of  the  Lepralioid 
forms  offer  special  difficulties,  but  the  calcareous  layer  of  the  frontal 
surface  is  probably  a  cryptocyst  (as  in  fig.  9,  C),  the  compensation- 
sac  being  developed  round  its  distal  border.  The  "  epitheca  " 
noticed  above  is  in  this  case  the  persistent  frontal  membrane, 
(vi.)  In  Microporella  the  opening  of  the  compensation-sac  has 
JDecome  separated  from  the  operculum  by  calcareous  matter,  and 
is  known  as  the  "  median  pore."  Jullien  believed  that  this'  pore 
opens  into  the  tentacle-sheath,  but  it  appears  probable  that  it  really 
communicates  with  the  compensation-sac  and  not  with  the  tentacle- 
sheath.  The  mechanism  of  protrusion  in  the  Cyclostomata  is  a 
subject  which  requires  further  examination. 

The  most  singular  of  the  external  appendages  found  in  the 
Polyzoa  are  the  avicularia  and  vibracula  of  the  Cheilostomata. 
The  avicularium  is  so  called  from  its  resemblance,  in  its  most 
highly  differentiated  condition,  to  the  head  of  a  bird.  In  Bugula, 
for  instance,  a  calcareous  avicularium  of  this  type  is  attached  by 
a  narrow  neck  to  each  zooecium.  The  avicularium  can  move  as 
a  whole  by  means  of  special  muscles,  and  its  chitinous  lower  jaw 


POLYZOA 


45 


or  "mandible"  can  be  opened  and  closed.  It  is  regarded  as  a 
niodified  zooeqium,  the  polypide  of  which  has  become  vestigial, 
although  it  is  commonly  represented  by  a  sense-organ,  bearing 
tactile  hairs,  situated  on  what  may  be  termed  the  palaite.  The 
operculum  of  the  normal  zooecium  has  become  the  mandible, 
while  the  occlusor  muscles  have  become  enormous.  In  the  vibra- 
culum  the  part  representing  the  zooecium  is  relatively  smaller, 
and  the  mandible  has  become  the  "  seta,"  an  elongated  chitinous 
lash  which  projects  far  beyond  the  zooecial  portion  of  the  structure. 
In  Caberea,  the  vibracula  are  known  to  move  synchronously,  but 
co-ordination  of  this  kind  is  otherwise  unknown  in  the  Polyzoa. 
The  avicularia  and  vibracula  give  valuable  aid  to  the  systematic 
study  of  the  Cheilqstomata.  In  its  least  differentiated  form  the 
avicularium  occupies  the  place  of  an  ordinary  zooecium  ("  vicarious 
avicularium  "),  from  which  it  is  distinguished  by  the  greater 
development  of  the  operculum  and  its  muscles,  while  the  polypide 
is  normally  not  functional.  Avicularia  of  this  type  occur  in  the 
common  Flustra  foliacea,  in  various  species  of  Membranipora,  and 
in  particular  in  the  Onychocellidae,  a  remarkable  family  common 
in  the  Cretaceous  period  and  still  existing.  In  the  majority  of 
Cheilostomes,  the  avicularia  are,  so  to  speak,  forced  out  of  the 
ordinary  series  of  zooecia,  with  which  they  are  rigidly  connected. 
There  are  comparatively  few  cases  in  which,  as  in  Bugula,  they  are 
mounted  on  a  movable  joint.  Although  at  first  sight  the  arrange- 
ment of  the  avicularia  in  Cheilostomes  appears  to  follow  no  general 
law  some  method  is  probably  to  be  made  out  on  closer  study. 
They  occur  in  particular  in  relation  with  the  orifice  of  the  zooecium, 
and  with  that  of  the  compensation-sac.  This  delicate  structure 
is  frequently  guarded  by  an  avicularium  at  its  entrance,  while 
avicularia  are  also  commonly  found  on  either  side  of  the  operculum 
or  in  other  positions  close  to  that  structure.  It  can  hardly  be  doubted 
that  the  function  of  these  avicularia  is  the  protection  of  the  ten- 
tacles and  compensation-sac.  The  suggestion  that  they  are  concerned 
in  feeding  does  not  rest  on  any  definite  evidence,  and  is  probably 
erroneous.  But  avicularia  or  vibracula  may  also  occur  in  other 
places — on  the  backs  of  unilaminar  erect  forms,  along  the  sutural 
lines  of  the  zooecia  and  on  their  frontal  surface.  These  are  probably 
important  in  checking  overgrowth  by  encrusting  organisms,  and 
in  particular  by  preventing  larvae  from  fixing  on  the  zoarium. 
Vibracula  are  of  less  frequent  occurrence  than  avicularia,  with  which 
they  may  coexist  as  in  Scrupocellaria,  where  they  occur  on  the 
backs  of  the  unilaminar  branches.  In  the  so-called  Selenariidae, 
probably  an  unnatural  association  of  genera  which  have  assumed 
a  free  discoidal  form  of  zoarium,  they  may  reach  a  very  high  degree 
of  development,  but  Busk's  suggestion  that  in  this  group  they 
"  may  be  subservient  to  locomotion  "  needs  verification. 

Development  and  Affinities. — It  is  generally  admitted  that  the 
larva  of  the  Entoprocta  (fig.  Il)  has  the  structure  of  a  Trocho- 

sphere.  This  appears  to  indicate 
that  the  Polyzoa  are  remotely 
allied  to  other  phyla  in  which 
this  type  of  larva  prevails,  and 
in  particular  to  the  Mollusca  and 
Chaetopoda,  as  well  as  to  the 
Rotifera,  which  are  regarded  as 
persistent  Trochospheres.  The 
praeoral  portion  (lower  in  fig.  ii) 
constitutes  the  greater  part  of 
the  larva  and  contains  most  of 
the  viscera.  It  is  terminated  by 
a  well-developed  structure  (/g) 
corresponding  with  the  apical 
sense-organ  of  ordinary  Trocho- 
spheres, and  an  excretory  organ 
[nph)  of  the  type  familiar  in 
these  larvae  occurs  on  the  ventral 
side  of  the  stomach.  The  central 
nervous  system  {x)  is  highly 
developed,  and  in  Loxosoma  bears 
a  pair  of  eyes.  The  larva  swims 
by  a  ring  of  cilia,  which  corre- 
sponds with  the  praeoral  circlet 
of  a  Trochosphere.  The  oral 
surface,  on  which  are  situated 
the  mouth  («i)  and  anus  (a),  is 
relatively  small.  The  apical  sense- 
organ  is  used  for  temporary  attach- 
ment to  the  maternal  vestibule  in 
which  development  takes  place, 
but  permanent  fixation  is  effected 


(After  Hatschek.) 

Fig.  1 1 . — Larva  of  PedicelUna. 

Anus. 

Apical  sense-organ. 

Intestine. 

Ventral  wall  of  stomach. 

Mouth. 

Excretory  organ. 

Brain. 


/g. 
hg, 

h 

m, 

nph 


by  the  oral  surface.  This  is  followed  by  the  atrophy  of  many  of  the 
larval  organs,  including  the  brain,  the  sense-organ ,  and  the  ciliated 
ring.  The  alimentary  canal,  persists  andreyplves  in  the  median 
plane  through  an  angle  of  180'°,  accompanied  by  part  of  the  larval 
vestibule,  the  space  formed  by  the  retra,ctioh  of  the  oral  surface. 
The  vestibule  breaks  through  to  the  exterior,  and  the  tentacles, 
which  have  been  developed  within,  it,  are  brought  into  relation 
with  the  external  water.  _     _ 

In  the  common  and  widely-distributed  Cheilostome,  Membrani- 


pora pilosa,  the  pelagic  larva  is  known  as  Cyphonautes,  and  it  has 
a  structure  not  unlike  that  of  the  larval  PedicelUna.  The  principal 
differences  are  the  complication  of  the  ciliated  band,  the  absence  of 
the  excretory  organ,  the  great  lateral  compression  of  the  body, 
the  possession  of  a  pair  of  shells  protecting  the  sides,  the  presence 
of  an  organ  known  as  the  "  pyriform  organ,"  and  the  occurrence 
of  a  sucker  in  a  position  corresponding  with  the  depression  seen 
between  (to)  and  (a)  in  fig.  11.  Fixation  takes  place  by  means  of 
this  sucker,  which  is  everted  for  the  purpose,  part  of  its  epithelium 
becoming  the  basal  ectoderm  of  the  ancestrula.  The  pyriform 
organ  has  probably  assisted  the  larva  to  find  an  appropriate  place 
for  fixation  (cf.  Kupelwieser,  18);  but,  like  the  alimentary  canal 
and  most  of  the  other  larval  organs,  it  undergoes  a  process  of  histo- 
lysis, and  the  larva  becomes  the  ancestrula,  containing  the  primary 
brown  body  derived  from  the  purely  larval  organs.  The  polypide  is 
formed,  as  in  an  ordinary  zooecium  after  the  loss  of  its  polypide, 
from  a  polypide-bud. 

The  Cyphonautes  type  has  been  shown  by  Prouho  (24)  to  occur 
in  two  or  three  widely  different  species  of  Cheilostomata  and  Cteno- 
stomata  in  which  the  eggs  are  laid  and  develop  in  the  external 
water.  In  most  Ectoprocta,  however,  the  development  takes  place 
internally  or  in  an  ovicell,  and  a  considerable  quantity  of  yolk  is 
present.  The  alimentary  canal,  which  may  be  represented  by  a 
vestigial  structure,  is  accordingly  not  functional,  and  the  larva 
does  not  become  pelagic.  A  pyriform  organ  is  present  in  most 
Gymnolaemata  as  well  as  the  sucker  by  which  fixation  is  effected. 
As  in  the  ease  of  Cyphonautes,  the  larval  organs  degenerate  and 
the  larva  becomes  the  ancestrula  from  which  a  polypide  is  developed 
as  a  bud.  In  the  Cyclostomata  the  primary  embryo  undergoes 
repeated  fission  without  developing  definite  organs,  and  each  of 
the  numerous  pieces  so  formed  becomes  a  free  larva,  which  possesses 
no  alimentary  canal.  Finally,  in  the  Phylactolaemata,  the  larva 
becomes  an  ancestrula  before  it  is  hatched,  and  one  or  several 
polypides  may  be  present  when  fixation  is  effected. 

The  development  of  the  Ectoprocta  is  intelligible  on  the  hypo- 
thesis that  the  Entoprocta  form  the  starting-point  of  the  series. 
On  the  view  that  the  Phylactolaemata  are  nearly  related  to  Phoronis 
(see  Phoronidea),  it  is  extremely  difficult  to  draw  any  conclusions 
with  regard  to  the  significance  of  the  facts  of  development.  If  the 
Phylactolaemata  were  evolved  from  the  type  of  structure  repre- 
sented by  Phoronis  or  the  Pterobranchia  (q.v.),  the  Gymnolaemata 
should  be  a  further  modification  of  this  type,  and  the  comparative 
study  of  the  embryology  of  the  two  orders  would  appear  to  be 
meaningless.  It  seems  more  natural  to  draw  the  conclusion  that 
the  resemblances  of  the  Phylactolaemata  to  Phoronis  are  devoid 
of  phylogenetic  significance. 

Bibliography. — For  general  accounts  of  the  structure  and 
development  of  the  Polyzoa  the  reader's  attention  is  specially 
directed  to  12,  14,  6,  25,  I,  2,  17,  26,  18,  23,  3,  in  the  list  given  below; 
for  an  historical  account  to  I ;  for  a  full  bibliography  of  the  group, 
to  22;  for  fresh-water  forms,  to  1-3,  7-10,  17;  for  an  indispensable 
synonymic  list  of  recent  marine  forms,  to  15;  for  Entoprocta,  to 
10,  II,  24;  for  the  classification  of  Gymnolaemata,  to  21,  14,  4, 
13,  20;  for  Palaeontology,  to  27,  22. 

References  to  important  works  on  the  species  of  marine  Polyzoa 
by  Busk,  Hincks,  JuUien,  Levinsen,  MacGillivray,  Nordgaard, 
Norman,  Waters  and  others  are  given  in  the  Memoir  (22)  by  Nickles 
and  Bassler.  (i)  AUman,  "  Mpnogr.  Fresh-water  Polyzoa,"  Ray 
Soc.  (1856).  (2)  Braem,  "  Bry.  d.  siissen  Wassers,"  Bibl.  Zool. 
Bd.  ii.  Heft  6  (1890).  (3)  Braem,  "  Entwickel.  v.  Plumatella," 
ibid.,  Bd.  x.  Heft  23  (1897).  (4)  Busk,  "  Report  on  the  Polyzoa," 
"  Challenger  "  Rep.  pt.  xxx.  (1884),  50  (1886).  (5)  Caldwell,  "  Phoro- 
nis," Proc.  Roy.  Soc.  (1883),  xxxiv.  371.  (6)  Calvet,  "  Bry.  Ecto- 
proctes  Marins,"  Trav.  Inst.  Montpellier  (new  series),  Mem. 
8  (1900).  (7)  Cori,  "  Nephridien  d.  Cristatella,"  Zeitschr.  wiss.  Zool. 
(1893),  Iv.  626.  (8) -Davenport,  "  Cristatella,"  Bull.  Mus.  Harvard 
(l890-l89i),xx.  loi.  (9)Davenport,  "Pateiice//a.,"ibid.  (1891-1892), 
xxii.  I.  (10)  Davenpqrt,  ','  Urnatella,"  ibid.  (1893),  xxiv.  i.  (11) 
Ehlers,  "  Pedicellineeii,"  Abh.  Ges.  Gottingen  (1890),  xxxvi.  (12) 
Harmer,  "  Polyzoa,"  Cambr.  Nat.  Hist.  (1896),  ii.  463;  art.  "  Poly- 
zoa," Ency.  Brit.  (loth  ed.,  1902),  xxxi.  826.  (13)  Harmer, 
"  Morph.  Cheilostomata,"  Quart.  Journ.  Mic.  Sci.  (1903),  xlvi. 
263.  (14)  Hincks,  "  Hist.  Brit.  Mar.  Pol."  (1880).  (15)  Jelly, 
"  Syn.  Cat.  Recent  Mar.  Bry."  (1889).  (16)  Jullien  and  Calvet, 
';'  Bryozoaires,"  Res  camp.  sci.  prince  de  Monaco  (1903),  xxiii.  (17) 
Kraepelin,  "  Deutsch.  Siisswasser-Bry.,"  Abh,  Ver.  Hamburg 
{'1887),  X.;  (1892),  xii.  (18)  kupelwieser,  "  Cyphonautes,"  Zoologica 
(1906),  Bd.  xix.  Heft  47.  (19)  Lankester,  art.  "  Polyzoa," 
Ency,  Brit.  (9th  ed.,  1885),  xix.  429.  (20)  Levinsen,  "  Bryozoa," 
Vid.  Medd.  Naturh.  Foren.  (Copenhagen,  1902).  (21)  MacGillivray, 
"  Cat.  Mar.  Pol.  Victoria,"  P.  Roy.  Soc.  Victoria  (1887),  xxiii.  187. 
(22)  Nickles  and  Bassler,  "  Synopsis  Amer.  Foss.  Bry.,"  Bull. 
U.S.  Geol.  Survey  (1900),  No.  173.  (23)  Pace,  "  Dev.  Flustrella," 
Quart.  Journ.  Mic.  Soc.  (1906),  50,  pt.  3,  435.  (24)  Prouho,  "  Loxo^ 
somes,"  Arch.  Zool.  Exp.  (2)  (1891),  ix.  91.  (25)  Prouho,  "Bryo- 
zoaires," ibid.  (2)  (1892),  X.  557.  (26)  Seeliger, " Larven'u.  Verwandt- 
schaft,"  Zeitschr.  wiss.  Zool.  (1906),  Ixxxiv.  i.  (27)  Ulrich, 
"  Fossil  Polyzoa,"  in  Zittel's  Text-book  of  Palaeontology,  Eng.  ed. 
(1900),  i.  257.  (S.  F.  H.) 


46 


POMADE— POMEGRANATE 


POMADE,  or  Pomatum,  a  scented  ointment,  used  formerly 
for  softening  and  beautifying  the  skin,  as  a  lip-salve,  &c.,  but 
now  principally  appKed  to  the  hair.  It  was  made  originally 
from  the  juice  of  apples  (Lat.  pomum),  whence  the  name. 

POMANDER  (from  Fr.  pomme  d'ambre,  i.e.  apple  of  amber), 
a  baU  made  of  perfumes,  such  as  ambergris  (whence  the  name), 
musk,  civet,  &c.,  and  formerly  worn  or  carried  in  a  case,  also 
known  by  the  same  name,  as  a  protection  against  infection  in 
times  of  pestilence  or  merely  as  a  useful  article  to  modify  bad 
smeUs.  The  globular  cases  which  contained  the  "  pomanders  " 
were  hung  from  a  neck-chain  or  attached  to  the  girdle,  and  were 
usually  perforated  and  made  of  gold  or  silver.  Sometimes  they 
contained  several  partitions,  in  each  of  which  was  placed  a 
different  perfume.  There  is  an  early  Spanish  pomander  set 
with  emeralds,  and  a  fine  16th-century  one,  dredged  from  the 
Thames,  in  the  British  Museum. 

POMBAL,  SEBASTIAO  JOSE  DE  CARVALHO  E  MELLO, 
Marquess  of  (1699-1782),  Portuguese  statesman,  was  born 
at  Soure  near  Pomba,  on  the  13th  of  May  1699.  He  was  the 
son  of  Manoel  de  Carvalho  e  Athayde,  a  country  gentleman 
(fidalgo)  and  of  his  wife  D.  Theresa  Luiza  de  Mendonpa  e  Mello. 
lie  studied  law  at  Coimbra  University,  served  for  a  short  time 
as  a  private  in  the  army,  and  afterwards  Uved  the  life  of  a  man 
about  town  in  Lisbon,  sharing  in  the  diversions  of  the  "  Mohocks  " 
who  then  infested  the  streets.  In  1733  he  abducted  and  married 
D.  Theresa  de  Noronha,  a  widow  belonging  to  one  of  the  most 
distinguished  families  in  Portugal.  He  then  retired  to  Soure, 
where,  on  the  recommendation  of  Cardinal  de  Motta,  King  John 
V.  commissioned  him  to  write  a  series  of  biographical  studies. 
In  1739  he  was  sent  as  Portuguese  ambassador  to  London,  where 
he  remained  until  1745.  He  was  then  transferred  to  Vienna. 
His  first  wife  having  died  on  the  7th  of  January  1739,  he  married, 
on  the  i8th  of  December  1745,  Leonora  Ernestine  Daun, 
daughter  of  General  Count  Daun.  In  1749  he  was  recalled  to 
take  up  the  post  of  secretary  of  state  for  foreign  affairs  and  war. 
The  appointment  was  ratified  on  the  3rd  of  August  1750,  by  King 
Joseph,  who  had  succeeded  John  V.  in  that  year.  Carvalho's 
career  from  1750  to  1777  is  part  of  the  history  of  Portugal. 
Though  he  came  into  power  only  in  his  51st  year,  without 
previous  administrative  experience,  he  was  able  to  reorganize 
Portuguese  education,  finance,  the  army  and  the  navy.  He  also 
built  up  new  industries,  promoted  the  development  of  Brazil 
and  Macao,  and  expelled  the  Jesuits.  His  complete  ascendancy 
over  the  mind  of  King  Joseph  dates  from  the  time  of  the  great 
Lisbon  earthquake  (Nov.  i,  1755).  Though  the  famous  words 
"  Bury  the  dead  and  feed  the  living  "  were  probably  not  spoken 
by  him,  they  summarize  his  action  at  this  time  of  calamity. 
In  June  1759  his  suppression  of  the  so-called  "  Tavora  plot  " 
gained  for  him  the  title  of  count  of  Oeyras;  and  in  September 
1770  he  was  made  marquess  of  Pombal.  His  severe  adminis- 
tration had  made  many  enemies,  and  his  life  had  been  attempted 
in  1769.  Soon  after  the  death  of  King  Joseph,  in  1777,  Pombal 
was  dismissed  from  office;  and  he  was  only  saved  from  impeach- 
ment by  the  death  of  his  bitterest  opponent,  the  queen-mother, 
Mariana  Victoria,  in  January  1781.  On  the  i6th  of  August  a 
royal  decree  forbade  him  to  reside  within  twenty  leagues  of  the 
court.    He  died  at  Pombal  on  the  8th  of  May  1782. 

See,  in  addition  to  the  works  dealing  with  the  period  1 750-1 777 
and  quoted  under  Portugal:  History;  S.J. CM.  (Pombal),  Relacao 
abremada,  &c.  (Paris,  1758);  Memoirs  of  the  Court  of  Portugal,  &c. 
(London,  1765);  Anecdotes  du  ministire  de  Pombal  (Warsaw,  1781); 
Administration  du  marquis  de  Pombal  (4  vols.,  Amsterdam,  1787); 
Cartas  .  .  .  do  marques  de  Pombal  (3  vols.,  Lisbon,  1820-1824) ; 
J.  Smith,  Count  of  Carnota,  Memoirs  of  the  Marquess  of  Pombal, 
&c.  (London,  1843);  F.  L.  Gomes,  Le  Marquis  de  Pombal,  &c. 
(Paris,  1869);  B.  Duhr  (S.J.),  Pombal,  &c.  (Freiburg  im  Breisgau, 
1891) ;  C.  J.  de  Menezes,  Os  Jesuitas  e  0  marques  de  Pombal  (Oporto, 
1893).  See  also  articles  in  the  Revue  des  deux  mondes  for  September 
1870;  the  Revue  bleue  for  September  1889,  and  the  Revue  historique 
for  September  1895  and  January  1896. 

POMEGRANATE.  The  pomegranate  {Punica  Granatum)  is 
of  exceptional  interest  by  reason  of  its  structure,  its  history,  and 
its  utility.  It  forms  a  tree  of  small  stature,  or  a  bush,  with 
opposite  or  alternate,  shining,  lance-shaped  leaves,  from  the 


axils  of  some  of  which  proceed  the  brilliant  scarlet  flowers. 
These  are  raised  on  a  short  stalk,  and  consist  of  a  thick  fleshy 
cylindrical  or  bell-shaped  calyx-tube,  with  five  to  seven  short 
lobes  at  the  top.    From  the  throat  of  the  calyx  proceed  five  to 


Fig.  I. — Pomegranate,  PMMj'ca  G?'awatow,  flowering  branch,  half 
natural  size. 

1,  Flower   cut   lengthwise;   the       3,  Same    cut     across,    showing 

petals  have  been  removed.  seeds. 

2,  Fruit,  about  one-third  natural       4,  Seed,  natural  size. 

size. 

seven  roundish,  crumpled,  scarlet  or  crimson  petals,  and  below 
them  very  numerous  slender  stamens.  The  pistil  consists  of  two 
rows  of  carpels  placed  one  above  another,  both  rows  embedded 
in,  and  partially  inseparate  from,  the  inner  surface  of  the  calyx- 
tube.  The  styles  are  confluent  into  one  slender  column.  The 
fruit,  which  usually  attains  the  size  of  a  large  orange,  consists 


A  B 

(MteT  Eichler,  from  Strasburger's  Lehrbuch  dcr   Botamk,   by    permissioa    of    Gustav 
Fischer.) 

Fig.  2. — Punica  Granatum. 
A,  Floral  diagram.      B,  Longitudinal  section  of  the  ovary. 

of  a  hard  leathery  rind,  enclosing  a  quantity  of  pulp  derived 
from  the  coats  of  the  numerous  seeds.  This  pulp,  filled  as  it  is 
with  refreshing  acid  juice,  constitutes  the  chief  value  of  the  tree. 
The  more  highly  cultivated  forms  contain  more  of  it  than  the 
wild  or  half-wild  varieties.  The  great  structural  peculiarity 
consists  in  the  presence  of  the  two  rows  of  carpels  one  above 
another  (a  state  of  things  which  occurs  exceptionally  in  apples 
and  oranges),  and  in  the  fact  that,  while  in  the  lower  series  the 
seeds  are  attached  to  the  inner  border  or  lower  angle  of  the  cavity, 
they  occupy  the  outer  side  in  the  upper  series,  as  if  during  growth 
the  upper  whorl  had  become  completely  bent  over. 

By  Bentham  and  Hooker  the  Punica  is  included  as  an  anoma- 
lous genus  in  the  order  Lythraceae;  others  consider  it  more 
nearly  allied  to  the  myrtles;  while  its  peculiarities  are  so  great  as, 
in  the  opinion  of  many  botanists,  to  justify  its  inclusion  in  a 


POMERANIA 


47 


separate  order;  Punicaceae.  Not  only  is  the  fruit  valuable  in 
hot  countries  for  the  sake  of  its  pulp,  but  the  rind  and  the  bark 
and  the  outer  part  of  the  root  (containing  the  alkaloid  pelle- 
tierine)  are  valuable  as  astringents.  The  bark  of  the  root  is 
likewise  valued  as  an  anthelmintic  in  cases  of  tape-worm. 

The  tree  is  wild  in  Afghanistan,  north-western  India,  and  the 
districts  south  and  south-west  of  the  Caspian,  but  it  has  been  so 
long  cultivated  that  it  is  difficult  to  say  whether  it  is  really 
native  in  Palestine  and  the  Mediterranean  region.  It  has  been 
cited  as  wild  in  northern  Africa,  but  this  appears  to  be  a  mistake. 
Professor  Bayley  Balfour  met  with  a  wild  species,  heretofore  un- 
known, in  the  island  of  Socotra,  the  flowers  of  which  have  only 
a  single  row  of  carpels,  which  suggests  the  inference  that  it  may 
have  been  the  source  of  the  cultivated  varieties.  But,  on  the  other 
hand,  in  Afghanistan,  where  Aitchison  met  with  the  tree  truly 
wild,  a  double  row  of  carpels  was  present  as  usual.  The  antiquity 
of  the  tree  as  a  cultivated  plant  is  evidenced  by  the  Sanskrit 
name  Dddimba,  and  by  the  references  to  the  fruit  in  the  Old 
Testament,  and  in  the  Odyssey,  whero  it  is  spoken  of  as  cultivated 
in  the  gardens  of  the  kings  of  Phaeacia  and  Phrygia.  The  fruit 
is  frequently  represented  on  ancient  Assyrian  and  Egyptian 
sculptures,  and  had  a  religious  significance  in  connexion  with 
several  Oriental  cults,  especially  the  Phrygian  cult  of  Cybele 
(Arnob.  v.  5  seq.;  see  also  Baudissin,  Studien,  n.  207  seq.).  It 
was  well  known  to  the  Greeks  and  Romans,  who  were  acquainted 
with  its  medicinal  properties  and  its  use  as  a  tanning  material. 
The  name  given  by  the  Romans,  malum  punicum,  indicates  that 
they  received  it  from  Carthage,  as  indeed  is  expressly  stated 
by  Pliny;  and  this  circumstance  has  given  rise  to  the  notion  that 
the  tree  was  indigenous  in  northern  Africa.  On  a  review  of  the 
whole  evidence,  botanical,  literary  and  linguistic,  Alphonse  de 
Candolle  {Origin  of  Cultivated  Plants)  pronounces  against  its 
African  origin,  and  decides  in  favour  of  its  source  in  Persia  and 
the  neighbouring  countries.  According  to  Saporta,  the  pomegra- 
nate existed  in  a  fossil  state  in  beds  of  the  Pliocene  epoch  near 
Meximieux  in  Burgundy.  The  pomegranate  is  sometimes  met 
with  in  cultivation  against  a  wall  in  England,  but  it  is  too  tender 
to  withstand  a  severe  winter.  The  double-flowered  varieties 
are  specially  desirable  for  the  beauty  and  long  duration  of  their 
flowers. 

POMERANIA  (German,  Pommern),  a  territory  of  Germany 
and  a  maritime  province  of  Prussia,  bounded  on  the  N.  by  the 
Baltic,  on  the  W.  by  Mecklenburg,  on  the  S.  by  Brandenburg, 
and  on  the  E.  by  West  Prussia.  Its  area  is  11,630  sq.  m.,  and 
the  population  in  1905  was  1,684,125,  showing  a  density  of  145 
inhabitants  to  the  square  mile.  The  province  is  officially  divided 
into  the  three  districts  of  Stralsund,  Stettin  and  Koshn,  but  more 
historical  interest  attaches  to  the  names  of  Vorpommern  and 
Hinterpommern,  or  Hither  and  Farther  Pomerania,  the  former 
being  applied  to  the  territory  to  the  west,  and  the  latter  to  that 
to  the  east  of  the  Oder.  Pomerania  is  one  of  the  flattest  parts 
of  Germany,  although  east  of  the  Oder  it  ;s  traversed  by  a  range 
of  low  hills,  and  there  are  also  a  few  isolated  eminences  to  the 
west.  Off  the  west  coast,  which  is  very  irregular.  He  the  islands  of 
Riigen,  Usedom  and  WoUin;  the  coast  of  Farther  Pomerania  is 
smooth  in  outline  and  is  bordered  with  dunes,  or  sandbanks. 
Besides  the  Oder  and  its  affluents,  the  chief  of  which  are  the 
Peene,  the  ticker  and  the  Ihna,  there  are  several  smaller  rivers 
flowing  into  the  Baltic;  a  few  of  these  are  navigable  for  ships, 
but  the  greater  number  only  carry  rafts.  Many  of  them  end  in 
small  lakes,  which  are  separated  from  the  sea  by  narrow  strips 
of  land,  through  which  the  water  escapes  by  one  or  more  outlets. 
The  interior  of  the  province  is  also  thickly  sprinkled  with  lakes, 
the  combined  area  of  which  is  equal  to  about  one-twentieth  of 
the  entire  surface. 

The  soil  of  Pomerania  is  for  the  most  part  thin  and  sandy, 
but  patches  of  good  land  are  found  here  and  there.  About  55% 
of  the  whole  is  under  tillage,  while  16%  consists  of  meadow  and 
pasture  and  21%  is  covered  by  forests.  The  principal  crops  are 
potatoes,  rye  and  oats,  but  wheat  and  balrley  are  grown  in  the 
more  fertile  districts;  tobacco,  flax,  hops  and  beetroot  are  also 
cultivated.      Agriculture  is   stfll    carried   on   in   a    somewhat 


primitive  fashion,  and  as  a  rule  the  livestock  is  of  an  inferior 
quality,  though  the  breed  of  horses,  of  a  heavy  build  and  mostly 
used  in  agriculture,  is  held  in  high  esteem.  Large  flocks  of  sheep 
are  kept,  both  for  their  flesh  and  their  wool,  and  there  arc  in  the 
province  large  numbers  of  horned  cattle  and  of  pigs.  Geese 
and  goose  feathers  form  lucrative  articles  of  export.  Owing 
to  the  long  line  of  coast  and  the  numerous  lakes,  fishing  forms  an 
important  industry,  and  large  quantities  of  herrings,  eels  and 
lampreys  are  sent  from  Pomerania  to  other  parts  of  Germany. 
With  the  exception  of  the  almost  inexhaustible  layers  of  peat, 
the  mineral  wealth  of  the  province  is  insignificant.  Its  industrial 
activity  is  not  great,  but  there  are  manufactures  of  machinery, 
chemicals,  paper,  tobacco  and  sugar;  these  are  made  chiefly 
in  or  near  the  large  towns,  while  linen-weaving  is  practised  as  a 
domestic  industry.  Ship-building  is  carried  on  at  Stettin  and  at 
several  places  along  the  coast.  The  commerce  of  Pomerania 
is  in  a  flourishing  condition,  its  principal  ports  being  Stettin, 
Stralsund  and  Swinemiinde.  Education  is  provided  for  by  a 
university  at  Greifswald  and  by  numerous  schools.  The  province 
sends  i4memberstothe  German  Reichstag,  and  26  to  the  Prussian 
house  of  representatives.  The  heir  to  the  Prussian  crown  bears 
the  title  of  governor  of  Pomerania. 

History. — In  prehistoric  times  the  southern  coast  of  the  Baltic 
seems  to  have  been  occupied  by  Celts,  who  afterwards  made  way 
for  tribes  of  Teutonic  stock.  These  in  their  turn  migrated  to 
other  settlements  and  were  replaced,  about  the  end  of  the  sth 
century  of  our  era,  by  Slavonic  tribes,  the  Wilzi  and  the  Pomerani. 
The  name  of  Pomore,  or  Pommern,  meaning  "  on  the  sea,"  was 
given  to  the  district  by  the  latter  of  the  tribes  about  the  time  of 
Charlemagne,  and  it  has  often  changed  its  political  and  geo- 
graphical significance.  Originally  it  seems  to  have  denoted  the 
coast  district  between  the  Oder  and  the  Vistula,  a  territory 
which  was  at  first  more  or  less  dependent  on  Poland,  but  which, 
towards  the  end  of  the  12th  century,  was  ruled  "by  two  native 
princes,  who  took  the  title  of  duke  about  1 1 70  and  admitted  the 
authority  of  the  German  king  in  1181.  Afterwards  Pomerania 
extended  much  farther  to  the  west,  while  being  correspondingly 
curtailed  on  the  east,  and  a  distinction  was  made  between 
Slavinia,  or  modern  Pomerania,  and  Pomerellen.  The  latter, 
corresponding  BubstantiaUy  to  the  present  province  of  West 
Prussia,  remained  subject  to  Poland  untU  1309,  when  it  was 
divided  between  Brandenburg  and  the  Teutonic  Order. 
Christianity  was  introduced  in  the  12th  century,  a  bishopric 
being  founded  in  the  Island  of  WoUin,  and  its  advance  went 
rapidly  hand  in  hand  with  the  Germanizing  of  the  district. 

The  history  of  Pomerania,  as  distinct  from  that  of  PomereUen, 
consists  mainly  of  an  almost  endless  succession  of  divisions  of 
territory  among  the  different  lines  of  the  ducal  house,  and  of 
numerous  expansions  and  contractions  of  territory  through 
constant  hostihties  with  the  elector  of  Brandenburg,  who 
claimed  to  be  the  immediate  feudal  superior  of  Pomerania, 
and  with  other  neighbouring  rulers.  The  names  of  Vorpom- 
mern and  Hinterpommern  were  at  first  synonymous  with 
Pomerania  proper,  or  Slavinia  and  Pomerellen,  but  towards 
the  close  of  the  14th  century  they  were  transferred  to  the  two 
duchies  into  which  the  former  was  divided.  In  1625  the 
whole  of  Pomerania  became  united  under  the  sway  of  Duke 
Bogislaus  XIV.,  and  on  his  death  without  issue,  in  1637,  Branden- 
burg claimed  the  duchy  by  virtue  of  a  compact  made  in  1571- 
In  the  meantime,  however,  Pomerania  had  been  devastated 
by  the  Thirty  Years'  War  and  occupied  by  the  Swedes,  who  had 
taken  possession  of  its  towns  and  fortresses.  At  the  peace  of 
Westphaha  they  claimed  the  duchy,  in  opposition  to  the  elector 
of  Brandenburg,  and  the  result  was  that  the  latter  was  obliged  to 
content  himself  with  eastern  Pomerania  (Hinterpommern),  and 
to  see  the  western  part  (Vorpommern)  awarded  to  Sweden.  In 
1720,  by  the  peace  of  Stockholm,  Swedish  Pomerania  was  cur- 
tailed by  extensive  concessions  to  Prussia,  but  the  district  to  the 
west  of  the  Peene  remained  in  the  possession  of  Sweden  untU  the 
general  European  settlement  of  181 5.  Then  Sweden  assigned 
her'  German  possessions  to  Denmark  in  exchange  for  Norway, 
whereupon  Prussia,  partly  by  purchase  and  partly  by  the  cession 


48 


POMEROY— POMONA 


of  the  duchy  of  Lauenburg,  finally  succeeded  in  uniting  the  whole 
of  Pomerania  under  her  rule. 

For  the  history,  see  J.  Bugenhagen,  Pomerania,  edited  by  O. 
Heinemann  (Stettin,  1900);  von  Bohlen,  Die  Erwerhung  Pommerns 
durch  die  HohenzoUern  (Berlin,  1865);  H.  Berghaus,  Landhuch  des 
Herzogtums  Pommern  (Berlin,  1865-1S76);  the  Codex  Pomeraniae 
diplomaticus,  edited  by  K.  F.  W.  Hasselbach  and  J.  G.  L.  Kose- 
garten  (Greifswald,  1862);  the  Pommersches  Urkundenbuch,  edited 
by  R.  Klempin  and  others  (Stettin,  1 868-1 896);  W.  von  Sommer- 
feld,  Geschichte  der  Germanisierung  des  Herzogtums  Pommern 
(Leipzig,  1896) ;  F.  W.  Barthold,  Geschichte  von  Rilgen  und  Pommern 
(Hamburg,  1839-1845);  K.  Mass,  Pommersche  Geschichte  (Stettin, 
1899) ;  M.  Wehrmann,  Geschichte  von  Pommern  (Gotha,  1904-1906) ; 
and  Uecker,  Pommern  in  Wort  und  Bild  (Stettin,  1904).  See  also 
the  publications  of  the  Gesellschaft  fur  pommersche  Geschichte  und 
Altertumskunde. 

POMEROY,  a  village  and  the  county-seat  of  Meigs  county, 
Ohio,  U.S.A.,  on  the  Ohio  river,  about  85  m.  S.S.E.  of  Columbus. 
Pop.  (1890)  4726;  (igoo)  4639,  including  453  foreign-born  and 
280  negroes;  (1910)  4023.  Pomeroy  is  served  by  the  Hocking 
Valley  and  (across  the  river)  Baltimore  &  Ohio  railways,  by 
inter-urban  electric  railway,  and  by  passenger  and  freight  boats 
to  the  leading  river  ports.  It  occupies  a  strip  of  ground  between 
the  river  and  a  range  of  steep  hills.  Bituminous  coal  and  salt 
abound  in  the  district,  and  there  are  deposits  of  building  stone, 
fireclay  and  glass  sand.  The  first  settlement  here  was  established 
in  1816,  coal  mining  was  begun  three  years  later,  and  in  1827  a 
town  was  laid  out  and  named  Nyesville.  There  was  httle  pro- 
gress, however,  until  1833,  when  Samuel  W.  Pomeroy  (in  whose 
honour  the  present  name  was  adopted)  formed  a  company, 
which  began  mining  coal  on  a  large  scale.  Pomeroy  was  incor- 
porated as  a  village  and  was  made  the  county-seat  in  1841.  In 
1850  the  first  of  several  salt  wells,  from  1000  to  1200  ft.  in 
depth,  was  operated. 

POMFRET,  JOHN  (1667-1702),  English  poet,  son  of  Thomas 
Pomfret,  vicar  of  Luton,  was  born  in  1667.  He  was  educated 
at  Bedford  grammar  school  and  at  Queens'  College,  Cambridge. 
He  became  rector  of  Maulden,  Bedfordshire,  in  1695,  and  of 
MiUbrook  in  the  same  county  in  1702.  Dr  Johnson  says  that 
the  bishop  of  London  refused  to  sanction  preferment  for  him 
because  in  his  Choice  he  declared  that  he  would  have  no  wife, 
although  he  expressed  a  wish  for  the  occasional  company  of  a 
modest  and  sprightly  young  lady.  The  poet  was  married  in  real 
life  all  the  same,  and — while  waiting  to  clear  up  the  misunder- 
standing with  the  bishop — he  died  in  November  1702.  The 
Choice  or  Wish:  A  Poem  written  by  a  Person  of  Quality  (1700) 
expresses  the  epicurean  desires  of  a  cultivated  man  of  Pomfret's 
time.  It  is  smoothly  written  in  the  heroic  couplet,  and  was  widely 
popular.     His  Miscellany  Poems  were  published  in  1702. 

POMMEL  (through  O.  Fr.  pomel,  from  a  diminutive  pomellus  of 
Lat.  pomum,  fruit,  apple),  any  rounded  object  resembling  an 
apple,  e.g.  the  rounded  termination  of  a  saddle-bow;  in  archi- 
tecture, any  round  knob,  as  a  boss,  finial,  &c. ;  more  particularly 
the  rounded  end  to  the  hilt  of  a  sword,  dagger  or  other  hand 
weapon,  used  to  prevent  the  hand  from  slipping,  and  as  a  balance 
to  the  blade.  "  Pommel  "  is  also  a  term  used  of  a  piece  of 
grooved  wood  used  in  graining  leather.  This  word  may  be 
the  same  in  origin,  or  more  probably  from  Fr.  paumelle,  from 
paume,  the  hand,  palm.  », 

POMMER,  or  Bombard  (Fr.  hautbois;  Ital.  bomhardo,  bomhar- 
done),  the  alto,  tenor  and  basses  of  the  shawm  or  Schalmey 
family,  and  the  forerunners  respectively  of  the  cor-anglais, 
bassoon  or  fagotto,  and  double  bassoon  or  contrafagotto.  The 
main  difference  to  the  casual  observer  between  the  medieval 
instruments  and  those  of  our  orchestra  which  were  evolved  from 
them  would  be  one  of  size.  In  the  Pommers  no  attempt  had 
been  made  to  bend  the  tube,  and  its  length,  equal  to  that  of  an 
open  organ  pipe  of  the  same  pitch,  was  outstretched  in  aU  its 
unwieldiness  in  an  obhque  position  in  front  of  the  performer. 
The  great  contrabass  Pommer  was  9  ft.  long  without  the 
crook  and  reed,  which,  however,  were  bent  downwards.  It  had 
five  open  fingerholes  and  five  keys  working  inside  a  perforated 
case;  in  order  to  bring  the  holes  within  reach  of  the  finger,  they 
were  cut  obliquely  through  the  tube.     The  compass  extended 


from  F  below  8  ft.  C  to  E or  F  in  the  bass  stave,  two  octaves  in  all. 
The  other  members  of  the  family  were  the  bass  Pommer,  from 
8  ft.  C  to  middle  C,  corresponding  to  the  modern  bassoon  or 
fagotto;  the  tenor  or  basset  Pommer,  a  fifth  higher  in  pitch;  the 
alto  pommer  or  nicolo,  a  fourth  or  a  fifth  above  the  tenor;  and 
the  high  alto,  or  Klein  Alt  Pommer,  an  octave  higher  than  the 
tenor,  corresponding  approximately  to  the  cor-anglais. 
For  the  history  of  the  Pommer  family  see  Oboe  and  Bassoon. 

(K.  S.) 

POMONA,  an  old  Italian  goddess  of  fruit  and  gardens.  Ovid 
(Met.  xiv.  623)  tells  the  story  of  her  courtship  by  the  silvan 
deities  and  how  Vertumnus,  god  of  the  turning  year,  wooed 
and  won  her.  Corresponding  to  Pomona  there  seems  to  have 
been  a  male  Italian  deity,  called  Pomunus,  who  was  perhaps 
identical  with  Vertumnus.  Although  chiefly  worshipped  in  the 
country,  Pomona  had  a  special  priest  at  Rome,  the  flamen  Pomo- 
nalis,  and  a  sacred  grove  near  Ostia,  called  the  Pomonal.  She 
was  represented  as  a  beautiful  maiden,  with  fruits  in  her  bosom 
and  a  pruning-knife  in  her  hand. 

POMONA,  a  city  of  Los  Angeles  county,  in  southern  Cali- 
fornia, U.S.A.,  about  S3  m.  E.  of  the  city  of  Los  Angeles.  Pop. 
(i8go)  3634;  (1900)  5526  (567 foreign-born);  (1910)  10,207.  It  is 
served  by  the  Southern  Pacific,  the  San  Pedro,  Los  Angeles  & 
Salt  Lake,  and  the  Atchison,  Topeka  &  Santa  Fe  railways, 
and  by  an  inter-urban  electric  line.  The  city  is  about  850  ft. 
above  sea-level,  and  has  a  Carnegie  library  and  several  parks, 
including  Ganesha  park  (45  acres) ,  which  commands  a  fine  view. 
At  Claremont,  about  3  m.  north,  is  Pomona  College  (1888,  co- 
educational), which  in  1908  had  34  instructors  and  488  students. 
Pomona  is  in  the  midst  of  a  prosperous  fruit  region,  devoted 
especially  to  the  growing  of  oranges.  Orchards  of  oranges, 
lemons,  apricots,  peaches  and  prunes  surround  the  city  for  miles, 
and  some  olives  are  grown;  alfalfa  and  sugar-beets  are  raised  in 
large  quantities  in  the  immediate  neighbourhood.  Pomona  was 
settled  by  a  colony  of  fruit-growers  in  1875,  and  was  chartered 
as  a  city  in  1888. 

POMONA,  or  Mainland,  the  'central'  and]  largest  island  of 
the  Orkneys,  Scotland.  Pop.  (1901),  16,235.  It  is  25  m.  long 
from  N.W.  to  S.E.  and  15  m.  broad  from  E.  to  W.;  area,  190 
sq.  m. ;  but  where  the  coast  is  cut  into,  on  the  N.  by  Kirkwall 
Bay  and  on  the  S.  by  Scapa  Flow,  the  land  is  less  than  2  m.  across. 
Consequently,  the  portion  of  the  island  to  the  west  of  the  waist 
of  Pomona  is  sometimes  described  as  the  West  Island,  and  the 
portion  to  the  East  as  the  East  Island.  The  west  coast  is 
almost  unbroken,  the  bays  of  Birsay  and  SkaUl  being  the  only 
bays  of  any  importance.  The  east  and  south  shores,  on  the 
other  hand,  are  extensively  carved  out.  Thus  on  the  east 
side  are  found  EynhaUow  Sound,  Wood  Wick,  the  bays  of 
Isbister,  Firth,  Kirkwall,  and  Inganess  and  Dee  Sound,  and  on 
the  south  Holm  Sound,  Scapa  Bay,  Swanbister  Bay  and  Bay 
of  Ireland.  The  highest  points  of  the  watershed  from  Costa 
Head  to  the  Scapa  shore  are  Milldoe  (734  ft.)  to  the  north-east 
of  Isbister  and  Wideford  Hill  (740  ft.)  to  the  west  of  KirkwaU. 
There  are  also  a  few  eminences  towards  the  south-west,  Ward 
Hill  (880  ft.)  in  the  parish  of  Orphir  being  the  highest  peak  in 
the  island.  There  are  numerous  lakes,  some  of  considerable 
size  and  most  of  them  abounding  with  trout.  Loch  Harray  is 
45  m.  long  by  from  i  m.  to  about  2  m.  wide,  and  Loch  Stenness 
31  m.  long  by  from  |  to  2I  m.  wide.  Lochs  Swannay,  Board- 
house  and  Hundland  are  situated  in  the  extreme  north,  while 
Loch  Kirbister  hes  near  the  south  coast  and  Loch  Tankerness 
adjoins  Deer  Sound.  Off  the  east  coast  lie  the  islands  of  Rousay, 
Egilshay,  Viera,  Eynhallow,  Gairsay  and  Shapinshay,  and  off 
the  south  Copinshay  and  Lamb  Holm.  The  hilly  country  is 
mostly  moorland,  and  peat-mosses  are  met  with  in  some  of  the 
low-lying  land,  but  many  of  the  valleys  contain  fertile  soil,  and 
there  are  productive  tracts  on  the  eastern  and  northern  seaboard. 
Kirkwall,  the  capital  of  the  Orkneys,  and  Stroniness  are  the  only 
towns. 

In  Harray,  the  only  parish  in  the  Orkneys  not  trenched  at 
some  point  by  the  sea,  Norse  customs  have  survived  longer  than 
elsewhere  in  the  group  save  in  North  Ronaldshay.     In  Deerness 


POMPADOUR,  MARQUISE  DE 


49 


the  most  easterly  parish  in  Pomona,  were  buried  200  Covenanters, 
taken  prisoners  at  the  battle  of  Bothwell  Brig.  They  were 
carried  to  Barbados,  to  be  sold  as  slaves  for  the  plantations, 
when  the  ship  foundered  in  Deer  Sound,  and  aU  were  drowned. 
In  Sandside  Bay,  in  the  same  parish,  the  fleet  of  Malcolm 
Canmore  was  defeated  by  that  of  jarl  Thorfinn;  and  at 
Summersdale,  towards  the  northern  base  of  the  hills  of  Orphir, 
Sir  James  Sinclair,  governor  of  Kirkwall,  vanquished  Lord 
Sinclair  and  500  Caithness  men  in  1529. 

The  antiquities  of  Pomona  are  of  great  interest.  The  examples 
of  Pictish  remains  include  hrochs  or  round  towers,  chambered 
mounds,  or  buildings  of  stone  covered  in  with  earth,  and  weems, 
or  underground  dwellings  afterwards  roofed  in.  At  Saverock, 
on  the  west  wing  of  Kirkwall  Bay,  a  good  specimen  of  an  earth- 
house  will  be  found,  and  at  Quanterness,  i  m.  to  the  west  of  it,  a 
chambered  mound,  containing  seven  rooms  with  beehive  roofs. 
Farther  west  and  5  m.  by  road  north-east  of  Stromness,  and 
within  a  mile  of  the  stone  circles  of  Stenness,  stands  the  great 
barrow  or  chambered  mound  of  Maeshowe.  The  tumulus  has 
the  form  of  a  blunted  cone,  is  36  ft.  high,  300  ft.  in  circum- 
ference and:  92  ft.  in  diameter,  and  at  a  distance  of  90  ft.  from 
its  base  is  encircled  by  a  moat  40  ft.  wide  and  from  4  ft.  to  8  ft. 
deep.  The  ground-plan  shows  that  it  was  entered  from  the  west 
by  a  passage,  54  ft.  long,  from  2  ft.  to  3  ft.  wide  and  from  25  ft. 
to  4I  ft.  high,  which  led  to  a  central  apartment  about  15  ft. 
square,  the  walls  of  which  ended  in  a  beehive  roof,  the  spring 
of  which  began  at  a  height  of  13  ft.  from  the  floor.  This  room 
and  the  passage  are  built  of  undressed  blocks  and  slabs  of  sand- 
stone. About  the  middle  of  each  side  ,of  the  chamber,  at  a 
height  of  3  ft.  from  the  floor,  there  is  an  entrance  to  a  small 
cell,  3  ft.  high,  4I  ft.  wide  and  from  5I  ft.  to  7  ft.  long.  Mr 
James  Farrer  explored  the  mound  in  1861,  and  discovered  on  the 
walls  and  certain  stones  rude  drawings  of  crosses,  a  winged 
dragon,  and  a  serpent  curled  round  a  pole,  besides  a  variety  of 
Runic  inscriptions.  One  of  these  inscriptions  stated  that  the 
tumulus  had  been  rifled  by  Norse  pilgrims  (possibly  crusaders) 
on  their  way  to  Jerusalem  under  Jarl  Rognvald  in  the  12th 
century.  1  There  can  be .  little  doubt  but  that  it  was  a 
sepulchral  chamber.  Joseph  Anderson  ascribes  it  to  the  Stone 
Age  (that  is,  to  the  Picts),  and  James  Fergusson  to  Norsemen  of 
the  loth  century. 

The  most  interesting  of  all  those  links  with  a  remote  past  are 
the  stone  circles  forming  the  Ring  of  Brogar  and  the  Ring  of 
Stenness,  often  inaccurately  described  as  the  Stones  of  Stenness. 
The  Ring  of  Brogar  is  situated  to  the  north-west  and  the  Ring  of 
Stenness  to  the  south-east  of  the  Bridge  of  Brogar,  as  the  narrow 
causeway  of  stone  slabs  is  called  which  separates  Loch  Harray 
from  Loch  .Stenness.  The  district  hes  some  4I  m.  north-east 
of  Stromness.  The  Ring  of  Brogar,  once  known  as  the  Temple 
of  the  Sun,  stands  on  a  raised  circular  platform  of  turf,  340  ft. 
in  diameter,  surrounded  by  a  moat  about  6  ft.  deep,  which  in 
turn  is  invested  by  a  grassy  rampart.  The  ring  originally 
comprised  60  stones,  set  up  at  intervals  of  17  ft.  Only  13  are 
now  erect.  Ten,  still  entire,  lie  prostrate,  while  the  stumps  of 
13  others  can  yet  be  recognized.  The  height  of  the  stones 
varies  from  9  ft.  to  14  ft.  The  Ring  of  Stenness — the  Temple 
of  the  Moon  of  local  tradition — is  of  similar  construction  to  the 
larger  circle,  except  that  its  round  platform  is  only  104  ft.  in 
diameter.  The  stones  are  believed  to  have  numbered  12, 
var3dng  in  height  from  15  ft.  to  17  ft.  but  only  two  remain  up- 
right. In  the  middle  of  the  ring  may  be  seen,  the:  relic  of  wiat 
was  probably  the  sacrificial  altar.  The  Stone  of  Odin,  the 
great  monolith,  pierced  by  a  hole  at  a  height  of  5  ft.  from  the 
ground,  which  figures  so  prominently  in  Scott's  Pirate,  stood 
1 50  yds.  to  the  north  of  the  Ring  of  Stenness.  The  stones  of 
both  rings  are  of  the  native  Old  Red  Sa,ndstone. 

POMPADOUR,  JEANNE  ANTOINETTE  POISSON  LE  NOR- 
MANT  D'fillOLES,  Marquise  de  (1721-1764),  mistress  of 
Louis  XV.,  was  born  in  Paris  on  the  29th  of  December  1721,  and 
baptized  as  i, the  legitimate  daughter  of  Francois  Poisson,  an 
officer  in  the  household  of  the  duke  of  Orleans,  and  his  wife, 
Madeleine  de  la  .Motte  vn  the  church  of  St  Eustache;  but  she 


was  suspected,  as  well  as  her  brother,  afterwards  marquis  of 
Marigny,  to  be  the  child  of  a  very  wealthy  financier  and  farmer- 
general  of  the  revenues,  Le  Normant  de  Tournehem.  He  at 
any  rate  took  upon  himself  the  charge  of  her  education;  and,  as 
from  the  beauty  and  wit  she  showed  from  childhood  she  seemed 
to  be  born  for  some  uncommon  destiny,  he  declared  her  "  un 
morceau  de  roi,"  and  specially  educated  her  to  be  a  king's 
mistress.  This  idea  was  confirmed  in  her  childish  mind  by  the 
prophecy  of  an  old  woman,  whom  in  after  days  she  pensioned 
for  the  correctness  of  her  prediction.  In  1741  she  was  married 
to  a  nephew  of  her  protector  and  guardian,  Le  Normant  d'Etioles, 
who  was  passionately  in  love  with  her,  and  she  soon  became  a 
queen  of  fashion.  Yet  the  world  of  the  financiers  at  Paris  was 
far  apart  from  the  court  world,  where  she  wished  to  reign; 
she  could  get  no  introduction  at  court,  and  could  only  try  to 
catch  the  king's  eye  when  he  went  out  hunting.  But  Louis  XV. 
was  then  under  the  influence  of  Mme  de  MaiUy,  who  carefuUy 
prevented  any  further  intimacy  with  "  la  petite  fitioles,"  and 
it  was  not  until  after  her  death  that  the  king  met  the  fair  queen 
of  the  financial  world  of  Paris  at  a  baU  given  by  the  city  to  the 
dauphin  in  1744,  and  he  was  immediately  subjugated.  She  at 
once  gave  up  her  husband,  and  in  1745  was  established  at 
Versailles  as  "  maitresse  en  titre."  Louis  XV.  bought  her  the 
estate  of  Pompadour,  from  which  she  took  her  title  of  marquise 
(raised  in  1752  to  that  of  duchess).  She  was  hardly  established 
firmly  in  power  before  she  showed  that  ambition  rather  than 
love  had  guided  her,  and  began  to  mix  in  politics.  Knowing 
that  the  French  people  of  that  time  were  ruled  by  the  literary 
kings  of  the  time,  she  paid  court  to  them,  and  tried  to  play  the 
part  of  a  Maecenas.  Voltaire  was  her  poet  in  chief,  and  the 
founder  of  the  physiocrats,  Quesnay,  was  her  physician.  In  the 
arts  she  was  even  more  successful;  she  was  herself  no  mean  etcher 
ind  engraver,  and  she  encouraged  and  protected  Vanloo,  Boucher, 
Vien,  Greuze,  and  the  engraver  Jacques  Guay.  Yet  this  policy 
did  not  prevent  her  from  being  lampooned,  and  the  famous 
poissardes  against  her  contributed  to  the  ruin  of  many  wits 
suspected  of  being  among  the  authors,  and  notably  of  the  Comte 
de  Maurepas.  The  command  of  the  political  situation  passed 
entirely  into  her  hands;  she  it  was  who  brought  Belle-Isle  into 
office  with  his  vigorous  policy;  she  corresponded  regularly  with 
the  generals  of  the  armies  in  the  field,  as  her  letters  to  the  Comte 
de  Clermont  prove;  and  she  introduced  the  Abbe  de  Bernis  into 
the  ministry  in  order  to  effect  a  very  great  alteration  of  French 
politics  in  1756.  The  continuous  policy  of  France  since  the  days 
of  Richelieu  had  been  to  weaken  the  house  of  Austria  by  alliances 
in  Germany;  but  Mme  de  Pompadour  changed  this  hereditary 
policy  because  Frederick  the  Great  wrote  scandalous  verses  on 
her;  and  because  Maria  Theresa  wrote  her  a  friendly  letter  she 
entered  into  an  alliance  with  Austria.  This  alliance  brought  on 
the  Seven  Years'  War,  with  all  its  disasters,  the  battle  of  Rosbach 
and  the  loss  of  Canada;  but  Mme  de  Pompadour  persisted 
in  her  policy,  and,  when  Bernis  failed  her,  brought  Choiseul 
into  office  and  supported  him  in  all  his  great  plans,  the 
Facte  de  Faniille,  the  suppression  of  the  Jesuits,  and  the 
peace  of  Versailles.  But  it  was  to  internal  politics  that 
this  remarkable  woman  paid  most  attention;  no  one  obtained 
office  except  through  her;  in  imitation  of  Mme  de  Maintenon, 
she  prepared  all  business  for  the  king's  eye  with  the 
ministers,  and  contrived  that  they  should  meet  in  her  room; 
and  she  daily  examined  the  letters  sent  through  the  post 
office  with  JaneUe,  the  director  of  the  post  office.  By  this 
continuous  labour  she  made  herself  indispensable  to  Louis. 
Yet,  when  after  a  year  or  two  she  had  lost  the  heart 
of  her  lover,  she  had  a  difficult  task  before  her;  to  maintain 
her  influence  she  had  not  only  to"save  the  king  as  much  trouble 
as  possible,  but  to  find  him  fresh  pleasures.  When  he  first 
began  to  weary  of  her  she  remembered  her  talent  for  acting 
and  her  privfite  theatricals  at  fitioles,  and  established  the 
"  theatre  des  petits  cabinets,"  in  which  she  acted  with  the  greatest 
lords  about  the  court  for  the  king's  pleasure  in  tragedies  and 
comedies,,  operas  and  ballets.  By  this  means  and  the  "  concerts 
spirituels  "  she  kept  in  favour  for  a  time;  but  at  last  she  found  a 


50 


POMPEII 


surer  way,  by  encouraging  the  king  in  his  debaucheries,  and  Louis 
wept  over  her  kindness  to  his  various  mistresses.  Only  once, 
when  the  king  was  wounded  by  Damiens  in  1757,  did  she  receive 
a  serious  shock,  and  momentarily  left  the  court;  but  on  his 
recovery  she  returned  more  powerful  than  ever.  She  even 
ingratiated  herself  with  the  queen,  after  the  example  of 
Mme  de  Maintenon,  and  was  made  a  lady-in-waiting;  but  the 
end  was  soon  to  come.  "  Ma  vie  est  un  combat,"  she  said, 
and  so  it  was,  with  business  and  pleasure  she  gradually  grew 
weaker  and  weaker,  and  when  told  that  death  was  at  hand  she 
dressed  herself  in  full  court  costume,  and  met  it  bravely  on  the 
15th  of  April  1764,  at  the  age  of  forty-two. 

See  Capefigue,  Madame  la  marquise  de  Pompadour  (1858) ; 
E.  and  J.  de  Goncourt,  Les  Mattresses  de  Louis  XV.,  vol.  ii.  (i860) ; 
and  Campardon,  Madame  de  Pompadour  et  la  cour  de  Louis  XV. 
au  milieu  du  dix-huiti'eme  siecle  (1867).  Far  more  valuable  are 
Malassis's  two  volumes  of  correspondence,  Correi^oM(io«ce  de  Madame 
de  Pompadour  avec  son  pbre  M.  Poisson,  et  son  frere  M.  de  Vandieres, 
&c.  (1878),  and  Bonhomme,  Madame  de  Pompadour,  general  d'armee 
(1880),  containing  her  letters  to  the  Comte  de  Clermont.  For  her 
artistic  and  theatrical  tastes  see  particularly  J.  F.  Leturcq,  Notice 
sur  Jacques  Guay,  graveur  sur  pierres  fines  du  roi  Louis  XV.: 
Documents  in&dits  emanant  de  Guay  et  notes  sur  les  oeuvres  de  gravure 
en  taille  douce  et  en  pierres  durs  de  la  marquise  de  Pompadour  (1873) ; 
and  Adolphe  JuUien,  Histoire  du  theatre  de  Madame  de  Pompadour, 
dit  Thedtre  des  Petits  Cabinets  (1874).  See  also  P.  de  Nolhac,  La 
Marquise  de  Pompadour  (1903). 

POMPEII,!  an  ancient  town  of  Campania,  Italy,  situated  near 
the  river  Sarnus,  nearly  2  m.  from  the  shore  of  the  Bay  of 
Naples,  almost  at  the  foot  of  Mt  Vesuvius.  Of  its  history  before 
79  B.C.  comparatively  little  is  recorded;  but  it  appears  that  it 
had  a  population  of  a  very  mixed  character,  and  passed  succes- 
sively into  the  hands  of  several  different  peoples,  each  of  which 
contributed  an  element  to  its  composition.  Its  foundation  was 
ascribed  by  Greek  tradition  to  Heracles,  in  common  with  the 
neighbouring  city  of  Herculaneum,  but  it  is  certain  that  it  was 
not  a  Greek  colony,  in  the  proper  sense  of  the  term,  as  we  know 
to  have  been  the  case  with  the  more  important  cities  of  Cumae 
and  Neapolis.  Strabo  (v.  4,  8),  in  whose  time  it  was  a  populous 
and  flourishing  place,  tells  us  that  it  was  first  occupied  by  the 
Oscans^  (to  whom  we  must  attribute  the  Doric  temple  in  the 
Foro  Triangolare) ,  afterwards  by  the  Tyrrhenians  {i.e.  Etruscans) 
and  Pelasgians,  and  lastly,  by  the  Samnites.  The  conquest  of 
Campania  by  the  last-mentioned  people  is  an  undoubted  historical 
fact,  and  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  Pompeii  shared  the  fate  of 
the  neighbouring  cities  on  this  occasion,  and  afterwards  passed 
in  common  with  them  under  the  yoke  of  Rome.  But  its  name 
is  only  once  mentioned  during  the  wars  of  the  Romans  with 
the  Samnites  and  Campanians  in  this  region  of  Italy,  and  then 
only  incidentally  (Liv.  ix.  38),  when  a  Roman  fleet  landed  near 
Pompeii  in  309  B.C.  and  made  an  unsuccessful  marauding 
expedition  up  the  river  valley  as  far  as  Nuceria.^  At  a  later 
period,  however,  it  took  a  prominent  part  in  the  outbreak  of  the 
nations  of  central  Italy,  known  as  the  Social  War  (91-89  B.C.), 
when  it  withstood  a  long  siege  by  SuUa,  and  was  one  of  the  last 
cities  of  Campania  that  were  reduced  by  the  Roman  arms.  The 
inhabitants  were  admitted  to  the  Roman  franchise,  but  a  military 
colony  was  settled  in  their  territory  in  80  B.C.  by  Sulla  {Colonia 
Cornelia  Veneria  Pompeianorum),  and  the  whole  population 
was  rapidly  Romanized.  The  municipal  administration  here, 
as  elsewhere,  was  in  the  hands  of  two  duoviri  iure  dicundo  and 
two  aediles,  the  supreme  body  being  the  city  council  (decuriones) . 
Before  the  close  of  the  republic  it  became  a  resort  of  the  Roman 
nobles,  many  of  whom  acquired  villas  in  the  neighbourhood. 
Among  them  was  Cicero,  whose  letters  abound  with  allusions 
to  his  Pompeian  villa.  The  same  fashion  continued  under  the 
empire,  and  there  can  be  no  doubt  that,  during  the  first  century 
of  the  Christian  era,  Pompeii  had  become  a  flourishing  place 

'The  etymology  of  the  name  is  uncertain;  the  ancients  derived 
it  from  pompa  or  irinTra  (Gr.  send),  in  allusion  to  the  journey  of 
Heracles  with  the  oxen  of  Geryon,  but  modern  authorities  refer 
it  to  the  Oscan  pompa  (five). 

^  For  the  Oscan  incriptions  found  in  Pompeii  see  below  ad  fin. 

'  Pompeii  was  attacked  as  a  member  of  the  Nucerine  League. 
See  Conway,  Italic  Dialects,  p.  51;  J.  Beloch,  Campanien,  2nd  ed., 
P-  239- 


with  a  considerable  population.  Two  events  only  are  recorded 
of  its  history  during  this  period.  In  a.d.  59  a  tumult  took  place 
in  the  amphitheatre  between  the  citizens  and  visitors  from  the 
neighbouring  colony  of  Nuceria.  Many  were  killed  and  wounded 
on  both  sides.  The  Pompeians  were  punished  for  this  violent 
outbreak  by  the  prohibition  of  all  theatrical  exhibitions  for 
ten  years  (Tacitus,  Ann.  xiv.  17).  A  characteristic,  though 
rude,  painting,  found  on  the  waUs  of  one  of  the  houses  gives  a 
representation  of  this  event. 

Four  years  afterwards  (a.d.  63)  an  earthquake,  which  affected 
all  the  neighbouring  towns,  vented  its  force  especially  upon 
Pompeii,  a  large  part  of  which,  including  most  of  the  public 
bufldings,  was  either  destroyed  or  so  seriously  damaged  as  to 
require  to  be  rebuilt  (Tac.  Ann.  xv.  22;  Seneca,  Q.N.  vi.  i). 
From  the  existing  remains  it  is  clear  that  the  inhabitants  were 
still  actively  engaged  in  repairing  and  restoring  the  ruined  edifices 
when  the  whole  city  was  overwhelmed  by  the  great  eruption 
of  A.D.  79.  Vesuvius  {q.v.),  the  volcanic  forces  of  which  had  been 
slumbering  for  unknown  ages,  suddenly  burst  into  violent 
eruption,  which,  whfle  it  carried  devastation  all  around  the 
beautiful  gulf,  buried  the  two  cities  of  Herculaneum  and  Pompeii 
under  dense  beds  of  cinders  and  ashes.  It  is  singular  that,  while 
we  possess  a  detailed  description  of  this  famous  eruption  in  two 
letters  of  the  younger  Pliny  {Epist.  vi.  16,  20),  he  does  not  even 
notice  the  destruction  of  Pompeii  or  Herculaneum,  though  his 
uncle  perished  in  the  immediate  neighbourhood  of  the  former 
city.  But  their  fate  is  noticed  by  Dio  Cassius,  and  its  circum- 
stances may  be  gathered  with  certainty  from  the  condition  in 
which  the  city  has  been  found.  These  were  such  as  to  conduce  to 
its  preservation  and  interest  as  a  reHc  of  antiquity.  Pompeii  was 
merely  covered  with  a  bed  of  lighter  substances,  cinders,  small 
stones  and  ashes,  which  feU  in  a  dry  state,  whfle  at  Herculaneum 
the  same  substances,  being  drenched  with  water,  hardened  into 
a  sort  of  tufa,  which  in  places  is  65  ft.  deep.  The  whole  of  this 
superincumbent  mass,  attaining  to  an  average  thickness  of  from 
18  to  20  ft.,  was  the  product  of  one  eruption,  though  the  materials 
may  be  divided  generaUy  into  two  distinct  strata,  the  one 
consisting  principally  of  cinders  and  smaU  volcanic  stones 
(called  in  Italian  lapilli),  and  the  other  and  uppermost  layer  of 
fine  white  ash,  often  consolidated  by  the  action  of  water  from 
above  so  as  to  take  the  moulds  of  objects  contained  in  it  (such 
as  dead  bodies,  woodwork,  &c.),  Hke  clay  or  plaster  of  Paris. 
It  was  found  impossible  to  rebuild  the  town,  and  its  territory 
was  joined  to  that  of  Nola.  But  the  survivors  returned  to  the 
spot,  and  by  digging  down  and  tunnelling  were  able  to  remove 
all  the  objects  of  value,  even  the  marble  facing  slabs  of  the  large 
buildings. 

In  the  middle  ages,  however,  the  very  site  was  forgotten. 
Two  inscriptions  were  found  in  making  an  underground  aqueduct 
across  the  site  in  1 594-1600,  but  it  was  not  until  1748  that  a  more 
careful  inspection  of  this  channel  revealed  the  fact  that  beneath 
the  vineyards  and  mulberry  grounds  which  covered  the  site 
there  lay  entombed  ruins  far  more  accessible,  if  not  more  inter- 
esting, than  those  of  Herculaneum.  It  was  not  tiU  1763  that 
systematic  excavations  were  begun;  and,  though  they  were 
carried  on  during  the  rest  of  the  i8th  century,  it  was  only  in 
the  beginning  of  the  19th  that  they  assumed  a  regular  character; 
the  work,  which  had  received  a  vigorous  stimulus  during  the 
period  of  the  French  government  ( 1806-18 14),  was  prosecuted, 
though  in  a  less  methodical  manner,  under  the  rule  of  the  Bour- 
bon kings  (181S-1861).  Since  1861  it  has  been  carried  on  under 
the  Italian  government  in  a  more  scientific  manner,  on  a  system 
devised  by  G.  Fiorelli  (d.  1896),  according  to  which  the  town  is 
for  convenience  divided  into  nine  regions — though  this  rests 
on  a  misconception,  for  there  is  really  no  street  between  the 
Capua  and  the  Nocera  gates— and  the  results  have  been  of  the 
highest  interest,  though  the  rate  of  progress  has  been  very 
slow. 

The  town  was  situated  on  rising  ground  less  than  a  mile  from 
the  foot  of  Vesuvius.  This  eminence  is  itself  due  to  an  outflow 
of  lava  from  that  mountain,  during  some  previous  eruption  in 
prehistoric  times,  for  we  know  from  Strabo  that  Vesuvius  had 


POMPEII 


5^ 


been  quiescent  ever  since  the  first  records  of  the  Greek  settle- 
ments in  this  part  of  Italy.  Pompeii  in  ancient  times  was  a 
prosperous  seaport  town  situated  close  to  the  seashore,  from 
which  it  is  now  nearly  2  m.  distant,  and  adjoining  the  mouth 
of  the  river  Sarnus  or  Sarno,  which  now  enters  the  sea 
nearly  2  m.  from  its  site.  The  present  course  of  this  stream  is 
due  in  part  to  modern  alteration  of  its  channel,  as  well  as  to  the 
effects  of  the  great  eruption.  The  prosperity  of  Pompeii  was 
due  partly  to  its  commerce,  as  the  port  of  the  neighbouring 
towns,  partly  to  the  fertility  of  its  territory,  which  produced 
strong  wine,  olive  oil  (a  comparatively  small  quantity),  and 
vegetables;  fish  sauces  were  made  here.  Millstones  and  pumice 
were  also  exported,  but  for  the  former  the  more  gritty  lava  of 
Rocca  Monfina  was  later  on  preferred. 

The  area  occupied  by  the  ancient  city  was  of  an  irregular 
oval  form,  and  about  2  m.  in  circumference.  It  was  sur- 
rounded by  a  wall,  which  is  still  preserved  for  more  than 
two-thirds  of  its  extent,  but  no  traces  of  this  are  found  on  the 
side  towards  the  sea,  and  there  is  no  doubt  that  on  this  side 
it  had  been  already  demolished  in  ancient  times,  so  as  to  give 
room  for  the  free  extension  of  houses  and  other  buildings  in 
that  direction.^  These  walls  are  strengthened  at  intervals  by 
numerous  towers,'  occupying  the  full  width  of  the  wall,  which 
occur  in  some  parts  at  a  distance  of  only  about  100  yds.,  but  in 
general  much  less  frequently.  They  are,  however,  of  a  different 
style  of  construction  from  the  walls,  and  appear  to  have  been 
added  at  a  later  period,  probably  that  of  the  Social  War.  Similar 
evidences  of  the  addition  of  subsequent  defences  are  to  be  traced 
also  in  the  case  of  the  gates,  of  which  no  less  than  eight  are  found 
in  the  existing  circuit  of  the  walls.  Some  of  these  present  a 
very  elaborate  system  of  defence,  but  it  is  evident  from  the 
decayed  condition  of  others,  as  well  as  of  parts  of  the  walls  and 
towers,  that  they  had  ceased  to  be  maintained  for  the  purposes 
of  fortification  long  before  the  destruction  of  the  city.  The 
names  by  which  the  gates  and  streets  are  known  are  entirely  of 
modern  origin. 

The  general  plan  of  the  town  is  very  regular,  the  streets  being 
generally  straight,  and  crossing  one  another  at  right  angles 
or  nearly  so.  But  exceptions  are  found  on  the  west  in  the  street 
leading  from  the  Porta  Ercolanese  (gate  of  Herculaneum)  to 
the  forum,  which,  though  it  must  have  been  one  of  the  principal 
thoroughfares  in  the  city,  was  crooked  and  irregular,  as  well  as 
very  narrow,  in  some  parts  not  exceeding  12  to  14  ft.  in  width, 
including  the  raised  footpaths  on  each  side,  which  occupy  a 
considerable  part  of  the  space,  so  that  the  carriage-way  could 
only  have  admitted  of  the  passage  of  one  vehicle  at  a  time. 
The  explanation  is  that  it  follows  the  line  of  the  demolished 
city  wall.  Another  exception  is  to  be  found  in  the  Strada 
Stabiana  (Stabian  Street)  or  Cardo,  which,  owing  to  the  existence 
of  a  natural  depression  which  affects  also  the  line  of  the  street 
just  east  of  it,  is  not  parallel  to  the  other  north  and  south  streets. 
The  other  main  streets  are  in  some  cases  broader,  but  rarely 
exceed  20  ft.  in  width,  and  the  broadest  yet  found  is  about  32, 
while  the  back  streets  running  parallel  to  the  main  lines  are  only 
about  14  ft.  (It  is  to  be  remembered,  however,  that  the  standard 
width  of  a  Roman  highroad  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Rome  itself 
is  about  14  ft.)  They  are  uniformly  paved  with  large  poly- 
gonal blocks  of  hard  basaltic  lava,  fitted  very  closely  together, 
though  now  in  many  cases  marked  with  deep  ruts  fromthepassage 
of  vehicles  in  ancient  times.  They  are  also  in  all  cases  bordered 
by  raised  footways  on  both  sides,  paved  in  a  similar  manner; 
and  for  the  convenience  of  foot-passengers,  which  was  evidently 
a  more  important  consideration  than  the  obstacle  which  the 
arrangement  presented  to  the  passage  of  vehicles,  which  indeed 
were  probably  only  allowed  for  gopds  traffic,,  these  are  connected 
from  place  to  place  by  stepping-stones  raised  above  the  level  of 
the  carriage-way.  In  other  respects  they  must  have  resembled 
those  of  Oriental  cities— the  living  apartments  all  opening 
towards  the  interior,  and  showing  only  blank  walls  towards 

'  It  consisted  of  two  parallel  stone  walls  with  buttresses,  about 
15  ft.  apart  and  28'  in.  thick,  the  intervening  space  being  filled 
with  earth,  and  there  being  an  embankment  on  the  inner  side. 


the  street;  while  the  windows  were  generally  to  be  found  only 
in  the  upper  storey,  and  were  in  all  cases  small  and  insignificant, 
without  any  attempt  at  architectural  effect.  In  some  instances 
indeed  the  monotony  of  their  external  appearance  was  broken 
by  small  shops,  occupying  the  front  of  the  principal  houses, 
and  let  off  separately;  these  were  in  some  cases  numerous  enough 
to  form  a  continuous  faf ade  to  the  street.  This  is  seen  especially 
in  the  case  of  the  street  from  the  Porta  Ercolanese  to  the  forum 
and  the  Strada  Stabiana  (or  Cardo),  both  of  which  were  among 
the  most  frequented  thoroughfares.  The  streets  were  also 
diversified  by  fountains,  small  water-towers  and  reservoirs 
(of  which  an  especially  interesting  example  was  found  in  1902 
close  to  the  Porta  del  Vesuvio)  and  street  shrines.  The  source 
of  the  water-supply  is  unknown. 

The  first-mentioned  of  the  two  principal  streets  was  crossed,  a 
little  before  it  reached  the  forum,  by  the  street  which  led  directly 
to  the  gate  of  Nola  (Strada  deUe  Terme,  deUa  Fortuna,  and  di 
Nola).  Parallel  to  this  last  to  the  south  is  a  street  which  runs 
from  the  Porta  Marina  through  the  forum,  and  then,  with  a 
slight  turn,  to  the  Sarno  gate,  thus  traversing  the  whole  area  of 
the  city  from  east  to  west  (Via  Marina,  Strada  dell'  Abbondanza, 
Strada  dei  Diadumeni).  These  two  east  and  west  streets  are 
the  two  decumani. 

The  population  of  Pompeii  at  the  time  of  its  destruction 
cannot  be  fixed  with  certainty,  but  it  may  very  likely  have  ex- 
ceeded 20,000.  It  was  of  a  mixed  character;  both  Oscan 
and  Greek  inscriptions  are  still  found  up  to  the  last,  and,  though 
there  is  no  trace  whatever  of  Christianity,  evidences  of  the 
presence  of  Jews  are  not  lacking — such  are  a  wall-painting, 
probably  representing  the  Judgment  of  Solomon,  and  a  scratched 
inscription  on  a  waU,  "  Sodoma,  Gomora."  It  has  been  estimated, 
from  the  number  of  skeletons  discovered,  that  about  2000 
persons  perished  in  the  city  itself  in  the  eruption  of  a.d.  79. 

Almost  the  whole  portion  of  the  city  which  Hes  to  the  west  of 
the  Strada  Stabiana,  towards  the  forum  and  the  sea,  has  been 
more  or  less  completely  excavated.  It  is  over  one-half  of  the 
whole  extent,  and  that  the  most  important  portion,  inasmuch  as 
it  includes  the  forum,  with  the  temples  and  public  buildings 
adjacent  to  it,  the  thermae,  theatres,  amphitheatre,  &c.  The 
greater  part  of  that  on  the  other  side  of  the  Strada  Stabiana 
remains  stni  unexplored,  with  the  exception  of  the  amphi- 
theatre, and  a  small  space  in  its  immediate  neighbourhood. 

The  forum  at  Pompeii  was,  as  at  Rome  itself  and  in  all 
other  Italian  cities,  the  focus  and  centre  of  all  the  life  and 
movement  of  the  city.  Hence  it  was  surrounded  on  all  sides 
by  public  buildings  or  edifices  of  a  commanding  character. 
It  was  not,  however,  of  large  size,  as  compared  to  the  open 
spaces  in  modern  towns,  being  only  467  ft.  in  length  by  126  in 
breadth  (excluding  the  colonnades).  Nor  was  it  accessible  to 
any  description  of  wheeled  carriages,  and  the  nature  of  its 
pavement,  composed  of  broad  flags  of  travertine,  shows  that  it 
was  only  intended  for  foot-passengers.  It  was  adorned  with 
numerous  statues,  some  of  the  imperial  family,  others  of  dis- 
tinguished citizens.  Some  of  the  inscribed  pedestals  of  the  latter 
have  been  found.  It  was  surrounded  on  three  sides  by  a  series 
of  porticos  supported  on  columns;  and  these  porticos  were 
originally  surmounted  by  a  gallery  or  upper  storey,  traces  of  the 
staircases  leading  to  which  stiU  remain,  though  the  gallery 
itself  has  altogether  disappeared.  It  is,  however,  certain 
from  the  existing  remains  that  both  this  portico  and  the  adjacent 
buildings  had  suffered  severely  from  the  earthquake  of  63,  and 
that  they  were  undergoing  a  process  of  restoration,  involving 
material  changes  in  the  original  arrangements,  which  was 
still  incomplete  at  the  time  of  their  final  destruction.  The 
north  end  of  the  forum,  where  alone  the  portico  is  wanting,  is 
occupied  in  great  part  by  the  imposing  temple  of  Jupiter,  Juno 
and  Minerva  being  also  worshipped  here.  It  was  raised  on  a 
podium  10  ft.  high,  and  had  a  portico  with  six  Corinthian 
columns  in  front.  This  magnificent  edifice  had,  however,  been 
evidently  overthrown  by  the  earthquake  of  63,  and  is  in  its 
present  condition  a  mere  ruin,  the  rebuilding  of  which  had  not 
been  begun  at  the  time  of  the  eruption,-  so  that  the  cult  of 


s^ 


POMPEII 


the  three  Capitoline  divinities  was  then  carried  on  in  the  so- 
called  temple  of  Zeus  Milichius.  On  each  side  of  it  were  two 
arches,  aflEording  an  entrance  into  the  forum,  but  capable  of 
being  closed  by  gates.  On  the  east  side  of  the  forum  were  four 
edifices;  aU  of  them  are  of  a  pubhc  character,  but  their  names  and 
attribution  have  been  the  subject  of  much  controversy.  The 
first  (proceeding  from  the  north) ,  once  known  as  the  Pantheon, 
is  generally  regarded  as  a  macellum  or  meat-market,  consisting 
of  a  rectangular  court  surrounded  by  a  colonnade,  with  a  twelve- 
sided  roofed  building  (tholus)  in  the  centre.     On  the  south  side 


and  Q.  Catulus  (78  B.C.),  and  therefore  belongs  to  the  Oscan 
period  of  the  city,  before  the  introduction  of  the  Roman  colony. 
It  was  an  oblong  edifice  divided  by  columns  into  a  central  hall 
and  a  corridor  running  round  aU  the  four  sides  with  a  tribunal 
opposite  the  main  entrance;  and,  unlike  the  usual  basihcae,  it 
had,  instead  of  a  clerestory,  openings  in  the  walls  of  the  corridor 
through  which  light  was  admitted,  it  being  almost  as  lofty  as 
the  nave.  The  temple  was  an  extensive  edifice,  having  a  com- 
paratively small  cella,  raised  upon  a  podium,  and  standing  in 
the  midst  of  a  wide  space  surrounded  by  a  portico  of  .columns, 


F  ■  ■-*  .If  ?V^* 


Porta  di  Capua 


15;  Great  Theatre 

16.  Small  Theatre  L       V    s        fl        IP" 

Vt.  Barracks  of  Gladiators      \       \   "i^jReg-JVI 

18.  Palafistra  A         Xlt^mi  1      *?  I 

l9.Thermae  near' the         \^a\\ 
forum  \  L-Ji 

20.  Stabiao  Baths 

21.  Central  Baths 

22.  House  of  Sallust 

23.  House  of  the  Vettii 

24.  House  of  the  Golden  Cupids 

25.  Water  Reseruoir 
25,  House  of  Pansa 
27.  House  of  the  Faun 
23.House  of  Jucundus 
Z9.  House  of  the  Silver  Wedding 
30.  House  of  the  Firjured  Capitals 
il.  House  of  Ariadne 
32.  House  of  Holconius 
23.House  of  Cornelius  Rufus 
3i,House  of  the  Citharis^ 


POMPEII 

Scale,  1:7,200 

Yards 
log        Tgo 

1.  Temple  of  Jupiter  8.   Basilica 

2.  Wacellum  9.  Temple  of  Apollo 

3.  Sanctuary  of  lares  10.  Temple  of  Hercules  7 

4.  Temple  of  Vespasian  11.  Temple  of  Isis 

5.  Building  of  Eumaclila  12.  Temple  of  Zeus  Milichius 

6.  Comitium  ?  13.  Teniple  of  Fortuna  Augusta 
Curia  etc.  14.  Temple  of  Venus  Pompelana 


(Rediawn  by  permission  from  Baedeker's  Souihem  Italy.) 

were  shops,  and  in  the  centre  of  the  east  side  a  chapel  for  the 
worship  of  the  imperial  house.  Next  to  this  comes  the  sanctuary 
of  the  Lares  of  the  city,  a  square  room  with  a  large  apse;  and 
beyond  this,  as  Mau  proves,  the  small  temple  of  Vespasian. 
Beyond  this  again,  bounded  on  the  south  by  the  street  known 
as  the  Strada  dell'  Abbondanza,  is  a  large  and  spacious  edifice, 
which,  as  we  learn  from  an  extant  inscription,  was  erected  by  a 
priestess  named  Eumachia.  Its  purpose  is  uncertain — possibly 
a  cloth-exchange,  as  the  fullers  set  up  a  sta1;ue  to  Eumachia  here. 
It  is  an  open  court,  oblong,  surrounded  on  aU  four  sides  by  a 
colonnade;  in  front  is  a  portico  facing  the  forum,  and  on  the 
other  three  sides  theie  is  a  corridor  behind  the  colonnade  with 
windows  opening  on  it.  On  the  south  side  of  the  Strada  dell' 
Abbondanza  was  a  building  which  Mau  conjectures  to  have  been 
the  Comitium.  At  the  south  end  of  the  forum  are  three  halls 
side  by  side,  similar  in  plan  with  a  common  facade — the  central 
one,  the  curia  or  council  chamber,  the  others  the  offices  respec- 
tively of  the  duumvirs  and  aediles,  the  principal  officials  of  the 
city;  while  the  greater  part  of  the  west  side  is  occupied  by  two 
large  buildings — a  basilica,  which  is  the  largest  edifice  in 
Pompeii,  and  the  temple  of  Apollo,  which  presents  its  side  to 
the  forum,  and  hence  fills  up  a  large  portion  of  the  surrounding 
space.  The  former,  as  we  learn  from  an  inscription  scratched 
on  its  walls,  was  anterior  in  date  to  the  consulship  of  M.  Lepidus 


EaleryW«lkcT  sc 


outside  which  again  is  a  wall,  bounding  the  sacred  enclosure. 
Between  this  temple  and  the  basilica  the  Via  Marina  leads  ofi 
direct  to  the  Porta  Marina. 

Besides  the  temples  which  surrounded  the  forum,  the  remains 
of  five  others  have  been  discovered,  three  of  which  are  situated 
in  the  immediate  neighbourhood  of  the  theatres.  Of  these  by 
far  the  most  interesting,  though  the  least  perfect,  is  one  which 
is  commonly  known  as  the  temple  of  Hercules  (an  appellation 
wholly  without  foundation),  and  which  is  not  only  by  far  the 
most  ancient  edifice  in  Pompeii,  but  presents  us  with  all  the 
characters  of  a  true  Greek  temple,  resembling  in  its  proportions 
that  of  the  earhest  temple  of  Selinus,  and  probably  of  as  remote 
antiquity  (6thcenturyB.c.).  Unfortunately  only  the.  foundation 
and  a  few  Doric  capitals  and  other  architectural  fragments 
remain;  they  were  coated  with  stucco  which  was  brightly  painted. 
In  front  of  the  temple  is  a  monument  which  seems  to  have  been 
the  tomb  of  the  founder  or  founders  of  the  city;  so  that  for  a  time 
this  must  have  been  the  most  important  temple.  The  period 
of  its  destruction  is  unknown,  for  it  appears  certain  that  it  cannot 
be  ascribed  wholly  to  the  earthquake  of  63.  On  the  other  hand 
the  reverence  attached  to  it  in  the  later  periods  of  the  city  is 
evidenced  by  its  being  left  standing  in  the  midst  of  a  triangular 
space  adjoining  the  great  theatre,  which  is  surrounded  by  a 
portico,  so  as  to  constitute  a  kind  of  forum  (the  so-called  Foro 


POMPEII 


53 


Triangolare).  Not  far  off,  and  to  the  north  of  the  great  theatre, 
stood  a  small  temple,  which,  as  we  learn  from  the  inscription 
still  remaining,  was  dedicated  to  Isis,  and  was  rebuilt  by  a  certain 
Popidius  Celsinus  at  the  age  of  six  (really  of  course  by  his  parents) , 
after  the  original  edifice  had  been  reduced  to  ruin  by  the  great 
earthquake  of  63.  Though  of  small  size,  and  by  no  means  re- 
markable in  point  of  architecture,  it  is  interesting  as  the  only 
temple  that  has  come  down  to  us  in  a  good  state  of  preservation 
of  those  dedicated  to  the  Egyptian  goddess,  whose  worship  became 
so  popular  under  the  Roman  Empire.  The  decorations  were  of 
somewhat  gaudy  stucco.  The  plan  is  curious,  and  deviates 
much  from  the  ordinary  type;  the  internal  arrangements  are 
adapted  for  the  performance  of  the  pecuHar  rites  of  this  deity. 
Close  to  this  temple  was  another,  of  very  small  size,  commonly 
known  as  the  temple  of  Aesculapius,  but  probably  dedicated  to 
Zeus  Milichius.  More  considerable  and  important  was  a  temple 
which  stood  at  no  great  distance  from  the  forum  at  the  point 
where  the  sorcalled  Strada  di  Mercurio  was  crossed  by  the  wide 
line  of  thoroughfare  (Strada  della  Fortuna)  leading  to  the  gate 
of  Nola.  We  learn  from  an  inscription  that  this  was  dedicated 
to  the  Fortune  of  Augustus  (Fortuna  Augusta),  and  was  erected, 
wholly  at  his  own  cost,  by  a  citizen  of  the  name  of  M.  TuUius. 
This  temple  appears  to  have  suffered  very  severely  from  the 
earthquake,  and  at  present  affords  little  evidence  of  its  original 
architectural  ornament;  but  we  learn  from  existing  remains 
that  its  walls  were  covered  with  slabs  of  marble,  and  that  the 
columns  of  the  portico  were  of  the  same  material.  The  fifth 
temple,  that  of  Venus  Pompeiana,  lay  to  the  west  of  the  basilica; 
traces  of  two  earlier  periods  underlie  the  extant  temple,  which 
was  in  progress  of  rebuilding  at  the  time  of  the  eruption.  Before 
the  earthquake  of  63  it  must  have  been  the  largest  and  most 
splendid  temple  of  the  whole  city.  It  was  surrounded  by  a 
large  colonnade,  and  the  number  of  marble  columns  in  the  whole 
block  has  been  reckoned  at  296. 

All  the  templesi  above  described,  except  that  ascribed  to  Her- 
cules, which  was  approached  by  steps  on  all  four  sides,  agree  in 
being  raised  on  an  elevated  podium  or  basement — an  arrange- 
ment usual  with  all  similar  buildings  of  Roman  date.  Neither 
in  materials  nor  in  style  does  their  architecture  exceed  *hat 
might  reasonably  be  expected  in  a  second-rate  provincial,  town; 
and  the  same  may  be  said  in  general  of  the  other  public  buildings. 
Among  these  the  most  conspicuous  are  the  theatres,'of  which  there 
were  two,  placed,  as  was  usual  in  Greek  towns,  in  close  juxta- 
. position  with  one  another.  The  largest  of  these  which  was  partly 
excavated  in  the  side  of  the  hill,  was  a  building  of  considerable 
magnificence,  being  in  great  part  cased  with  marble,  and  fur- 
nished with  seats  of  the  same  material;  which  have,  however, 
been  almost  wholly  removed.  Its  internal  construction  and 
arrangements  resemble  those  Of  the  Roman  theatres  in  general, 
though  with  some  peculiarities  that  show  Greek  influence,  and 
we  learn  from  an  inscription  that  it  was  erected  in  Roman  times 
by  two  members  of  the  same  family,  M.  Holconius  Rufus  and 
M.  Holconius  Celer,  both  of  whom  held  important  municipal 
offices  at  Pompeii  during  the  reign  of  Augustus.  It  appears, 
however,  from  a  careful  examination  of  the  remains  that  their 
work  was  only  a  reconstruction  of  a  more  ancient  edifice,  the  date 
of  the  original  form  of  which  cannot  be  fixed;  while  its  first 
alteration  belongs  to  the  "  tufa  "  period,  and  three  other  periods 
in  its  history  can  be  traced.  Recent  investigations  in  regard  to 
the  vexed  question  of  the  position  of  the  actors  in  the  Greek 
theatre  have  as  yet  not  led  to  any  certain  solution.^  The  smaller 
theatre,  which  was  erected,  as  we  learn  from  an  inscription,  by 
two  magistrates  specially  appointed  for  the  purpose  by  the 
deouriones  of  the  city,  was  of  older  date  than  the  large  one,  and 
must  have  been  constructed  a  little  before  the  amphitheatre,  soon 
after  the  establishment  of  the  Roman  colony  under  Sulla.  We 
learn  also  that  it  was  permanently  covered,  and  it  was  probably 
used  for  musicaL  entertainments,  but  in  the  case  of  the  larger 
theatre  also  the  arrangements  for  the  occasional  extension  of  an 
awning  {velarium)  over  the  whole  are  distinctly  found.     The 

1  See  A.  Mau,  Pompeii  in  Leben  und  Kunst  (Leipzig,  1908),  pp.  150 
sqq.  :.-_■!,    M^.     - 


smaller  theatre  is  computed  to  have  been  capable  of  containing 
fifteen  hundred  spectators,  while  the  larger  could  accommodate 
five  'thousand. 

Adjoining  the  theatres  is  a  large  rectangular  enclosure,  sur- 
rounded by  a  portico,  at  first  the  colonnade  connected  with  the 
theatres,  and  converted,  about  the  time  of  Nero,  into  the  barracks 
of  the  gladiators,  who  were  permanently  maintained  in  the  city 
with  a  view  to  the  shows  in  the  amphitheatre.  This  explains 
why  it  is  so  far  from  that  building,  which  is  situated  at  the 
south-eastern  angle  of  the  town,  about  500  yds.  from  the 
theatres.  Remains  of  gladiators'  armour  and  weapons  were 
found  in  some  of  the  rooms,  and  in  one,  traces  of  the  stocks  used 
to  confine  insubordinate  gladiators.  The  amphitheatre  was 
erected  by  the  same  two  magistrates  who  built  the  smaller 
theatre,  C.  Quinctius  Valgus  and  M.  Porcius  (the  former  the  father- 
in-law  of  that  P.  Servilius  Rullus,  in  opposition  to  whose  bill 
relating  to  the  distribution  of  the  public  lands  Cicero  made  his 
speech,  De  lege  agraria),  at  a  period  when  no  permanent  edifice 
of  a  similar  kind  had  yet  been  erected  in  Rome  itself,  and  is 
indeed  the  oldest  structure  of  the  kind  known  to  us.  But  apart 
from  its  early  date  it  has  no  special  interest,  and  is  wholly  wanting 
in  the  external  architectural  decorations  that  give  such  grandeur 
of  character  to  similar  edifices  in  other  instances.  Being  in 
great  part  excavated  in  the  surface  of  the  hill,  instead  of  the 
seats  being  raised  on  arches,  it  is  wanting  also  in  the  picturesque 
arched  corridors  which  contribute  so  much  to  the  effect  of  those 
other  ruins.  Nor  are  its  dimensions  (460  by  345  ft.)  such  as  to 
place  it  in  the  first  rank  of  structures  of  this  class,  nor  are  there 
any  underground  chambers  below  the  arena,  with  devices  for 
raising  wild  beasts,  &c.  But,  as  we  learn  from  the  case  of  their 
squabble  with  the  people  of  Nuceria,  the  games  celebrated  in 
the  amphitheatre  on  grand  occasions  would  be  visited  by  large 
numbers  from  the  neighbouring  towns.  The  seating  capacity 
was  about  20,000^  (for  illustration  see  Amphitheatre). 

Adjoining  the  amphitheatre  was  found  a  large  open  space, 
nearly  square  in  form,  which  has  been  supposed  to  be  a  forum 
boarium  or  cattle-market,  but,  no  buildings  of  interest  being 
discovered  around  it,  the  excavation  was  fUled  up  again,  and 
this  part  of  the  city  has  not  been  since  examined.  Between 
the  entrance  to  the  triangular  forum  (so-called)  and  the  temple 
of  Isis  is  the  Palaestra,  an  area  surrounded  by  a  colonnade; 
it  is  a  structure  of  the  pre-Roman  period,  intended  for  boys,  not 
men. 

Among  the  more  important  public  buildings  of  Pompeii 
were  the  pubUc]  baths  {thermae).  Three  different  estabhshments 
of  this  character  have  been  discovered,  of  which  the  first,  exca- 
vated in  1824,  the  baths  near  the  forum,  built  about  80  B.C.,  was 
for  a  long  time  the  only  one  known.  Though  the  smallest  of 
the  three,  it  is  in  some  respects  the  most  complete  and  interesting; 
and  it  was  until  of  late  years  the  principal  source  from  which  we 
derived  our  knowledge  of  this  important  branch  of  the  economy 
of  Roman  life.  At  Pompeii  the  baths  are  so  well  preserved  as 
to  show  at  a  glance  the  purpose  of  aU  the  different  parts — while 
they  are  among  the  most  richly  decorated  of  all  the  buildings 
in  the  city.  We  trace  without  difficulty  all  the  separate  apart- 
ments that  are  described  to  us  by  Roman  authors — the  apody- 
ierium,  frigidarium,  tepidarium,  caldarium,  &c.  together  with  the 
apparatus  for  supplying  both  water  and  heat,  the  places  for  de- 
positing the  bather's  clothes,  and  other  minor  details  (see  Baths). 
The  greater  thermae  (the  so-called  "  Stabian  "  baths),  which 
were  originally  built  in  the  2nd  century  B.C.,  and  repaired  about 
80  B.C.,  are  on  a  much  more  extensive  scale  than  the  others, 
and  combine  with  the  special  purposes  of  the  building  a  palaestra 
in  the  centre  and  other  apartments  for  exercise  or  recreation. 
The  arrangements  of  the  baths  themselves  are,  however,  almost 
similar  to  those  of  the  lesser  thermae.  In  this  case  an  inscription 
records  the  repair   and  restoration  of  the  edifice  after  the 

^  The  interest  taken  by  the  Pompeians  in  the  sports  of  the 
amphitheatre  is  shown  by  the  contents  of  the  numerous  painted 
and  scratched  inscriptions  relating  tc  them  which  have  been  found 
in  Pompeii — notices  of  combats,  laudatory  inscriptions,  including 
even  references  to  the  admiration  which  gladiators  won  from  the 
fair  sex,  &c. 


54 


POMPEII 


earthquake  of  63.  It  appears,  however,  that  these  two  estabUsh- 
ments  were  found  inadequate  to  supply  the  wants  of  the  in- 
habitants, and  a  third  edifice  of  the  same  character,  the  so- 
called  central  baths,  at  the  corner  of  the  Strada  Stabiana  and  the 
Strada  di  Nola,  but  on  a  stUl  more  extensive  scale,  intended 
for  men  only,  while  the  other  two  had  separate  accommodation 
for  both  sexes,  was  in  course  of  construction  when  the  town  was 
overwhelmed. 

Great  as  is  the  interest  attached  to  the  various  public  buildings 
of  Pompeii,  and  valuable  as  is  the  hght  that  they  have  in  some 
instances  thrown  upon  similar  edifices  in  other  ruined  cities, 
far  more  curious  and  interesting  is  the  insight  afforded  us  by 
the  numerous  private  houses  and  shops  into  the  ordinary  life 
and  habits  of  the  population  of  an  ancient  town.  The  houses 
at  Pompeii  are  generally  low,  rarely  exceeding  two  storeys  in 
height,  and  it  appears  certain  that  the  upper  storey  was  generally 
of  a  shght  construction,  and  occupied  by  small  rooms,  serving 
as  garrets,  or  sleeping  places  for  slaves,  and  perhaps  for  the 
females  of  the  family.  From  the  mode  of  destruction  of  the  city 
these  upper  floors  were  in  most  cases  crushed  in  and  destroyed, 
and  hence  it  was  long  believed  that  the  houses  for  the  most 
part  had  but  one  storey;  but  recent  researches  have  in  many 
cases  brought  to  Hght  incontestable  evidence  of  the  existence  of 
an  upper  floor,  and  the  frequent  occurrence  of  a  small  staircase 
is  in  itself  sufiicient  proof  of  the  fact.  The  windows,  as  already 
mentioned,  were  generally  small  and  insignificant,  and  contri- 
buted nothing  to  the  external  decoration  or  effect  of  the  houses, 
which  took  both  light  and  air  from  the  inside,  not  from  the 
outside.  In  some  cases  they  were  undoubtedly  closed  with 
glass,  but  its  use  appears  to  have  been  by  no  means  general. 
The  principal  living  rooms,  as  well  as  those  intended  for  the 
reception  of  guests  or  clients,  were  all  on  the  ground  floor,  the 
centre  being  formed  by  the  atrium,  or  haU,  which  was  almost 
always  open  above  to  the  air,  and  in  the  larger  houses  was  gener- 
ally surrounded  with  columns.  Into  this  opened  other  rooms, 
the  entrances  to  which  seem  to  have  been  rarely  protected  by 
doors,  and  could  only  have  been  closed  by  curtains.  At  the 
back  was  a  garden.  Later,  under  Greek  influences,  a  peristyle 
with  rooms  round  it  was  added  in  place  of  the  garden.  We  notice 
that,  as  in  modern  Italy  until  quite  recent  years,  elaborate 
precautions  were  taken  against  heat,  but  none  against  cold, 
which  was  patiently  endured.  Hjrpocausts  are  only  found  in 
connexion  with  bathrooms. 

All  the  apartments  and  arrangements  described  by  Vitruvius 
and  other  ancient  writers  may  be  readily  traced  in  the  houses 
of  Pompeii,  and  in  many  instances  these  have  for  the  first  time 
enabled  us  to  understand  the  technical  terms  and  details  trans- 
mitted to  us  by  Latin  authors.  We  must  not,  however,  hastily 
assume  that  the  examples  thus  preserved  to  us  by  a  singular 
accident  are  to  be  taken  as  representing  the  style  of  building 
in  all  the  Roman  and  Italian  towns.  We  know  from  Cicero 
that  Capua  was  remarkable  for  its  broad  streets  and  widespread 
buildings,  and  it  is  probable  that  the  Campanian  towns  in 
general  partook  of  the  same  character.  At  Pompeii  indeed 
the  streets  were  not  wide,  but  they  were  straight  and  regular, 
and  the  houses  of  the  better  class  occupied  considerable  spaces, 
presenting  in  this  respect  no  doubt  a  striking  contrast,  not  only 
with  those  of  Rome  itself,  but  with  those  of  many  other  Italian 
towns,  where  the  buildings  would  necessarily  be  huddled  to- 
gether from  the  circumstances  of  their  position.  Even  at 
Pompeii  itself,  on  the  west  side  of  the  city,  where  the  ground 
slopes  somewhat  steeply  towards  the  sea,  houses  are  found  which 
consisted  of  three  storeys  or  more. 

The  excavations  have  provided  examples  of  houses  of  every 
description,  from  the  humble  dwelling-place  of  the  artisan  or 
proletarian,  with  only  three  or  four  small  rooms,  to  the  stately 
mansions  of  Sallust,  of  the  Faun,  of  the  Golden  Cupids,  of  the 
Silver  Wedding,  of  the  Vettii,  of  Pansa,'  &c. — the  last  of  which 
is  among  the  most  regular  in  plan,  and  may  be  taken  as  an  almost 

'  It  may  be  observed  that  the  names  given  in  mosr  cases  to  the 
houses  are  either  arbitrary  or  founded  in  the  first  instance  upon 
erroneous  inferences. 


perfect  model  of  a  complete  Roman  house  of  a  superior  class. 
But  the  general  similarity  in  their  plan  and  arrangement  is  very 
striking,  and  in  all  those  that  rise  above  a  very  humble  class  the 
leading  divisions  of  the  interior,  the  atrium,  tahlinum,  peristyle, 
&c.  may  be  traced  with  unfailing  regularity.  Another  peculi- 
arity that  is  found  in  aU  the  more  considerable  houses  in  Pompeii 
is  that  of  the  front,  where  it  faces  one  of  the  principal  streets, 
being  occupied  with  shops,  usually  of  small  size,  and  without 
any  communication  with  the  interior  of  the  mansion.  In  a  few 
instances  indeed  such  a  communication  is  found,  but  in  these 
cases  it  is  probable  that  the  shop  was  used  for  the  sale  of  articles 
grown  upon  the  estate  of  the  proprietor,  such  as  wine,  fruit,  oil, 
&c.,  a  practice  that  is  stUl  common  in  Italy.  In  general  the 
shop  had  a  very  small  apartment  behind  it,  and  probably  in 
most  cases  a  sleeping  chamber  above  it,  though  of  this  the  only 
remaining  evidence  is  usually  a  portion  of  the  staircase  that  led 
to  this  upper  room.  The  front  of  the  shop  was  open  to  the 
street,  but  was  capable  of  being  closed  with  wooden  shutters, 
the  remains  of  which  have  in  a  few  instances  been  preserved. 
Not  only  have  the  shops  of  sUversmiths  been  recognized  by  the 
precious  objects  of  that  metal  found  in  them,  but  large  quantities 
of  fruits  of  various  kinds  preserved  in  glass  vessels,  various  de- 
scriptions of  corn  and  pulse,  loaves  of  bread,  moulds  for  pastry, 
fishing-nets  and  many  other  objects  too  numerous  to  mention, 
have  been  found  in  such  a  condition  as  to  be  identified  without 
difficulty.  Inns  and  wine-shops  appear  to  have  been  numerous; 
one  of  the  latter  we  can  see  to  have  been  a  thermopolium,  where 
hot  drinks  were  sold.  Bakers'  shops  are  also  frequent,  though 
arrangements  for  grinding  and  baking  appear  to  have  formed 
part  of  every  large  family  establishment.  In  other  cases,  how- 
ever, these  were  on  a  larger  scale,  provided  with  nirmerous 
querns  or  hand-mills  of  the  well-known  form,  evidently  intended 
for  pubKc  supply.  Another  establishment  on  a  large  scale  was 
a  fullonica  (fuller's  shop),  where  all  the  details  of  the  business 
were  illustrated  by  paintings  stiU  visible  on  the  walls.  Dyers' 
shops,  a  tannery  and  a  shop  where  colours  were  ground  and 
manufactured — an  important  business  where  almost  aU  the 
rooms  of  every  house  were  painted — are  of  special  interest,  as 
is  also  the  house  of  a  surgeon,  where  numerous  surgical  instru- 
ments were  found,  some  of  them  of  a  very  ingenious  and  elaborate 
description,  but  aU  made  of  bronze.  Another  curious  discovery 
was  that  of  the  abode  of  a  sculptor,  containing  his  tools,  as  well 
as  blocks  of  marble  and  half-finished  statues.  The  number 
of  utensUs  of  various  kinds  found  in  the  houses  and  shops  is 
almost  endless,  and,  as  these  are  in  most  cases  of  bronze,  they  are 
generaUy  in  perfect  preservation. 

Of  the  numerous  works  of  art  discovered  in  the  course  of  the 
excavations  the  statues  and  large  works  of  sculpttire,  whether 
in  marble  or  bronze,  are  inferior  to  those  found  at  Herculaneum, 
but  some  of  the  bronze  statuettes  are  of  exquisite  workmanship, 
while  the  profusion  of  ornamental  works  and  objects  in  bronze 
and  the  elegance  of  their  design,  as  well  as  the  finished  beauty 
of  their  execution,  are  such  as  to  excite  the  utmost  admiration- 
more  especially  when  it  is  considered  that  these  are  the  casual 
results  of  the  exammation  of  a  second-rate  provincial  town, 
which  had,  further,  been  ransacked  for  valuables  (as  Hercu- 
laneum had  not)  after  the  eruption  of  79.  The  same  impression 
is  produced  in  a  still  higher  degree  by  the  paintings  with  which 
the  walls  of  the  private  houses,  as  well  as  those  of  the  temples 
and  other  pubHc  buildings,  are  adorned,  and  which  are  not  merely 
of  a  decorative  character,  but  in  many  instances  present  us  with 
elaborate  compositions  of  figures,  historical  and  mythological 
scenes,  as  well  as  representations  of  the  ordinary  life  and  manners 
of  the  people,  which  are  fuU  of  interest  to  us,  though  often  of 
inferior  artistic  execution.  It  has  until  lately  been  the  practice 
to  remove  these  to  the  museum  at  Naples;  but  the  present 
tendency  is  to  leave  them  (and  even  the  movable  objects 
found  in  the  houses)  in  situ  with  aU  due  precautions  as  to 
their  preservation  (as  in  the  house  of  the  Vettii,  of  the 
Silver  Wedding,  of  the  Golden  Cupids,  &c.),  which  adds  im- 
mensely to  the  interest  of  the  houses;  indeed,  with  the  help 
of  judicious  restoration,   their   original   condition   is   in  large 


POMPEII 


55 


measure  reproduced.'  In  some  cases  it  has  even  been  possible 
to  recover  the  original  arrangement  of  the  garden  beds,  and  to 
replant  them  accordingly,  thus  giving  an  appropriate  frame- 
work to  the  statues,  &c.  with  which  the  gardens  were 
decorated,  and  which  have  been  found  in  situ.  The  same 
character  of  elaborate  decoration,  guided  almost  uniformly 
by  good  taste  and  artistic  feeling,  is  displayed  in  the  mosaic 
pavements,  which  in  aU  but  the  humbler  class  of  houses 
frequently  form  the  ornament  of  their  floors.  One  of  these,  in 
the  House  of  the  Faun,  well  known  as  the  battle  of  Alexander, 
presents  us  with  the  most  striking  specimen  of  artistic  com- 
position that  has  been  preserved  to  us  from  antiquity. 
'  The  architecture  of  Pompeii  must  be  regarded  as  presenting 
in  general  a  transitional  character  from  the  pure  Greek  style  to 
that  of  the  Roman  Empire.  The  temples  (as  already  observed) 
have  always  the  Roman  peculiarity  of  being  raised  on  a  podium 
of  considerable  elevation;  and  the  same  characteristic  is  found 
in  most  of  the  other  pubhc  buildings.  All  the  three  orders  of 
Greek  architecture — the  Doric,  Ionic  and  Corinthian — are  found 
freely  employed  in  the  various  edifices  of  the  city,  but  rarely 
in  strict  accordance  with  the  rules  of  art  in  their  proportions 
and  details;  while  the  private  houses  naturally  exhibit  still 
more  deviation  and  irregularity.  In  many  of  these  indeed  we 
find  varieties  in  the  ornamentation,  and  even  in  such  leading 
features  as  the  capitals  of  the  columns,  which  remind  one  rather 
of  the  vagaries  of  medieval  architecture  than  of  the  strict  rules 
of  Vitruvius  or  the  regularity  of  Greek  edifices.  One  practice 
which  is  especially  prevalent,  so  as  to  strike  every  casual  visitor, 
and  dates  from  the  early  years  of  the  empire,  is  that  of  filling 
up  the  flutings  of  the  columns  for  about  one-third  of  their  height 
with  a  thick  coat  of  stucco,  so  as  to  give  them  the  appearance 
of  being  smooth  columns  without  flutings  below,  and  only  fluted 
above.  The  unpleasing  efiect  of  this  anomalous  arrangement  is 
greatly  aggravated  by  the  lower  part  of  each  column  being  almost 
always  coloured  with  red  or  yellow  ochre,  so  as  to  render  the  con- 
trast between  the  two  portions  still  stronger.  The  architecture  of 
Pompeii  suffers  also  from  the  inferior  quality  of  the  materials 
generally  employed.  No  good  building  stone  was  at  hand; 
and  the  public  as  well  as  private  edifices  were  constructed  either 
of  volcanic  tufa,  or  lava,  or  Sarno  hmestone,  or  brick  (the  latter 
only  used  for  the  corners  of  walls).  In  the  private  houses  even 
the  columns  are  mostly  of  brick,  covered  merely  with  a  coat  of 
stucco.  In  a  few  instances  only  do  we  find  them  making  use 
of  a  whitish  limestone  wrongly  called  travertine,  which,  though 
inferior  to  the  similar  material  so  largely  employed  at  Rome, 
was  better  adapted  than  the  ordinary  tufa  for  purposes  where 
great  solidity  was  required.  The  portion  of  the  portico  sur- 
rounding the  forum  which  was  in  the  process  of  rebuilding  at 
the  time  when  the  city  was  destroyed  was  constructed  of  this 
material,  while  the  earlier  portions,  as  well  as  the  principal 
temples  that  adjoined  it,  were  composed  in  the  ordinary  manner 
of  volcaiiic  tufa.  Marble  appears  to  have  been  scarce,  and 
was  sparingly  employed.  In  some  instances  where  it  had  been 
freely  introduced,  as  in  the  great  theatre,  it  would  seem  that  the 
slabs  must  have  been  removed  at  a  period  subsequent  to  the 
entombment  of  the  city. 

These  materials  are  used  in  several  different  styles  of  con- 
struction belonging  to  the  six  different  periods  which  Mau 
traces  In  the  architectural  history  of  Pompeii. 

I.'  That  of  the  Doric  temple  in  the  Foro  Triangolare  (6th  century 
B.C.)  and  an  old  column  built  into  a  house  in  Region  vi.,  Insula  5; 
alio  of  the  older  parts  of  the  city  walls — date  uncertain  (Sarno 
limestone  and  grey  tufa). 

2.  That  of  the  limestone  atriums  (outer  walls  of  the  houses  of 
ashlar-work  of  Sarno  limestone,  inner  walls  with  framework  of 
limestone  blocks,  filled  in  with  small  pieces  of  limestone).  Date, 
before  200  B.C.  ,     ■  ,  c        i.- 

3.  Grey  tufa  period;  ashlar  masonry  of  tufa,  coated  with  fane  white 
stucco ;  rubble  work  of  lava.  The  artistic  character  is  still  Greek, 
and  the  period  coincides  with  the  first  (Incrustation)  style  of  mural 
decorat  ion,  which    (probably  originating  in  Alexandria)  aimed  at 

'The  paintings  of  the  house  of  the  Vettii  are  perhaps  the 
best-preserved  in  Pompeii,  and  extremely  fine  in  conception  and 
execution,  especially  the  scenes  in  which  Cupids  take  part. 


the  imitation  in  stucco  of  the  appearance  of  a  wall  veneered  with 
coloured  marbles.  No  wall  paintings  exist,  but  there  are  often 
fine  floor  mosaics.  To  this  belong  a  number  of  private  houses 
(e.g.  the  House  of  the  Faun),  and  the  colonnade  round  the  forum, 
the  basilica,  the  temples  of  Apollo  and  Jupiter,  the  large  theatre 
with  the  colonnades  of  the  Foro  Triangolare,  and  the  barracks  of 
the  gladiators,  the  Stabian  baths,  the  Palaestra,  the  exterior  of 
the  Porta  Marina,  and  the  interior  of  the  other  gates — all  the 
public  buildings  indeed  (except  the  Doric  temple  mentioned  under 
(i),  which  do  not  belong  to  the  time  of  the  Roman  colony).  Date, 
2nd  century  B.C. 

4.  The  "  quasi-reticulate  "  period — walling  faced  with  masonry 
not  yet  quite  so  regular  as  opus  reticulatum,  and  with  brick  quoins, 
coinciding  with  the  second  period  of  decoration  (the  architectural, 
partly  imitating  marble  like  the  first  style,  but  without  relief, 
and  by  colour  only,  and  partly  making  use  of  architectural  designs). 
It  is  represented  by  the  small  theatre  and  the  amphitheatre,  the 
baths  nearthe  forum,  the  temple  of  Zeus  Milichius,  the  Comitium 
and  the  original  temple  of  Isis,  but  only  a  few  private  houses.  The 
ornamentation  is  much  less  rich  and  beautiful  than  that  of  the 
preceding  period.  Date,  from  80  B.C.  until  nearly  the  end  of  the 
Republic. 

5.  The  period  from  the  last  decades  of  the  Republic  to  the 
earthquake  of  a.d.  63.  No  homogeneous  series  of  buildings — we 
find  various  styles  of  construction  (quasi-reticulate,  opus  reticulatum 
of  tufa  with  stone  quoins,  of  the  time  of  Augustus,  opus  reticulatum 
with  brick  quoins  or  with  mingled  stone  and  brick  quoins,  a  little 
later) ;  and  three  styles  of  wall  decoration  fall  within  its  limits. 
The  second,  already  mentioned,  the  third  or  ornate,  with  its  freer 
use  of  ornament  and  its  introduction  of  designs  which  suggest 
an  Egyptian  origin  (originating  in  the  time  of  Augustus),  and  the 
fourth  or  intricate,  dating  from  about  a.d.  50.  Marble  first  appears 
as  a  building  material  in  the  temple  of  Fortuna  Augusta  (c.  3  B.C.). 

6.  The  period  from  the  earthquake  of  A.D.  63  to  the  final  de- 
struction of  the  city,  the  buildings  of  which  can  easily  be  recogn'zed. 
The  only  wholly  new  edifice  of  any  importance  is  the  central  baths. 

Outside  the  Porta  Ercolanese,  or  gate  leading  to  Herculaneum, 
is  found  a  house  of  a  different  character  from  all  the  others,  which 
from  its  extent  and  arrangements  was  undoubtedly  a  suburban 
villa,  belonging  to  a  person  of  considerable  fortune.  It  is  called — 
as  usual  without  any  authority — the  villa  of  Arrius  Dioraedes; 
but  its  remains  are  of  peculiar  interest  to  us,  not  only  for  comparison 
with  the  numerous  ruins  of  similar  buildings  which  occur  else- 
where— often  of  greater  extent,  but  in  a  much  less  perfect  state 
of  preservation — ^but  as  assisting  us  in  understanding  the  description 
of  ancient  authors,  such  as  Vitruvius  and  Pliny,  of  the  numerous 
appurtenances  frequently  annexed  to  houses  of  this  description. 

In  the  cellar  of  this  villa  were  discovered  no  less  than  twenty 
skeletons  of  the  unfortunate  inhabitants,  who  had  evidently  fled 
thither  for  protection,  and  fourteen  in  other  parts  of  the  house. 
Almost  all  the  skeletons  and  remains  of  bodies  found  in  the  city 
were  discovered  in  similar  situations,  in  cellars  or  underground 
apartments — those  who  had  sought  refuge  in  flight  having  appar- 
ently for  the  most  part  escaped  from  destruction,  or  having  perished 
under  circumstances  where  their  bodies  were  easily  recovered  by 
the  survivors.  According  to  Cassius  Dio,  a  large  number  of  the 
inhabitants  were  assembled  in  the  theatre  at  the  time  of  the  catas- 
trophe, but  no  bodies  have  been  found,  there,  and  they  were  probably 
sought  for  and  removed  shortly  afterwards.  Of  late  years  it  has 
been  found  possible  in  many  cases  to  take  casts  of  the  bodies  found — 
a  complete  mould  having  been  formed  around  them  by  the  fine 
white  ashes,  partially  consolidated  by  water. 

An  interesting  farm-house  (few  examples  have  been  so  far  dis- 
covered in  Italy)  is  that  at  Boscoreale  excavated  in  1 893-1 894, 
which  contained  the  treasure  of  one  hundred  and  three  silver  vases 
now  at  the  Louvre.  The  villa  of  P.  Fannius  Synhistor,  not  far  off, 
was  excavated  in  1900;  it  contained  fine  wall  paintings,  which, 
despite  their  importance,  were  allowed  to  be  exported,  and  sold  by 
auction  in  Paris  (some  now  in  the  Louvre).  (See  F.  Barnabei, 
La  Villa  pompeiana  di  P.  Fannio  Sinistore;  Rome,  1901.) 

The  road  leading  from  the  Porta  Ercolanese  towards  Herculaneum 
is  bordered  on  both  sides  for  a  considerable  extent  by  rows  of  tombs, 
as  was  the  case  with  all  the  great  roads  leading  into  Rome,  and  in- 
deed in  all  large  Roman  towns.  These  tombs  are  in  many  instances 
monuments  of  considerable  pretension,  and  of  a  highly  ornamental 
character,  and  naturally  present  in  the  highest  degree  the  peculiar 
advantage  common  to  all  that  remains  of  Pompeii,  in  their  perfect 
preservation.  Hardly  any  scene  even  in  this  extraordinary  city 
is  more  striking  than  the  coup  d'ceil  of  this  long  street  of  tombs, 
preserving  uninjured  the  records  of  successive  generations  eighteen 
centuries  ago.  Unfortunately  the  names  are  all  otherwise  unknown; 
but  we  learn  from  the  inscriptions  that  they  are  for  the  most  part 
those  of  local  magistrates  and  municipal  dignitaries  of  Pompeii. 
Most  of  them  belong  to  the  early  empire. 

There  appears  to  have  been  in  the  same  quarter  a  considerable 
suburb,  outside  the  gate,  extending  on  each  side  of  the  road  towards 
Herculaneum,  apparently  much  resembling  those  which  are  now 
found  throughout  almost  the  whole  distance  from  thence  to 
Naples.    It   was  known  by  the  name  of  Pagus    Augustus   Felix 


56 


POMPEY 


Suburbanus.     Other  suburbs  were  situated  at  the  harbour  and  at 
the  saltworks  (salinae). 

No  manuscripts  have  been  discovered  in  Pompeii.  Inscriptions 
have  naturally  been  found  in  considerable  numbers,  and  we  are 
indebted  to  them  for  much  information  concerning  the  municipal 
arrangements  of  the  town,  as  well  as  the  construction  of  various 
edifices  and  other  public  works.  The  most  interesting  of  these 
are  such  as  are  written  in  the  Oscan  dialect,  which  appears  to  have 
continued  in  official  use  down  to  the  time  when  the  Roman  colony 
was  introduced  by  Sulla.  From  that  time  the  Latin  language 
was  certainly  the  only  one  officially  employed,  though  Oscan  may 
have  still  been  spoken  by  a  portion  at  least  of  the  population. 
Still  more  curious,  and  almost  peculiar  to  Pompeii,  are  the  numerous 
writings  painted  upon  the  walls,  which  have  generally  a  semi- 
public  character,  such  as  recommendations  of  candidates  for  muni- 
cipal offices,  advertisements,  &c.,  and  the  scratched  inscriptions 
{graffiti),  which  are  generally  the  mere  expression  of  individual 
impulse  and  feeling,  frequently  amatory,  and  not  uncommonly 
conveyed  in  rude  and  imperfect  verses.  In  one  house  also  a  whole 
box  was  found  filled  with  written  tablets — diptychs  and  trlptychs 
— containing  the  record  of  the  accounts  of  a  banker  named  L. 
Caecilius  Jucundus. 

See  A.  Man,  Pompeii:  its  Life  and  Art  (trans,  by  F.  W.  Kelsey, 
2nd  ed.,  New  York  and  London,  1902;  2nd  revised  edition  of  the 
German  original,  Pompeii  in  Lehen  und  Kunst,  Leipzig,  1908),  the 
best  general  account  written  by  the  greatest  authority  on  the  subject, 
to  which  our  description  owes  much,  with  full  references  to  other 
sources  of  information;  and,  for  later  excavations,  Notizie  degli 
Scavi  and  Romische  Mitteilungen  (in  the  latter,  articles  by  Mau), 
passim.  For  the  inscriptions  on  the  tablets  and  on  the  walls, 
Corpus  inscriptionum  latinarum,  vol.  iv.  (ed.  Zangemeister  and 
Mau). ,  Recent  works  on  the  Pompeian  frescoes  are  those  of  Berger, 
in  Die  Maltechnik  des  AUerthums,  and  A.  P.  Laurie,  Greek  and 
Roman  Methods  of  Painting  (1910).  (E.  H.  B.;  T.  As.) 

,  Oscan  Inscriptions. — The  surviving  inscriptions  which  can 
be  dated,  mainly  by  the  gradual  changes  in  their  alphabet,  are 
of  the  3rd  and  2nd  centuries  B.C.,  some  certainly  belonging  to 
the  Gracchan  period.  The  oldest  of  the  Latin  inscriptions  are 
C.I.L.  X.  794,  the  record  of  the  buUding  of  colonnades  in  the 
forum  by  -the  "  quaestor "  V.  Popidius,  and  two  or  three 
election  placards  {C.I.L.  iv.  29,  30,  36)  of  one  R.  Caecilius,  a 
candidate  for  the  same  office.  It  cannot  be  an  accident  that 
the  alphabet  of  these  inscriptions  belongs  distinctly  to  Sullan 
or  pre-SuUan  times,  while  no  such  officer  as  a  quaestor  appears  in 
any  later  documents  (e.g.  in  C.I.L.  x.  844,  it  is  the  duoviri  who 
btuld  the  small  theatre),  but  does  appear  in  the  Oscan  inscrip- 
tions. Hence  it  has  been  inferred  that  these  oldest  Latin  inscrip- 
tions are  also  older  than  Sulla's  colony;  if  so,  Latin  must  have 
been  in  use,  and  in  fairly  common  use  (if  the  programmata  were 
to  be  of  any  service),  in  Pompeii  at  that  date.  On  the  other 
hand,  the  good  condition  of  many  of  the  painted  Oscan  inscrip- 
tions at  the  times  when  they  were  first  uncovered  (1797  onwards) 
and  their  subsequent  decay  and  the  number  of  Oscan  graffiti 
appear  to  make  it  probable  that  at  the  Christian  era  Oscan  was 
still  spoken  in  the  town.  The  two  languages  undoubtedly 
existed  side  by  side  during  the  last  century  B.C.,  Latin  being 
alone  recognized  officially  and  in  society,  while  Oscan  was 
preserved  mainly  by  intercourse  with  the  country  folk  who 
frequented  the  market.  Thus  beside  many  Latin  programmata 
later  than  those  just  mentioned  we  have  similar  inscriptions 
in  Oscan,  addressed  to  Oscan-speaking  voters,  where  Illlner. 
obviously  relates  to  the  quattuorvirate,  a  title  characteristic 
of  the  SuUan  and  triumviral  colonies.  •  An  interesting  stone 
containing  nine  cavities  for  measures  of  capacity  found  in 
Pompeii  and  now  preserved  in  the  Naples  Museum  with  Oscan 
inscriptions  erased  in  antiquity  shows  that  the  Oscan  system  of 
measurement  was  modified  so  as  to  correspond  more  closely  with 
the  Roman,  about  14  B.C.,  by  the  duoviri,  who  record  their 
work  in  a  Latin  inscription  {C.I.L.  x.  793;  for  the  Oscan  see  Ital. 
Dial.  p.  67). 

See  further  OscA  Lingua,  and  R.  S.  Conway,  The  Italic  Dialects, 
pp.  54  sqq. ;  Nissen,  Pompeianische  Studien;  J.  Beloch,  Campanten, 
2nd  ed.  (R.  s.  C.) 

POMPEY,  the  common  English  form  of  Pompeius,  the  name 
of  a  Roman  plebeian  family. 

i.^  Gnaeus  Pompeius  (106-48  B.C.),  the  triumvir,  the  first 
of  his  family  to  assume  the  surname  Magnds,  was  born  on  the 
30th  of  September  in  the  same  year  as  Cicero.  When  only 
seventeen  he  fought  together  with  his  father  in  the  Social  War. 


He  took  the  side  of  Sulla  against  Marius  and  Cinna,  but  for  a 
time,  in  consequence  of  the  success  of  the  Marians,  he  kept  in 
the  background.    On  the  return  of  Sulla  from  the  Mithradatic 
War  Pompey  joined  him  with  an  army  of  three  legions,  which 
he  had  raised  in  Picenum.     Thus  early  in  life  he  connected 
himself  with  the  cause  of  the  aristocracy,  and  a  decisive  victory 
which  he  won  in  83  over  the  Marian  armies  gained  for  him  from 
Sulla  the  title  of  Imperator.     He  followed  up  his  successes  in 
Italy  by  defeating  the  Marians  in  Sicily  and  Africa,  and  on  his 
return  to  Rome  in  8r,  though  he  was  still  merely  an  eques  and 
not  legally  qualified  to  celebrate  a  triumph,  he  was  allowed  by 
general  consent  to  enjoy  this  distinction,  while  Sulla  greeted  him 
with  the  surname  of  Magnus,  a  title  he  always  retained  and 
handed  down  to  his  sons.    Latterly,  his  relations  with  Sulla  were 
somewhat  strained,  but  after  his  death  he  resisted  the  attempt  of 
the  consul  M.  Aemilius  Lepidus  to  repeal  the  constitution.    In 
conjunction  with  A.  Lutatius  Catulus,  the  other  consul,  he 
defeated  Lepidus  when  he  tried  to  march  upon  Rome,  and  drove 
him  out  of  Italy  (77).     With  some  fears  and  misgivings  the 
senate  permitted  him  to  retain  the  command  of  his  victorious 
army,  and  decided  on  sending  him  to  Spain,  where  the  Marian 
party,   under   Sertorius,   was   stiU   formidable.     Pompey   was 
fighting  in  Spain  from  76  to  71,  and  though  at  first  he  met  with 
serious  reverses  he  was  ultimately  successful.    After  Sertorius 
had  fallen  a  victim  to  assassination,   Pompey  easily  defeated 
his  successor  Perperna  and  put  an  end  to  the  war.    In  71  he  won 
fresh  glory  by  finally  crushing  the  slave  insurrection  of  Spartacus. 
That  same  year,  amid  great  popular  enthusiasm,  but  without 
the  hearty  concurrence  of  the  senate,  whom  he  had  alarmed  by 
talking  of  restoring  the  dreaded  power  of  the  tribunes,  he  was 
elected  with  M.  Licinius  Crassus  to  the  consulship,  and  entered 
Rome  in    triumph    (December  31)   for  his   Spanish  victories. 
He  was  legally    inehgible    for    the    consulship,    having    held 
none    of   the  lower  offices  of   state   and    being    under     age. 
The  following  year  saw  the  work  of  Sulla  undone;  the  tribunate 
was  restored,  and  the  administration  of  justice  was  no  longer 
left  exclusively  to  the  senate,  but  was  to  be  shared  by  it  with 
the  wealthier  portion  of  the  middle  class,   the  equites   (?.».) 
and  the  trihuni  aerarii.^    The  change  was  really  necessary,  as 
the  provincials  could  never  get  justice  from  a  court  composed 
of  senators,   and  it  was  carried  into  effect  by  Pompey  with 
Caesar's  aid.      Pompey   rose   still   higher   in   popularity,    and 
on  the  motion  of  the  tribune  Aulus   Gabinius  in  67  he  was 
entrusted  with   an   extraordinary   command   over   the  greater 
part  of  the  empire,  specially  for  the  extermination  of  piracy  in 
the  Mediterranean,  by  which  the  corn  supplies  of  Rome  were 
seriously  endangered,  whUe  the  high  prices  of  provisions  caused 
great  distress.    He  was  completely  successful;  the  price  of  corn 
fell  immediately  on  his  appointment,   and  in  forty  days  the 
Mediterranean  was  cleared  of  the  pirates.     Next  year,  on  the 
proposal  of  the  tribune  Manilius,  his  powers  were  stiU  further 
extended,  the  care  of  all  the  provinces  in  the  East  being  put 
under  his  control  for  three  years  together  with  the  conduct  of 
the  war  against  Mithradates  VI.,  who  had  recovered  from  the 
defeats   he   had    sustained   from    LucuUus    and    regained   his 
dominions.     Both  Caesar  and  Cicero  supported  the  tribune's 
proposal,  which  was  easily  carried  in  spite  of  the  interested 
opposition  of  the  senate  and  the  aristocracy,  several  of  whom 
held  provinces  which  would  now  be  practically  under  Pompey's 
command.    The  result  of  Pompey's  operations  was  eminently 
satisfactory.    The  wild  tribes  of  the  Caucasus  were  cowed  by 
the   Roman   arms,   and   Mithradates   him_self   fled   across  the 
Black  Sea  to  Panticapaeum  (modern  Kertch).     In  the  years 
64  and  63  Syria  and  Palestine  were  annexed  to  Rome's  empire. 
After  the  capture  of  Jerusalem  Pompey  is  said  to  have  entered 
the  Temple,  and  even  the  Holy  of  Holies.    Asia  and  the  East 
generally  were  left  under  the  subjection  of  petty  kings  who  were 
mere  vassals  of  Rome.    Several  cities  had  been  founded  which 
became  centres  of  Greek  life  and  civilization. 

Pompey,  now  in  his  forty-fifth  year,  returned  to  Italy  in  61  to 

1  Their  history  and  political  character  is  obscure ;  they  were  at  anv 
rate  connected  with  the  knights  (see  Aerarium). 


POMPEY 


57 


celebrate  the  most  magnificent  triumph  which  Rome  had  ever 
witnessed,  ■  as  the  conqueror  of  Spain,  Africa,  and  Asia  (see  A. 
Holm,  Hist,  of  Greece,  Eng.  trans.,  vol.  iv.).  This  triumph  marked 
the  turning-point  of  his  career.  As  a  soldier  everything  had 
gone  well  with  him;  as  a  politician  he  was  a  failure.  He  found 
a  great  change  in  public  opinion,  and  the  people  indifferent  to 
his  achievements  abroad.  The  optimates  resented  the  extra- 
ordinary powers  that  had  been  conferred  upon  him;  LucuUus 
and  Crassus  considered  that  they  had  been  robbed  by  him  of 
the  honour  of  concluding  the  war  against  Mithradates.  The 
senate  refused  to  ratify  the  arrangements  he  made  in  Asia  or 
to  provide  money  and  lands  for  distribution  amongst  his 
veterans.  In  these  circumstances  he  drew  closer  to  Caesar  on 
his  return  from  Spain,  and  became  reconciled  to  Crassus.  The 
result,  was  the  so-called  first  triumvirate  (see  Rome:  History). 

The  remainder  of  his  life  is  inextricably  interwoven  with  that 
of  Caesar.  He  was  married  to  Caesar's  daughter  Julia,  and  as 
yet  the  relations  between  the  two  had  been  friendly.  On  more 
than  one  occasion  Caesar  had  supported  Pompey's  policy, 
which  of  late  had  been  in  a  decidedly  democratic  direction. 
Pompey  was  now  in  fact  ruler  of  the  greater  part  of  the  empire, 
while  Caesar  had  only  the  two  provinces  of  Gaul.  The  control 
of  the  capital,  the  supreme  command  of  the  army  in  Italy  and 
of  the  Mediterranean  fleet,  the  governorship  of  the  two  Spains, 
the  superintendence  of  the  corn  supplies,  which  were  mainly 
drawn  from  Sicily  and  Africa,  and. on  which  the  vast  population 
of  Rome  was  whoUy  dependent,  were  entirely  in  the  hands  of 
Pompey,  who  vras  gradually  losing  the  confidence  of  all  political 
parties  in  Rome.  The  senate  and  the  aristocracy  dishked  and 
distrusted  him,  but  they  felt  thaty  should  things  come  to  the 
worst,  they  might  stUl  find  in  hini  a  champion  of  their  cause. 
Hence  the  joint  rule  of  Pompey  and  Caesar  was  not  unwillingly 
accepted,  and  anything  like  a  rupture  between  the  two  was 
greatly  dreaded  as  the  sure  beginning  of  anarchy  throughout  the 
Roman  world.  With  the  deaths  of  Pompey's  wife  Julia  (54)  and 
of  Crassus  (53)  the  relations  between  him'  and  Caesar  became 
strained,  and  soon  afterwards  he  drew  closer  to  what  we  may 
caU  the  old  conservative  party  in  the  senate  and  aristocracy. 
The  end  was  now  near,  and  Pompey  blundered  into  a  false 
poHtical  position  and  an  open  quarrel  with  Caesar.  In  50  the 
senate  by  a  very  large  majority  revoked .  the  '  extraordinary 
powers  conceded  to  Pompey  and  Caesar;  in  Spain  and  Gaul 
respectively,  and  called  upon  them  to  disband  their  armies. 
Pompey's,  refusal  to  subrnit  gave  Caesar  a  good  pretext  for 
declaring  war  and  marching  at  the  head  of  his  army  into 
Italy.  At  the  beginning  of  the  contest  the  advantages  were; 
decidedly  on  the  side  .of  Pompey,  but  the  superior  political 
tacti  of  his  rival,  combined  with  extraordinary  promptitude  and 
decision  in  following  up  his  blows,  soon  turned  the  scale  against 
him.  Pompey's  cause,  with  that  of  the  senate  and  aristocracy, 
was  finally  rpined  by  his  defeat  in  48  in,  the  neighbourhood  of  the 
Thessahan  city  Pharsalus.  That  same  year  he,  fled  with  the 
hope  of  finding  a  safe  refuge  in  Egypt,  but  was  treacherously 
murdered, by  one  of  his  old  centurions  as  he  was  landing.  He 
was  five  times  married,  and,  three  of  his  children  survived  him— 
Gnaeus,  Sextus,  and  a  daughter  Pompeia. 

Pompey,  though  he  had  some  great  and  good  qualities, 
hardly  deserved  his  surname  of  "  the  Great."  He  was  certainly 
a  very  good  soldier,  and  is  said  to  have  excelled  in  all  athletic 
exercises,  but  he  fell  shprt  of  being  a  first-rate  general.  He 
won  great  successes  in  Spain  and  more  especially  in  the  East, 
but  for  these  he  was  no  doubt  partly  indeljted  to  what  others  had 
already  done.  Of  tjie  gifts  which  make  a  good  statesman  he 
had  really  none.  As  plainly  appeared  in  the  last  years  of  his 
life,  he  was  too  weak  and  irresolute  to  choose  a  side  and  stand 
by  it.  But  to  his  credit  be  it  said  that  in  a  corrupt  time  he 
never  used  his  opportunities  for  plunder  and  extortion,  and 
his  domestic  life  was  pure  and  simple. 

Authorities.— j4»cie«i:  Plutarch,  -Po?w/>ey ;  DioCassius;  Appian; 
Velleius  Paterculus;  Caesar,,  Pe  bello  civili;-  Strabo  xii.,  555-560; 
Cicero,  passim;  L\ican,\Pharsdlia. _     , 

Modern:  Histories  of  Rome  in  general  (see  Rome:  Ancient 
History,  ad  fin.) ',  .-works  quoted  under  CaesAr  and  Cicero.     Also 


G.  Boissier,  Cicero  and  His  Friends  (Eng.  trans.,  A.  D.  Jones,  1897) ; 
J.  L.  Strachan-Davidson's  Cicero  (1894) ;  Warde  Fowler's  Julius 
Caesar  (1892);  C.  W.  Oman,  Seven  Roman  Statesmen  of  the  Later 
Republic  (1902) ;  notes  in  Tyrrell  and  Purser's  Correspondence  of 
Cicero  (sqe  index  in  vii.  80). 

2.  Gnaeus  Pompeius,  surnamed  Strabo  (squint-eyed), 
Roman  statesman,  father  of  the  triumvir.  He  was  successively 
quaestor  in  Sardinia  (103  B.C.),  praetor  (94),  propraetor  in 
SicUy  (93)  and  consul  (89).  He  fought  with  success  in  the 
Social  War,  and  was  awarded  a  triumph  for  his  services. 
Probably  towards  the  end  of  the  same  year  he  brought  forward 
the  law  {lex  Pompeia  de  Gallia  Transpadana),  which  conferred 
upon  the  inhabitants  of  that  region  the  privileges  granted  to 
the  Latin  colonies.  During  the  civfl  war  between  Marius  and 
Sulla  he  seems  to  have  shown  no  desire  to  attach  himself 
definitely  to  either  side.  He  certainly  set  out  for  Rome  from  the 
south  of  Italy  (where  he  remained  as  proconsul)  at  the  bidding 
of  the  aristocratic  party,  when  the  city  was  threatened  by 
Marius  and  Cinna,  but  he  displayed  little  energy,  and  the  engage- 
ment which  he  fought  before  the  CoUine  gate,  although  hotly 
contested,  was  indecisive.  Soon  afterwards  he  was  killed  by 
Hghtning  (87).  Although  he  possessed  great  military  talents, 
Pompeius  was  the  best-hated  general  of  his  time  owing  to  his 
cruelty,  avarice  and  perfidy.  His  body  was  dragged  from  the 
bier,  while  being  conveyed  to  the  funeral  pUe,  and  treated  with 
the  greatest  indignity. 

See  Plutarch,  Pompey,  l;  Appian,  Bell.  civ.  i.  50,  52,  66-58,  80; 
Veil.  Pat.  ix.  21 ;  Livy,  Epit.  74-79;  Florus  iii.  18. 

3.  Gnaeus  Pompeius  Magnus  (c.  75-45  b.c),  the  elder  son  of 
the  triumvir.  In  48  B.C.  during  the  civU  war  he  commanded 
his  father's  fleet  in  the  Adriatic.  After  the  battle  of  Pharsalus 
he  set  out  for  Africa  with  the  remainder  of  the  Pompeian  party, 
but,  meeting  with  little  success,  crossed  over  to  Spain.  Having 
been  joined  by  his  brother  Sextus,  he  collected  a  considerable 
army,  the  numbers  of  which  were  increased  by  the  Pompeians 
who  fled  from  Africa  after  the  battle  of  Thapsus  (46).  Caesar, 
who  regarded  him  as  a  formidable  opponent,  set  out  against 
him  in  person.  A  battle  took  place  at  Munda  on  the  17th  of 
March  45,  in  which  the  brothers  were  defeated.  Gnaeus 
managed  to  make  his  escape  after  the  engagement,  but  was 
soon  (April  12)  captured  and  put  to  death.  He  was  generally 
unpopular  owing  to  his  cruelty  and  violent  temper. 

See  Pseudo-Oppius,  Bellum  hispaniense,  1-39;  Lucan,  Pharsalia, 
ix.  120;'    Dio  Cassius  xliii.  28-40. 

4.  Sextus  Pompeius  Magnus  (75-35  B.C.),  the  younger  son 
of  the  triumvir.  After  his  father's  death  he  continued  the 
struggle  against  the  new  rulers  of  the  Roman  Empire.  From 
Cyprus,  where  he  had  taken  refuge,  he  made  his  way  to  Africa, 
and  after  the  defeat  of  the  Pompeians  at  Thapsus  (46)  crossed 
over  to  Spain.  After  Caesar's  victory  at  the  battle  of  Munda 
(45),  in  which  he  took  no  actual  part,  he  abandoned  Corduba 
(Cordova),  though  for  a  time  he  held  his  ground  in  the  south, 
and  defeated  Asinius  PoUio,  the  governor  of  the  province.  In 
43,  the  year  of  the  triumvirate  of  Octavius,  Antony,  and 
Lepidus,  he  was  proscribed  along  with  the  murderers  of  Caesar, 
and,  not  daring  to  show  himself  in  Italy,  he  put  himself  at  the 
head  of  a  fleet  manned  chiefly  by  sla;ves  or  proscribed  persons, 
with  which  he  made  himself  master  of  Sicily,  and  from  thence 
ravaged  the  coasts  of  Italy.  Rome  was  threatened  with  a 
famine,  as  the  com  supplies  from  Eg3rpt  and  Africa  were  cut 
ofi  by  his  ships,  and  it  was  thought  prudent  to  negotiate  a  peace 
with  him  at  Misenum  (39),  which  was  to  leave  him  in  possession 
of  SicUy,  Sardinia  and  Achaea,  provided  he  would  allow  Italy 
to  be  freely  supplied  with  com.  But  the  arrangement  could 
not  be  carried  into  effect,  as  Sextus  renewed  the  war  and  gained 
some  considerable  successes  at  sea.  However,  in  36  his  fleet 
was  defeated  and  destroyed  by  Agrippa  at  Naulochus  off  the 
north  coast  of  Sicily.  After  his  defeat  he  fled  to  Mytilene,  and 
from  there  to  Asia  Minor.  In  the  attempt  to  make  his  way  to 
Armenia  he  was  taken  prisoner  by  Antony's  troops,  and  put  to 
death  at  Miletus.  Like  his  father,  he  was  a  brave  soldier,  but 
a  man  of  little  culture. 


58 


POMPIGNAN— POMPTINE  MARSHES 


See  Dio  Cassius,  xlvi-xlix. ;  Appian,  Bell.  civ.  iv.  84-117,  v. 
2-143;  Veil.  Pat.  ii.  73-87;  Plutarch,  Antony;  Livy,  Epit.  123, 
128,  129,  131 ;  Cicero,  Philippica,  xiii.,  and  many  references  in 
Letters  to  Atticus. 

POMPIGNAN,  JEAN  JACQUES  LEFRANC,  Marquis  de  (1709- 
1784),  French  poet,  was  born  on  the  17th  of  August  1709,  at 
Montauban,  where  his  father  was  president  of  the  cour  des  aides, 
and  the  son,  who  also  followed  the  profession  of  the  law,  suc- 
ceeded in  174s  to  the  same  charge.  The  same  year  he  was  also 
appointed  conseiller  d'honneur  of  the  parlement  of  Toulouse, 
but  his  courageous  opposition  to  the  abuses  of  the  royal  power, 
especially  in  the  matter  of  taxation,  brought  down  upon  him 
so  much  vexation  that  he  resigned  his  positions  almost  immedi- 
ately, his  marriage  with  a  rich  woman  enabling  him  to  devote 
himself  to  literature.  His  first  play,  Didon  (1734),  which  owed 
much  to  Metastasio's  opera  on  the  same  subject,  gained  a  great 
success,  and  gave  rise  to  expectations  not  fulfilled  by  the  Adieiix 
de  Mars  (1735)  and  some  hght  operas  that  followed.  His  reputa- 
tion was  made  by  Poesies  sacrees  et  philosophiques  (1734),  much 
mocked  at  by  Voltaire  who  punned  on  the  title:  "  Sacris  Us 
sont,  car  personne  n'y  louche."  Lefranc's  odes  on  profane  sub- 
jects hardly  reach  the  same  level,  with  the  exception  of  the  ode 
on  the  death  of  J.  B.  Rousseau,  which  secured  him  entrance  to 
the  Academy  (1760).  On  his  reception  he  made  an  ill-con- 
sidered oration  violently  attacking  the  Encyclopaedists,  many 
of  whom  were  in  his  audience  and  had  given  him  their  votes. 
Lefranc  soon  had  reason  to  repent  of  his  rashness,  for  the 
epigrams  and  stories  circulated  by  those  whom  he  had  attacked 
made  it  impossible  for  him  to  remain  in  Paris,  and  he  took 
refuge  in  his  native  town,  where  he  spent  the  rest  of  his  life 
occupied  in  making  numerous  translations  from  the  classics, 
none  of  great  merit. 

La  Harpe,  who  is  severe  enough  on  Lefranc  in  his  correspondence, 
does  his  abilities  full  justice  in  his  Cours  litteraire,  and  ranks  him 
next  to  J.  B.  Rousseau  among  French  lyric  poets.  With  those 
of  other  18th-century  poets  his  works  may  be  studied  in  the  Petits 
poktes  frangais  (1838)  of  M.  Prosper  Poitevin.  His  CEuvres  com- 
putes (4  vols.)  were  published  in  1781,  selections  (2  vols.)  in  1800, 
1813,  1822. 

His  brother,  Jean  Georges  Lefranc  de  Pompignan  C171S- 
1790),  was  the  archbishop  of  Vienne  against  whose  defence  of 
the  faith  Voltaire  launched  the  good-natured  mockery  of  Les 
Leltres  d'un  Quaker.  Elected  to  the  Estates  General,  he  passed 
over  to  the  Liberal  side,  and  led  the  149  members  of  the  clergy 
who  united  with  the  third  estate  to  form  the  National  Assembly. 
He  was  one  of  its  first  presidents,  and  was  minister  of  public 
worship  when  the  civil  constitution  was  forced  upon  the  clergy. 

POMPONAZZI,  PIETRO  (Petrus  Pomponatius)  (1462-1525), 
Italian  philosopher,  was  born  at  Mantua  on  the  i6th  of  Sep- 
tember 1462,  and  died  at  Bologna  on  the  i8th  of  May  1525.  His 
education,  begun  at  Mantua,  was  completed  at  Padua,  where  he 
became  doctor  of  medicine  in  1487.  In  1488  he  was  elected 
extraordinary  professor  of  philosophy  at  Padua,  where  he  was 
a  colleague  of  Achillini,  the  Averroist.  From  about  1495  to 
1509  he  occupied  the  chair  of  natural  philosophy  until  the 
closing  of  the  schools  of  Padua,  when  he  took  a  professorship 
at  Ferrara  where  he  lectured  on  the  D^  anima.  In  1512  he 
was  invited  to  Bologna  where  he  remained  till  his  death  and 
where  he  produced  all  his  important  works.  The  predominance 
of  medical  science  at  Padua  had  cramped  his  energies,  but  at 
Ferrara,  and  even  more  at  Bologna,  the  study  of  psychology 
and  theological  speculation  were  more  important.  In  1516  he 
produced  his  great  work  De  immortalitate  animi,  which  gave 
rise  to  a  storm  of  controversy  between  the  orthodox  Thomists 
of  the  Cathohc  Church,  the  Averroists  headed  by  Agostino 
Nifo,  and  the  so-called  Alexandrist  School.  The  treatise  was 
burned  at  Venice,  and  Pomponazzi  himself  ran  serious  risk  of 
death  at  the  hands  of  the  Catholics.  Two  pamphlets  followed, 
the  Apologia  and  the  Defensorium,  wherein  he  explained  his 
paradoxical  position  as  Catholic  and  philosophic  materialist. 
His  last  two  treatises,  the  De  incantationibus  and  the  De  fato, 
were  posthumously  published  in  an  edition  of  his  works  printed 
at  Basel. 


Pomponazzi  is  profoundly  interesting  as  the  herald  of  the 
Renaissance.  He  was  born  in  the  period  of  transition  when 
scholastic  formahsm  was  losing  its  hold  over  men  both  in  the 
Church,  and  outside.  Hitherto  the  dogma  of  the  Church  had 
been  based  on  Aristotle  as  interpreted  by  Thomas  Aquinas. 
So  close  was  this  identification  that  any  attack  on  Aristotle,  or 
even  an  attempt  to  reopen  the  old  discussions  on  the  Aristo- 
tehan  problems,  was  regarded  as  a  dangerous  heresy.  Pom- 
ponazzi claimed  the  right  to  study  Aristotle  for  himself,  and 
devoted  himself  to  the  De  anima  with  the  view  of  showing  that 
Thomas  Aquinas  had  entirely  misconceived  the  Aristotelian 
theory  of  the  active  and  the  passive  intellect.  The  Averroists  had 
to  some  extent  anticipated  this  attitude  by  their  contention  that 
immortahty  does  not  imply  the  eternal  separate  existence  of 
the  individual  soul,  that  the  active  principle  which  is  common 
to  all  men  alone  survives.  Pomponazzi's  revolt  went  further 
than  this.  He  held,  with  Alexander  of  Aprodisias,  that,  as 
the  soul  is  the  form  of  the  body  (as  Aquinas  also  asserted),  it 
must,  by  hypothesis,  perish  with  the  body;  form  apart  from 
matter  is  unthinkable.  The  ethical  consequence  of  such  a 
view  is  important,  and  in  radical  contrast  to  the  practice  of  the 
period.  Virtue  can  no  longer  be  viewed  solely  in  relation  to 
reward  and  punishment  in  another  existence.  A  new  sanction 
is  required.  Pomponazzi  found  this  criterion  in  tov  koXov  'iveKa 
— virtue  for  its  own  sake.  "  Praemium  essentiale  virtutis  est 
ipsamet  virtus  quae  hominem  fehcem  facit,"  he  says  in  the  De 
immortalitate.  Consequently,  whether  or  not  the  soul  be  im- 
mortal, the  ethical  criterion  remains  the  same:  "  Neque  aliquo 
pacto  declinandum  est  a  virtute  quicquid  accidat  post  mortem." 
In  spite  of  this  philosophical  materiahsm,  Pomponazzi  declared 
his  adherence  to  the  Catholic  faith,  and  thus  established  the 
principle  that  religion  and  philosophy,  faith  and  knowledge, 
may  be  diametrically  opposed  and  yet  coexist  for  the  same 
thinker.  This  curious  paradox  he  exemplifies  in  the  De  incanta- 
tione,  where  in  one  breath  he  sums  up  against  the  existence 
of  demons  and  spirits  on  the  basis  of  the  Aristotelian  theory  of 
the  cosmos,  and,  as  a  believing  Christian,  asserts  his  faith  in 
their  existence.  In  this  work  he  insists  emphatically  upon  the 
orderly  sequence  of  nature,  cause  and  effect.  Men  grow  to 
maturity  and  then  decay;  so  religions  have  their  day  and 
succumb.  Even  Christianity,  he  added  (with  the  usual  proviso 
that  he  is  speaking  as  a  philosopher)  was  showing  indications 
of  decline. 

See  A.  H.  Douglas,  Philosophy  and  Psychology  of  Pietro  Pompo- 
nazzi (1910);  also  Ritter,  Geschichte  der  Philosophie;  J.  A.  Symonds^ 
The  Renaissance  in  Italy;  Windelband,  History  of  Philosophy 
(trans,  by  James  H.  Tufts,  pt.  4,  c.  i) ;  J.  Burckhardt,  Die  Kultur 
der  Renaissance  in  Italien;  L.  Ferri,  La  Psicologia  di  P.  Pom- 
ponazzi. (J.  M.  M.) 

POMPONIUS,  LUCIUS,  called  Bononiensis  from  his  birthplace 
Bononia,  Latin  comic  poet,  flourished  about  90  B.C.  (or  earlier). 
He  was  the  first  to  give  an  artistic  form  to  the  Atellanae 
Fabulae  by  arranging  beforehand  the  details  of  the  plot  which 
had  hitherto  been  left  to  improvisation,  and  providing  a  written 
text.  The  fragments  show  fondness  for  alliteration  and  playing 
upon  words,  skill  in  the  use  of  rustic  and  farcical  language, 
and  a  considerable  amount  of  obscenity. 

Fragments  In  O.  Ribbeck,  Scenicae  romanorum  poesis  fragmenta 
(1897-1898);  see  Mommsen,  Hist,  of  Rome  (Eng.  tr.),  bk.  iv.  ch.  13; 
Teuffel-Schwabe,  Hist,  of  Roman  Literature  (Eng.  tr.),  §  151. 

POMPOSA,  an  abbey  of  Emilia,  Italy,  in  the  province  of 
Ferrara,  2  m.  from  Codigoro,  which  is  30  m.  E.  of  Ferrara  in  the 
delta  of  the  Po.  The  fine  church,  a  work  of  the  loth  (?)  century, 
with  interesting  sculptures  on  the  fagade  and  a  splendid  Roma- 
nesque campanile,  contains  a  good  mosaic  pavement,  and  interest- 
ing frescoes  of  the  14th  century— a  "  Last  Judgment  "  of  the 
school  of  Giotto  and  others;  and  there  are  also  paintings  in  the 
refectory.  It  was  abandoned  in  1550  on  account  of  malaria. 
See  G.  Agnelli,  Ferrara  e  Pomposa  (Bergamo,  1902).  (T.  As.) 
POMPTINE  MARSHES,  a  low  tract  of  land  in  the  province  of 
Rome,  Italy,  varying  in  breadth  between  the  Volscian  mountains 
and  the  sea  from  10  to  16  m.,  and  extending  N.W.  to  S.E.  from 


PONANI— PONCHIELLI 


59 


Velktri  to  Terracina  (40  m.).  In  ancient  days  this  low  tract 
was  fertile  and  well-cultivated,  and  contained  several  prosperous 
cities  (Suessa  Pometia,  Ulubrae — perhaps  the  mod.  Cisterna — 
&c.),  but;  owing  to  the  dying  out  of  the  small  proprietors,  it 
had  already  become  unhealthy  at  the  end  of  the  Republican 
period.  Attempts  to  drain  the  marshes  were  made  by  Appius 
Claudius  in  312  B.C.,  when  he  constructed  the  Via  Appia  through 
them  (the  road  having  previously  followed  a  devious  course  at 
the  foot  of  the  Volscian  mountains),  and  at  various  times 
during  the  Roman  period.  A  canal  ran  through  them  parallel 
to  the  road,  and  for  some  reason  that  is  not  altogether  clear  it 
was  used  in  preference  to  the  road  during  the  Augustan  period. 
Trajan  repaired  the  road,  and  Theodoric  did  the  same  some 
four  hundred  years  later.  But  in  the  middle  ages  it  had  fallen 
into  disrepair.  Popes  Boniface  VIII.,  Martin  V.,  Sixtus  V., 
and  Pius  VI.  all  attempted  to  solve  the  problem,  the  last-named 
reconstructing  the  road  admirably.  The  difficulty  arises  from 
the  lack  of  fall  in  the  soil,  some  parts  no  less  than  10  m.  from 
the  coast  being  barely  above  sea-level,  whUe  they  are  separated 
from  the  sea  by  a  series  of  sand-hills  now  covered  with  forest, 
which  rise  at  some  points  over  100  ft.  above  sea-level.  Springs 
also  rise  in  the  district,  and  the  problem  is  further  comphcated 
by  the  flood-water  and  solid  matter  brought  down  by  the 
mountain  torrents,  which  choke  up  the  channels  made.  By 
a  law  passed  in  1899,  the  proprietors  are  bound  to  arrange  for 
the  safe  outlet  of  the  water  from  the  mountains,  keep  the  exist- 
ing canals  open,  and  reclaim  the  district  exposed  to  inundation, 
within  a  period  of  twenty-four  years.  The  sum  of  £280,000  has 
been  granted  towards  the  expense  by  the  government. 
/  See  T.  Berti,  Faluti  pontine  (Rome,  1884);  R.  de  la  Blanchere, 
Un  Chapitre  d'histoire  pontine  (Paris,  1889).  (T.  As.) 

PONANI,  a  seaport  on  the  west  coast  of  India,  in  Malabar 
district,  Madras,  at  a  mouth  of  a  river  of  the  same  name.  Pop. 
(1901),  10,562.  It  is  the  headquarters  of  the  Moplah  or  Map- 
pilla  community  of  Mahommedans,  with  a  religious  college  and 
many  mosques,  one  of  which  is  said  to  date  from  1510.  There 
is  a  large  export  of  coco-nut  products. 

PONCA,  a  tribe  of  North-American  Indians  of  Siouan  stock. 
They  were  originally  part  of  the  Omaha  tribe,  with  whom  they 
lived  near  the  Red  River  of  the  North.  They  were  driven 
westward  by  the  Dakotas,  and  halted  on  the  Ponca  river, 
Dakota.  After  a  succession  of  treaties  and  removals  they  were 
placed  on  a  reservation  at  the  mouth  of  the  Niobrara,  where 
they  were  prospering,  when  their  lands  were  forcibly  taken  from 
them,  and  they  were  remoyed  to  Indian  Territory  (Oklahoma). 
During  the  march  thither  and  in  their  new  quarters,  the  tribe's 
health  suffered,  so  that  in  1878  they  revolted  and  made  their 
way  back  to  the  Omahas.  They  were  recaptured,  but  public 
attention  having  been  drawn  to  their  hard  case  they  were 
liberated  in  1880,  after  a  long  trial,  which  resulted  in  their 
being  declared  United  States  citizens.  They  number  some 
700,  mostly  in  Oklahoma. 

PONCE,  a  seaport  and  the  second  largest  city  of  Porto  Rico, 
the  seat  of  government  of  the  Department  of  Ponce,  on  the 
south  coast,  about  50  m.  (84  m.  by  the  military  road)  S.W.  of  San 
Juan.  Pop.  (1899),  27,952,  of  whom  2554  were  negroes  and 
9942  of  mixed  races;  (r9io),  35,027.  It  is  served  by  the  American 
Railroad  of  Porto  Rico,  by  a  railway  to  Guayama  (1910),  and  by 
steamboats  from  numerous  ports;  an  old  military  road  connects 
it  with  San  Juan.  Ponce  consists  of  two  parts:  Ponce,  or  the 
city  proper,  and  Ponce  Playa,  or  the  seaport ;  they  are  separated 
by  the  Portuguese  River  and  are  connected  by  an  electric  street 
railway.  Ponce  Playa  is  on  a  spacious  bay  and  is  accessible  to 
vessels  drawing  25  ft.  of  water;  Ponce  is  2  m.  inland  at  the 
interior  margin  of  a  beautiful  plain,  with  hills  in  the  rear  rising 
to  a  height  of  1000  to  2000  ft.  The  city  is  supplied  with  water 
by  an  aqueduct  about  2  m.  long.  There  are  two  attractive 
public  squares  in  the  heart  of  the  city:  Plaza  Principal  and  Plaza 
de  las  Delicias.  Among  prominent  public  buildings  are  the 
city  hall,  the  custom-house,  the  Pearl  theatre,  several  churches — 
Roman  Catholic  (including  a  finely  decorated  cathedral)  and 
Protestant;  St  Luke's  hospital  and  insane  asylum,  an  asylum 


for  the  bHnd,  a  ladies'  asylum,  a  home  for  the  indigent  and 
aged,  and  a  military  barracks.  At  the  Quintana  Baths  near  the 
city  are  thermal  springs  with  medicinal  properties.  The 
surrounding  country  is  devoted '  chiefly  to  the  cultivation  of 
sugar  cane,  tobacco,  oranges  and  cacao,  and  to  the  grazing  of 
cattle.  Among  the  manufactures  are  sugar,  molasses,  rum, 
and  ice,  and  prepared  coffee  for  the  market.  Ponce,  named  in 
honour  of  Ponce  de  Leon,  was  founded  in  1752  upon  the  site  of 
a  settlement  which  had  been  established  in  the  preceding  century, 
was  incorporated  as  a  town  in  1848,  and  was  made  a  city  in 
1878. 

PONCELET,  JEAN  VICTOR  (i 788-1867),  French  mathe- 
matician and  engineer,  was  born  at  Metz  on  the  ist  of  July 
1788.  From  1808  to  r8io  he  attended  the  Ecole  polyiechnique, 
and  afterwards,  till  181 2,  the  Ecole  d' application  at  Metz.  He 
then  became  lieutenant  of  engineers,  and  took  part  in  the 
Russian  campaign,  during  which  he  was  taken  prisoner  and  was 
confined  at  Saratov  on  the  Volga.  It  was  during  his  imprison- 
ment here  that,  "  priv6  de  toute  espece  de  livres  et  de  secours, 
surtout  distrait  par  les  malheurs  de  '  ma  patrie  et  les  miens 
propres,"  as  he  himself  puts  it,  he  began  his  researches  on  pro- 
jective geometry  which  led  to  his  great  treatise  on  that  subject. 
This  work,  the  Traite  des  proprietes  projectives  des  figures,  which 
was  published  in  1822  (2d  ed.,  2  vols.  1865-1866),  is  occupied 
with  the  investigation  of  the  projective  properties  of  figures  (see 
Geometry).  This  work  entitles  Poncelet  to  rank  as  one  of  the 
greatest  of  those  who  took  part  in  the  development  of  the 
modern  geometry  of  which  G.  Monge  was  the  founder.  From 
1815  to  1825  he  was  occupied  with  military  engineering  at 
Metz;  and  from  1825  to  1835  he  was  professor  of  mechanics  at 
the  £cole  d' application  there.  .In  1826,  in  his  Memoire  sur  les 
roues  hydrauliques  a  aubes  courbes,  he  brought  forward  im- 
provements in  the  construction  of  water-wheels,  which  more 
than  doubled  their  efficiency.  In  1834  he  became  a  member  of 
the  Academie;  from  1838  to  1848  he  was  professor  to  the 
faculty  of  sciences  at  Paris,  and  from  1848  to  1850  comman- 
dant-of  the  Ecole  polyiechnique.  At  the  London  International 
Exhibition  of  1851  he  had  charge  of  the  department  of 
machinery,  and  wrote  a  report  on  the  machinery  and  tools  on 
view  at  that  exhibition.  He  died  at  Paris  on  the  23rd  of 
December  1867. 

See  J.  Bertrand,  &loge  historique  de  Poncelet  (Paris,  1875). 

PONCHER,  illENNE  DE  (1446-1524),  French  prelate  and 
diplomatist.  After  studying  law  he  was  early  provided  with 
a  prebend,  and  became  councillor  at  the  parlement  of  Paris 
in  1485  and  president  of  the  Chambre  des  Enqu8tes  in  1498. 
Elected  bishop  of  Paris  in  1503  at  the  instance  of  Louis  XII., 
he  was  entrusted  by  the  king  with  diplomatic  missions  in 
Germany  and  Italy.  After  being  appointed  chanceUor  of  the 
duchy  of  Milan,  he  became  keeper  of  the  seals  of  France  in  1512, 
and  retained  that  post  until  the  accession  of  Francis  I.,  who 
employed  him  on  various  diplomatic  missions.  Poncher 
became  archbishop  of  Sens  in  1519.  His  valuable  Constitutions 
synodales  was  published  in  15 14. 

PONCHIELLI,  AMILCARE  (i  834-1 886),  Italian  musical 
composer,  was  born  near  Cremona  on  the  1st  of  September  1834. 
He  studied  at  the  Milan  Conservatoire.  His  first  dramatic 
work,  written  in  collaboration  with  two  other  composers,  was 
II  Sindaco  Babbeo  (1851).  After  completing  his  studies  at 
Milan  he  returned  to  Cremona,  where  his  opera  /  Promessi 
sposi  was  produced  in  1856.  This  was  foUowed  by  La  Savojarda 
(186 1,  produced  in  a  revised  version  as  Lina  in  1877),  Roderigo, 
re  dei  Goti  (1864),  and  La  Stella  del  monte  (1867).  A  revised 
version  of  I  Promessi  sposi,  which  was  produced  at  Milan  in 
1872,  was  his  first  genuine  success.  After  this  came  a  ballet, 
Le  Due  Gemelle  (1873),  and  an  opera,  I  Lituani  (1874,  produced 
in  a  revised  version  as  Alduna  in  1884).  Ponchielli  reached  the 
zenith  of  his  fame  with  La  Gioconda  (18^6),  written  to  a  libretto 
founded  by  Arrigo  Boito  upon  Victor  Hugo's  tragedy,  Angela, 
Tyran  de  Padoue.  La  Gioconda  was  followed  by  II  Figliuol 
prodigo  (1880)  and  Marion  Delorme  (1885);     Among  his  less 


6o 


PONCHO— PONI A  RD 


important  works  are  II  Parlatore  eterno,  a  musical  farce  (1873), 
and  a  ballet/  Clarina  (1873).  In  1881  Ponchielli  was  made 
maestro  di  cappella  of  Piacenza  Cathedral.  His  music  shows 
the  influence  of  Verdi,  but  at  its  best  it  has  a  distinct  value  of 
its  own,  and  an  inexhaustible  flow  of  typically  Italian  melody. 
His  fondness  for  fanciful  figures  in  his  accompaniments  has 
been  slavishly  imitated  by  Mascagni,  Leoncavallo,  and  many  of 
their  contemporaries.  Ponchielh  died  at  Milan  on  the  17th 
of  January  1886. 

PONCHO  (a  South  American  Spanish  word,  adopted  from  the 
Araucanian  poncho  or  pontho  in  the  17th  century),  a  form  of 
cloak  worn  originally  by  the  South  American  Indians,  and 
afterwards  adopted  by  the  Spaniards  living  in  South  America. 
It  is  merely  a  long  strip  of  cloth,  doubled,  with  a  hole  for  the 
head. 

POND,  JOHN  (c.  i767-r836),  Enghsh  astronomer-royal,  was 
born  about  1767  in  London,  where  his  father  made  a  fortune 
in  trade.  He  entered  Trinity  College,  Cambridge,  at  the  age 
of  sixteen,  but  took  no  degree,  his  course  being  interrupted  by 
severe  pulmonary  attacks  which  compelled  a  long  residence 
abroad.  In  1800  he  settled  at  Westbury  near  Bristol,  and 
began  to  determine  star -places  with  a  fine  altitude  and  azimuth 
circle  of  25  ft.  diameter  by  E.  Troughton.  His  demonstration 
in  1806  (Phil.  Trans,  xcvi.  420)  of  a  change  of  form  in  the 
Greenwich  mural  quadrant  led  to  the  introduction  of  astro- 
nomical circles  at  the  Royal  Observatory,  and  to  his  own  appoint- 
ment as  its  head.  He  was  elected  a  fellow  of  the  Royal  Society 
on  the  26th  of  February  1807;  he  married  and  went  to  live  in 
London  in  the  same  year,  and  in  i8ir  succeeded  Maskelyne  as 
astronomer -royal. 

During  an  administration  of  nearly  twenty-five  years  Pond 
effected  a  reform  of  practical  astronomy  in  England  comparable 
to  that  effected  by  Bessel  in  Germany.  In  1821  he  began  to 
employ  the  method  of  observation  by  reflection;  and  in  1825 
he  devised  means  (see  Mem.  Roy.  Astron.  Soc.  ii.  499)  of  combin- 
ing two  mural  circles  in  the  determination  of  the  place  of  a  single 
object,  the  one  serving  for  direct  and  the  other  for  reflected 
vision.  Under  his  auspices  the  instrumental  equipment  at 
Greenwich  was  completely  changed,  and  the  number  of  assis- 
tants increased  from  one  to  six.  The  superior  accuracy  of  his 
determinations  was  attested  by  S.  C.  Chandler's  discussion  of 
them  in  1894,  in  the  course  of  his  researches  into  the  variation 
of  latitude  {Astron.  Journ.  Nos.  313,  315).  He  persistently  con- 
troverted (1810-1824)  the  reality  of  J.  Brinkley's  imaginary 
star-parallaxes  {Phil.  Trans,  cviii.  477,  cxiii.  53).  DeHcacy  of 
health  compelled  his  retirement  in  the  autumn  of  1835.  He 
died  at  Blackheath  on  the  7th  of  September  1836,  and  was 
buried  beside  Halley  in  the  churchyard  of  Lee.  The  Copley 
medal  was  conferred  upon  him  in  1823,  and  the  Lalande  prize 
in  i8r7  by  the  Paris  Academy,  of  which  he  was  a  corresponding 
member.  He  published  eight  folio  volumes  of  Greenwich 
Observations,  translated  Laplace's  Systhme  du  monde  (in  2  vols. 
8vo.,  T809),  and  contributed  thirty-one  papers  to  scientific 
collections.    His  catalogue  of   iri2  stars  (r833)  was  of  great 

value. 

f 

See  Mem.  Roy.  Astron.  Soc.  x.  357;  Proc.  Roy.  Soc.  iii.  434; 
Penny  Cyclopaedia  (De  Morgan);  F.  W.  Bessel,  Pop.  Vorlesungen, 
p.  543;  Report  Brit.  Assoc,  i.  128,  136  (Airy);  Sir  G.  Airy's 
Autobiography,  p.  127;  Observatory,  xiii.  204,  xxii.  357;  Annual 
Biography  and  Obituary  (1837);  R.  Grant,  Hist,  of  Phys.  Astron. 
p.  491 ;  Royal  Society's  Cat.  Scient.  Papers. 

POND,  a  small  pool  or  body  of  standing  water,  a  word  often 
applied  to  one  for  which  the  bed  has  been  artificially  constructed. 
The  word  is  a  variant  of  "  pound  "  {q.11.),  an  enclosure. 

PONDICHERRY,  the  capital  of  the  French  possessions  in 
India,  situated  on  the  Coromandel  or  western  coast,  122  m.  by 
rail  S.  of  Madras.  The  territory,  which  is  entirely  surrounded 
by  the  British  district  of  South  Arcot,  has  an  area  of  115  sq.  m. 
with  a  population  (rgoi)  of  I74j4s6.  The  chief  crops  are  dry 
grains,  rice,  earth-nuts  and  a  little  indigo.  The  territory  is 
traversed  by  a  branch  of  the  South  Indian  railway  from  Villa- 
puram.    The  towri  has  a  population  of  27,448.     It  is  well  laid 


out  with  fine  public  buildings;  the  water-supply  is  derived  from 
artesian  wells.  It  has  an  open  roadstead,  with  a  small  iron 
pier.  The  port  is  visited  yearly  by  500  vessels,  and  has  trade 
of  the  value  of  about  some  £1,300,000.  The  principal'  imports 
are  areca-nuts,  wines  and  liqueurs,  and  the  chief  exports  ground- 
nuts, oil,  cotton  fabrics  and  rice.  Of  the  export  trade  more 
than  one-half  is  with  France,  but  of  the  import  trade  only  one- 
fourth.  The  weaving  of  various  fabrics  forms  the  principal 
industry. 

Pondicherry  was  founded  in  1683  by  Francois  Martin,  on  the 
site  of  a  village  given  him  by  the  governor  of  Gingee.  In  1693 
the  Dutch  took  Pondicherry,  but  restored  it,  with  the  fortifica- 
tions greatly  improved,  in  1697,  at  the  peace  of  Ryswick.  In 
1748  Admiral  Boscawen  laid  siege  to  it  without  success,  but  in 
i76r  it  was  taken  by  Colonel  Coote  from  Lally.  In  1763  it 
was  restored  to  the  French.  In  1778  it  was  again  taken  by 
Sir  Hector  Munro,  and  its  fortifications  destroyed.  In  1783 
it  was  retransf erred  to  the  French,  and  in  1793  recaptured  by 
the  English.  The  treaty  of  Amiens  in  1802  restored  it  to  the 
French,  but  it  was  retaken  in  1803.  In  1816  it  was  finally 
restored  to  the  French. 

PONDO,  a  Kaffir  people  who  have  given  their  name  to  Pondo- 
land,  the  country  comprising  much  of  the  seaboard  of  Kaffraria, 
Cape  province,  immediately  to  the  south-west  of  Natal.  The 
Pondo,  who  number  about  200,000,  are  divided  into  several 
tribal  groups,  but  the  native  government,  since  the  annexation 
of  the  country  to  Cape  Colony  in  1894,  has  been  subject  to  the 
control  of  the  colonial  authorities.     (See  Katfirs.) 

PONDWEED,  a  popular  name  for  Potamogeton  natans,  a 
cosmopoHtan  aquatic  plant  found  in  ponds,  lakes  and  ditches, 
with  broad,  more  or  less  oblong-ovate,  olive-green,  floating 
leaves.  The  name  is  also  applied  to  other  species  of  Potamo- 
geton, one  of  the  characteristic  genera  of  lakes,  ponds  and  streams 
all  over  the  world,  but  more  abundant  in  temperate  regions. 
It  is  the  principal  genus  of  the  natural  order  of  Monocotyledous 
Potamogetonaceae,  and  contains  plants  with  slender  branched 
stems,  and  submerged  and  translucent,  or  floating  and  opaque, 
alternate  or  opposite  leaves,  often  with  membranous  united 
stipules.    The  small  flowers   are   borne   above   the   water   in 


(After  Wossidlo.    From  Strasburger's  Lehrbuck  dcr  Botanik.) 

Potamogeton  natans. 

1,  Apex  of  flowering  shoot.  3,  Flower  viewed  from  the  side. 

2,  Flower  viewed  from  above.        4,  Diagram  of  flower. 

axillary  or  terminal  spikes;  they  have  four  stamens,  which  bear 
at  the  back  four  small  herbaceous  petal-like  structures,  and 
four  free  carpels,  which  ripen  to  form  four  small  green  fleshy 
fruits,  each  containing  one  seed  within  a  hard  inner  coat; 
the  seed  contains  a  large  hooked  embryo.  An  allied  genus 
Zannichellia  (named  after  Zanichelli,  a  Venetian  botanist), 
occurring  in  fresh  and  brackish  ditches  and  pools  in  Britain, 
and  also  widely  distributed  in  temperate  and  tropical  regions, 
is  known  as  horned  pondweed,  from  the  curved  fruit. 

PONIARD,  a  dagger,  particularly  one  of  small  size,  used  for 
stabbing  at  close  quarters.     The  French  word  poignard,  from 


PONIATOWSKI-^PONS 


6i 


which  the  English  is  a  16th-century  adaptation,  is  formed  from 
poing,  fist,  the  clenched  hand  in  which  the  weapon  is  grasped. 
(See  Bagger.) 

PONIATOWSKI,  the  name  of  a  Polish  princely  family  of 
Italian  origin,  tracing  descent  from  Giuseppe  Torelli,  who 
married  about  1650  an  heiress  of  the  Lithuanian  family  of 
Poniator,  whose  name  he  assumed.  1  '       ' 

The  first  of  the  Poniatowskis  to  distinguish  himself  was 
Stanislaus  Poniatowski  (1677^1762),  who  only  belonged  to 
the  family  by  adoption,  being  the  reputed  son  of  Prince  Sapieha 
and  a  Jewess.  He  was  born  at  Dereczyn  in  Lithuania,  and  was 
adopted  by  Sapieha's  intendant,  Poniatowski.  With  his  father 
he  attached  himself  to  the  party  of  Stanislaus  Leszczynski,  and 
became  major-general  in  the  army  of  Charles  XII.  of  Sweden. 
After  the  defeat  of  Pultowa  he  conveyed  Charles  XII.  across 
the  Dnieper,  and  remained  with  him  at  Bender.  From  there 
he  was  sent  to  Constantinople,  where  he  extracted  from  the 
sultan  Achmet  III.  a  promise  to  march  to  Moscow.  When  the 
grand  vizier,  Baltagi  Mehemet,  permitted  the  tsar  Peter  I.  to 
retreat  unharmed  from  the  banks  of  the  Pruth,  Poniatowski 
exposed  his  treason.  He  rejoined  Leszczynski  in  the  duchy 
of  Zweibriicken,  Bavaria,  of  which  he  became  governor. 
After  the  death  of  Charles  XII.  in  1718  he  visited  Sweden; 
and  was  subsequently  reconciled  with  Leszczynski's  rival  on 
the  throne  of  Poland,  Augustus  II.,  who  made  him  grand 
treasurer  of  Lithuania  in  1724.  On  the  death  of  Augustus  II. 
he  tried  to  secure  the  reinstatement  of  Leszczynski,  who  then 
resumed  his  claims  to  the  Pohsh  crown.  He  was  taken  prisoner 
at  Danzig  by  the  Russians,  and  presently  gave  his  allegiance 
to  Augustus  III.,  by  whom  he  was  made  governor  of  Cracow. 
He  died  at  Ryki  on  the  3rd  of  August  1762. 

His  second  son  Stanislaus  Augustus  became  king  of  Poland 
(see  Stanislaus  II.).  Of  the  other  sons,  Casimir  (1721-1780) 
was  his  brother's!  chancellor;  Andrew  (1735-1773)  entered  the 
Austrian  service, ,  xising  to  the  rank  of  feldzeugmeister;i  and 
Michael  (1736^1794)  became  archbishop  of  Gneseh  and  primate 
of  Poland.  Joseph  Anthony  Poniatowski  (?.».),  son  of  Andrew, 
became  one  of  Napoleon's  marshals.  .  1;  i 

Stanislaus  Poniatowski  (1757-1833),  son  of  'Casimir, 
shared  in  the  aggrandisement  of  the  family  during  the  reign  of 
Stanislaus  II.,  becoming  grand  treasurer  of  Lithuania,  starost 
of  Podolia  and  Heutenant-general  of  the  royal  army.  In  1793 
he  settled  in  Vienna,  and  subsequently  in  Rome,  where  he  made 
a  magnificent  collection  of  antique  gems  in  his  house  on  the 
ViaElaminia.  This  collection  was  sold  at  Christie's  in  London 
in  May  1839.  He  died  in  Florence  on  the  13th  of  February 
1833,  and  with  him  the  Pohsh  and  Austrian  honours  became 
extinct.  ■  ; 

His  natural,  but  recognized,  son,  Joseph  Michael  Xavier 
Francis  John  Poniatowski  (1816-1873),  was  born  at  Rome 
and  in  1847  was  naturalized  as  a  Tuscan  subject.  He  received 
the  title  of  prince  in  Tuscany  ■(r847)  and  in  Austria  (1850). 
He  had  studied  music  under  Ceccherini  at  Florence;  and  wrote 
numerous  operas,  in  the  first  of  which,  Giovanni  di  Procida, 
he  sang  the  title  role  himself  at  Lucca  in  1838.  He  represented 
the  court  of  Tuscany  in  Paris  from  1848,  and  he  was  made  a 
senator  by  Napoleon  III.,  whom  he  followed  to.  England  in 
1871.  His  last  opera,,  Gelmina,  was  produced  at  Covent  Gardeh 
in  1872.  He  died  on  the  3rd  of  July  1873,,  and  was  buried  at 
Chislehurst..  His  son;  Prince  Stanislaus  Augustus,  married  and 
settled'  in  Paris.  He  was  equerry  to  Napoleon  III.,  and  died 
in  January  1908.  -       j  i 

PONIATOWSKI,  JOSEPH  ANTHONY  (i763-r8i3),^  Polish 
prince  and  marshal  of  France,  son  of  Andrew  Poniatowski'and  the 
countess  Theresa  Kinsky,  was  born  at  Warsaw  in  1763.  Adopt- 
ing a  military  career,  he  joined  the  Imperial  army  when  Austria 
declared  war  against  the  Turks  in  1788,  and  distinguished 
himself  at  the  storming  of  Sabac  on  the  25th  of  April,  where 
he  was ' seriously  wounded.  iRecaHed  by  .his  uncle  King' Stanis- 
laus when  the  Polish  army  was  reorganized,  he  received  the'  rank 
of  major-general,  and  subsequently  that  of  lieutenant-general, 
and   devoted   himself  1  zealously   to   the  improvement   of   the 


national  forces.  In  1789,  when  Poland  was  threatened  by  the 
armed  intervention  of  Russia,  he  was  appointed  commander  of 
the  Ukraine  division  at  Braclaw  on  Bug.  After  the  proclama- 
tion of  the  constitution  of  the  3rd  of  May  1791  he  was 
appointed  commander-in-chief,  with  instructions  to  guard  the 
banks  of  the  Dniester  and  Dnieper.  On  the  outbreak  of  the 
war  with  Russia,.  Prince  Joseph,  aided  by  Kosciuszko,  displayed 
great  ability.  Obliged  constantly  to  retreat,  but  disputing 
every  point  of  vantage,  he  turned  on  the  pursuer  whenever 
he  pressed  too  closely,  and  won  several  notable  victories.  At 
Polonna  the  Russians  were  repulsed  with  the  loss  of  3000  men; 
at  Dubienka  the  line  of  the  Bug  was  defended  for  five  days 
against  fourfold  odds;  at  Zielence  the  Poles  won  a  stiU  more 
signal  victory.  Finally  the  Polish  arms  converged  upon  Warsaw, 
and  were  preparing  for  a  general  engagement  when  a  courier 
from  the  capital  informed  the  generals  that  the  king  had  acceded 
to  the  confederation  of  Targowica  (see  Poland:  History)  and 
had  at  the  same  time  guaranteed  the  adhesion  of  the  army. 
All  hostilities  were  therefore  to  be  suspended.  After  an  indig- 
nant but  fruitless  protest,  Poniatowski  and  most  of  the  other 
generals  threw  up  their  commissions  and  emigrated.  During 
the  Kosciuszko  rising  he  again  fought  gallantly  for  his  country 
under  his  former  subordinate,  and  after  the  fall  of  the  republic 
resided  as  a  private  citizen  at  Warsaw  for  the  next  ten  years. 
After  Jena  and  the  evacuation  of  the  Polish  provinces  by 
Prussia,  Poniatowski  was  offered  the  command  of  the  National 
Guard;  he  set  about  reorganizing  the  Pohsh  army,  and  on  the 
creation  of  the  grand  duchy  of  Warsaw  was  nominated  war 
minister.  During  the  war  of  1809,  when  an  Austrian  army 
corps  under  the  archduke  Ferdinand  invaded  the  grand  duchy, 
Poniatowski  encountered .  them  at  the  bloody  battle  of  Radzyn, 
and  though  compelled  to  abandon  Warsaw  ultimately  forced 
the  enemy  to  evacuate  the  grand  duchy,  and  captured  Cracow. 
In  Napoleon's  campaign  against  Russia  in  181 2  Poniatowski 
commanded  the  fifth  army  corps;  and  after  the  disastrous 
retreat  of  the  grand  army,  when  many  of  the  Poles  began  to  waver 
in  their  allegiance,  to  Napoleon,  Poniatowski  remained  faithful 
and  formed  a  new  PoHsh  army  of  13,000  men  with  which  he 
joined  the  emperor  at  Liitzen.  In  the  campaign  of  1813  he 
guarded  the  passes  of  the  Bohemian  mountains  and  defended 
the  left  bank  of  the  Elbe.  As  a  reward  for  his  brilliant  services 
at  the  three  days'  battle  of  Leipzig  he  was  made  a  marshal  of 
France  and  entrusted  with  the  honourable  but  dangerous  duty 
of  covering  the  retreat  of  the  army.  Poniatowski  heroically 
defended  Leipzig,  losing  half  his  corps  in  the  attempt,  finally 
falling  back  slowly  upon  the  bridge  over  the  Elster  which  the 
French  in  the  general  confusion  blew  up  before  he  reached  it. 
Contesting  every  step  with  the  overwhelming  forces  of  the 
pursuer's,  he  refused  to  surrender,  and  covered  with  wounds 
plunged  into  the  river,  where  he  died  fighting  to  the  last.  His 
relics  were  conveyed  to  Poland  and  buried  in  Cracow  Cathedral, 
where  he  Ues  by  the  side  of  Tadeusz  Kosciuszko  and  Jan  Sobieski. 
Poniatowski's  Mes  souvenirs  sur  la  campagnej,e  i'^g2  (Lemberg, 
1863)  is  a  valuable  historical  document. 

See  Stanislaw  Kostka  Boguslawski,  Life  of  Prince  Joseph  Ponia- 
towski (Pol,;  Warsaw,  1831);  Franciszek  Paszkowski,  Pritice  Joseph 
Poniatowski  (Pol.;  Cracow,  1898);  Correspondence  of  Poniatowski 
(ed.  E.  Raczynski,  Posen,  1843) ;  Bronislaw  Dembinski,  Stanislaus 
Augustus  and  Prince  Joseph  Poniatowski  in  the  light  of  their  Corre- 
spondence (Fr. ;  Lemberg,  1904);  Szymon  Askenazy,  Prince 
Joseph  Poniatowski  (Pol.;  Warsaw,  1905).  (R.  N.  B,) 

PONS,  JEAN  LOUIS  (1761-1831),  French  astronomer,  was 
born  at  Peyres  (Hautes  Alpes)'  on  the  24th  of  December  1761. 
He  entered  the  Marseilles  observatory  in  1789,  and  in  1819 
became  the  director  of  the  new  observatory  at  Marha  near 
Lucca,  which  he  left  in  1825  for  the  observatory  of  the  museum 
at  Florence.  Here  he  died  on  the  14th  of  October  1831. 
Between  1861  and,  1827  Pons  discovered  thirty-seven  comets,  one 
of  which  (observed  on  the  26th  of  November  1818)  was  named 
after  J.  F.  Encke,  who  determined  its  remarkably  short  period. 

See  M.  R.  A.  Henrion,  Annuaire  hiographigue,  i.  288  (Paris,  1834) ; 
Memoirs  Roy.  Astron.  Soc.  v.  410;  R.  Wolf,  Geschichte  def 
Astronomie,  p.  709;  J.  C.  Poggendorff,  Biog.  lit.  Handworterbuch.       ; 


62 


PONSARD— PONTANUS 


PONSARD,  FRANCOIS  (1814-1867),  French  dramatist,  was 
born  at  Vienne,  department  of  Isere,  on  the  ist  of  June  1814. 
He  was  bred  a  lawyer,  and  his  first  performance  in  literature 
was  a  translation  of  Manfred  (1837).  His  play  Lucrece  was 
represented  at  the  Thedtre  Franqais  on  the  ist  of  April  1843. 
This  date  is  a  kind  of  epoch  in  hterature  and  dramatic 
history,  because  it  marked  a  reaction  against  the  romantic 
style  of  Dumas  and  Hugo.  He  received  in  1845  the  prize 
awarded  by  the  Academy  for  a  tragedy  "  to  oppose  a  dike  to 
the  waves  of  romanticism."  Ponsard  adopted  the  Kberty  of 
the  romantics  with  regard  to  the  unities  of  time  and  place,  but 
he  reverted  to  the  more  sober  style  of  earlier  French  drama. 
The  tastes  and  capacities  of  the  greatest  tragic  actress  of  the 
day,  Rachel,  suited  his  methods,  and  this  contributed  greatly 
to  his  own  popularity.  He  followed  up  Lucrece  with  Agnes  de 
Meranie  (1846),  Charlotte  Corday  (1850),  and  others.  Ponsard 
accepted  the  empire,  though  with  no  very  great  enthusiasm, 
and  received  the  post  of  hbrarian  to  the  senate,  which,  however, 
he  soon  resigned,  fighting  a  bloodless  duel  with  a  journalist  on 
the  subject.  L'Honneur  et  I'argent,  one  of  his  most  successful 
plays,  was  acted  in  1853,  and  he  became  an  Academician  in 
1855.  For  some  years  he  did  little,  but  in  1866  he  obtained 
great  success  with  Le  Lion  amoureux,  another  play  dealing  with 
the  revolutionary  epoch.  His  Galilee,  which  excited  great 
opposition  in  the  clerical  camp,  was  produced  early  in  1867. 
He  died  in  Paris  on  the  7th  of  July  of  the  same  year,  soon  after 
his  nomination  to  the  commandership  of  the  Legion  of  Honour. 
Most  of  Ponsard's  plays  hold  a  certain  steady  level  of  literary 
and  dramatic  ability,  but  his  popularity  is  in  the  main  due  to 
the  fact  that  his  appearance  coincided  with  a  certain  pubhc 
weariness  of  the  extravagant  and  unequal  style  of  1830. 

His  CEuwes  completes  were  published  in  Paris  (3  vols.,  1865- 
1876).  See  La  Pin  du  theatre  romantique  et  Frangois  Ponsard  d'aprh 
des  documents  inedits  (1899),  by  C.  Latreille. 

PONSONBY,  JOHN  (1713-1789),  Irish  politician,  second  son 
of  Brabazon  Ponsonby,  ist  earl  of  Bessborough,  was  born  on 
the  29th  of  March  1713.  In  1739  he  entered  the  Irish  parliament 
and  in  1744  he  became  first  commissioner  of  the  revenue;  in 
1746  he  was  appointed  a  privy  councillor,  and  in  1756  Speaker 
of  the  Irish  House  of  Commons.  Belonging  to  one  of  the  great 
famihes  which  at  this  time  monopolized  the  government  of 
Ireland,  Ponsonby  was  one  of  the  principal  "  undertakers,"  men 
who  controlled  the  whole  of  the  king's  business  in  Ireland,  and 
he  retained  the  chief  authority  untU  the  marquess  Townshend 
became  lord-Heutenant  in  1767.  Then  followed  a  struggle 
for  supremacy  between  the  Ponsonby  faction  and  the  party 
dependent  on  Townshend,  one  result  of  this  being  that  Ponsonby 
resigned  the  speakership  in  1771.  He  died  on  the  12th  of 
December  1789.  His  wife  was  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  William 
Cavendish,  3rd  duke  of  Devonshire,  a  connexion  which  was  of 
great  importance  to  the  Ponsonbys. 

Ponsonby's  third  son,  George  Ponsonby  (1755-1817),  lord 
chancellor  of  Ireland,  was  born  on  the  sth  of  March  1755  and 
was  educated  at  Trinity  College,  Cambridge.  A  barrister,  he 
became  a  member  of  the  Irish  parliament  in  1776  and  was 
chancellor  of  the  Irish  exchequer  in  i7§2,  afterwards  taking 
a  prominent  part  in  the  debates  on  the  question  of  Roman 
CathoUc  reUef,  and  leading  the  opposition  to  the  union  of  the 
parliaments.  After  1800  Ponsonby  represented  Wicklow  and 
then  Tavistock  in  the  united  parliament;  in  1806  he  was  lord 
chancellor  of  Ireland,  and  from  1808  to  181 7  he  was  the  official 
leader  of  the  opposition  in  the  House  of  Commons.  He  left  an 
only  daughter  when  he  died  in  London  on  the  8th  of  July  1817. 

George  Ponsonby's  elder  brother,  William  Brabazon 
Ponsonby,  ist  Baron  Ponsonby  (1744-1806),  was  also  a  leading 
Whig  politician,  being  a  member  of  the  Irish,  and  after  1800,  of 
the  British  parHament.  In  1806  shortly  before  his  death  he 
was  created  Baron  Ponsonby  of  Imokilly.  Three  of  his  sons 
were  men  of  note.  The  eldest  was  John  (c.  1770-1855),  who 
succeeded  to  the  barony  and  was  created  a  viscount  in  1839; 
he  was  ambassador  at  Constantinople  from  1832  to  1837  and 
at  Vienna  from  1846  to  1850.     The  second  son  was  Major- 


General  Sir  William  Ponsonby  (1772-1815),  who,  after  serving 
in  the  Peninsular  War,  was  killed  at  the  battle  of  Waterloo 
whilst  leading  a  brigade  of  heavy  cavalry.  Another  son  was 
Richard  Ponsonby  (1772-1853),  bishop  of  Derry.  Sir  WiUiam 
Ponsonby's  posthumous  son  Wilham  (1816-1861)  became  3rd 
Baron  Ponsonby  on  the  death  of  his  uncle  John,  Viscount 
Ponsonby;  he  died  childless  and  was  succeeded  by  his  cousin 
Wilham  Brabazon  Ponsonby  (1807-1866),  only  son  of  the  bishop 
of  Derry,  on  whose  death  the  barony  of  Ponsonby  became  extinct. 

Among  other  members  of  this  family  may  be  mentioned  Major- 
General  Sir  Frederick  Cavendish  Ponsonby  (1783-1837),  son  of 
the  3rd  earl  of  Bessborough,  a  soldier  who  distinguished  himself 
at  the  battles  of  Talavera,  Salamanca  and  Vittoria,  in  the 
Peninsular  War,  and  was  wounded  at  Waterloo;  he  was  governor 
of  Malta  from  1826  to  1835.  His  eldest  son.  Sir  Henry  Frederick 
Ponsonby  (1825-1895),  a  soldier  who  served  in  the  Crimea,  is 
best  remembered  as  private  secretary  to  Queen  Victoria  from 
1870  until  a  few  months  before  his  death. 

PONSON  DU  TERRAIL  [Pierre  Alexis  de  Ponson], 
VicoMTE  DE  (1829-1871),  French  romance  writer,  was  born  at 
Montmaur  (Isere)  on  the  8th  of  July  1829.  He  was  a  prolific 
novelist,  producing  in  the  space  of  two  years  some  seventy- 
three  volumes.  Among  his  most  successful  productions  were 
Les  Coulisses  du  monde  (1853),  Exploits  de  Rocambole  (1859), 
Les  Drames  de  Paris  (1865)  and  Le  Forger  on  de  la  Cour-Dieu 
(1869).     He  died  at  Bordeaux  on  the  20th  of  January  1871. 

PONT  (or  Kylpont),  ROBERT  (1524-1606),  Scotrish  reformer, 
was  educated  at  St  Andrews.  In  1562  he  was  appointed 
minister  at  Dunblane  and  then  at  Dunkeld;  in  1563,  commis- 
sioner for  Moray,  Inverness  and  Banfi.  Then  in  succession 
he  became  minister  of  Birnie  (1567),  provost  of  Trinity  College 
near  Edinburgh  (i57i),a  lord  of  session  (1572),  minister  of  St 
Cuthbert's,  Edinburgh  (1573)  and  at  St  Andrews  (1581).  Pont 
was  a  strenuous  champion  of  ecclesiastical  independence,  and 
for  protesting  against  parhamentary  interference  in  church 
government  he  was  obliged  to  leave  his  country.  From  1584 
to  1586  he  was  in  England,  but  returning  north  he  resumed  his 
prominence  in  church  matters  and  kept  it  until  his  death  in 
1606.  His  elder  son  Timothy  Pont  (i56o?-i6i4?)  was  a  good 
mathematician,  surveyor,  and  "  the  first  projector  of  a  Scottish 
atlas." 

PONTA  DELGADA,  the  capital  of  an  administrative  district, 
comprising  the  islands  of  St  Michael's  and  St  Mary  in  the 
Portuguese  archipelago  of  the  Azores.  Pop.  (1900),  17,620. 
Ponta  Delgada  is  built  on  the  south  coast  of  St  Michael's,  in 
37°  40'  N.  and  25°  36'  W.  Its  mild  dimate,  and  the  fine  scenery 
of  its  mountain  background,  render  it  very  attractive  to  visitors; 
it  is  the  commercial  centre,  and  the  most  populous  city  of  the 
archipelago.  Besides  the  cathedral,  it  contains  several  inter- 
esting churches  and  monasteries,  and  an  observatory.  Formerly 
its  natural  inner  harbour  only  admitted  vessels  of  light  draught, 
while  larger  ships  were  compelled  to  anchor  in  an  open  road- 
stead, which  was  inaccessible  during  the  prevalence  of  southerly 
gales.  But  great  improvements  were  effected  after  i860  by 
the  construction  of  a  breakwater  2800  ft.  long. 

PONT-A-MOUSSON,  a  town  of  northern  France  in  the  depart- 
ment of  Meurthe-et-MoseUe,  17  m.  N.N.W.  of  Nancy  by  rail. 
Pop.  (1906),  12,282.  The  Moselle,  which  is  canalized,  divides 
the  town  into  two  quarters,  united  by  a  bridge  of  the  late  i6th 
century.  The  church  of  St  Martin,  dating  from  the  13th,  14th 
and  15th  centuries,  has  a  handsome  fagade  with  two  towers, 
and  in  the  interior  a  choir  screen  and  Holy  Sepulchre  of  the  isth 
century.  The  lower  ecclesiastical  seminary  occupies  the  build- 
ing of  an  old  Premonstratensian  convent.  There  are  several 
interesting  old  houses.  The  town  has  a  communal  college  and 
engineering  workshops,  blast  furnaces,  and  manufactures  of 
lacquered  ware,  paper,  cardboard,  cables  and  iron-ware.  Dating 
from  the  9th  or  loth  century,  Pont-^-Mousson  constituted  a 
lordship,  which  was  made  a  marquisate  in  1354.  It  was  from 
1572  to  1763  the  seat  of  a  well-known  university. 

PONTANUS,  JOVIANUS  (1426-1503),  Itahan  humanist  and 
poet,  was  born  in   1426  at  Cerreto  in  the  duchy  of  Spoleto, 


PONTARLIER— PONTECOULANT 


63 


where  his  father  was  murdered  in  one  of  the  frequent  civil 
brawls  which  then  disturbed  the  peace  of  Italian  towns.  His 
mother  escaped  with  the  boy  to  Perugia,  and  it  was  here, that 
Pontano  received  his  first  instruction  in  languages  and  literature. 
Failing  to  recover  his  patrimony,  he  abandoned  Umbria,  and 
at  the  age  of  twenty-two  established  himself  at  Naples,  which 
continued  to  be  his  chief  place  of  residence  during  a  long  and 
prosperous  career.  He  here  began  a  close  friendship  with  the 
distinguished  scholar,  Antonio  BeccadeUi,  through  whose  in- 
fluence he  gained  admission  to  the  royal  chancery  of  Alphonso 
the  Magnanimous.  Alphonso  discerned  the  singular  gifts  of 
the  young  scholar,  and  made,  him  tutor  to  his  sons.  Pontano's 
connexion  with  the  Aragonese  dynasty  as  political  adviser, 
military  secretary  and  chancellor  was  henceforth  a  close  one; 
and  the  most  doubtful  passage  in  his  diplomatic  career  is  when 
he  welcomed  Charles  VIII.  of  France  upon  the  entry  of  that  king 
into  Naples  in  1495,  thus  showing  that  he  was  too  ready  to 
abandon  the  princes  upon  whose  generosity  his  fortunes  had  been 
raised.  Pontano  illustrates  in  a  marked  manner  the  position 
of  power  to  which  men  of  letters  and  learning  had  arrived  in 
Italy.  He  entered  Naples  as  a  penniless  scholar.  He  was 
almost  immediately  made  the  companion  and  trusted  friend  of 
its  sovereign,  loaded  with  honours,  lodged  in  a  fine  house, 
enrolled  among  the  nobles  of  the  realm,  enriched,  and  placed  at 
the  very  height  of  social  importance.  Following  the  example  of 
Poriiponio  Leto  in  Rome  and  of  Cosimo  de'  Medici  at  Florence, 
Pontano  founded  an  academy  for  the  meetings  of  learned  and 
distinguished  men.  This  became  the  centre  of  fashion  as  well 
as  of  erudition  in  the  southern  capital,  and  subsisted  long  after 
its  founder's  death.  In  1461  he  married  his  first  wife,  Adriana 
Sassone,  who  bore  him  one  son  and  three  daughters  before  her 
death  in  149 1.  Nothing  distinguished  Pontano  more  than  the 
strength  of  his  domestic  feeling.  He  was  passionately  attached 
to  his  wife  and  children;  and,  while  his  friend  BeccadeUi  signed 
the  licentious  verses  of  Hermaphroditus,  his  own  Muse  celebrated 
in  liberal  but  loyal  strains  the  pleasures  of  conjugal  afEection, 
the  charm  of  infancy  and  the  sorrows  of  a  husband  and  a  father 
in  the  loss  of  those  he  loved.  Not  long  after  the  death  of  his 
first'  wife  Pontano  took  in  second  marriage  a  beautiful  girl  of 
Ferrara,  who  is  only  known  to  us  under  the  name  of  Stella. 
Although  he  was  at  least  sixty-five  years  of  age  at  this  period, 
his  poetic  faculty  displayed  itself  with  rriore  than  usual  warmth 
and  lustre  in  the  glowing  series  of  elegies,  styled  Eridanus, 
which  he  poured  forth  to  commemorate  the  rapture  of  this 
union.  Stella's' one  child,  Lucilio,  survived  his  birth  but  fifty 
days;  nor  did  his  mother  long  remain  to  comfort  the  scholar's 
old  age.  Pontano  had  already  lost  his  only  son  by  the  first 
marriage;  therefore  his  declining  years  were  solitary.  He  died 
in  1503  at  Naples,  where  a  remarkable  group  of  terra-cotta 
figures,  life-sized  and  painted,  still  adorns  his  tomb  in  the  church 
of  Monte  Oliveto.  He  is  there  represented  together  with  his 
patron  Alphonso  and  his  friend  Sannazzaro  in  adoration  before 
the  dead  Christ. 

As  a  diplomatist  and  state  official  Pontano  played  a  part  of 
some  importance  in  the  affairs  of  southern  Italy  and  in  the 
Barons'  War,  the  wars  with  Rome,  and  the  expulsion  and  restora- 
tion of  the  Aragonese  dynasty.  But  his  chief  claim  upon  the 
attentions  of  posterity  is  a,s  a  scholar.  His  writings  divide 
themselves  into  dissertations  upon  such  topics  as  the  "  Liberality 
of  Princes  "  or  "Ferocity,"  comfjosed  in  the  rhetorical  style  of 
the  day,  and  poems.  He  was  distinguished  for  energy  of  Latin 
style,  for  vigorous  intellectual  powers,  and  for  the  faculty,  rare 
among  his  contemporaries,  of  expressing  the  facts  of  modern 
life,  the  actualities  of  personal  emotion,  in  language  sufficiently 
classical  yet  always  characteristic  of  the  man.  His  prose 
treatises  are  more  useful  to  students  of  manners  than  the  similar 
lucubrations  of  Poggio.  Yet  it  was  principally  as  a  Latin  poet 
that  he  exhibited  his  full  strength.  An  ambitious  didactic 
composition  in  hexameters,  entitled  Urania,  embodying  the 
astronomical  science  of  the  age,  and  adorning  this  high  theme 
with  brilliant  mythological  episodes,  won  the  admiration  of 
Italy:     It    still    remains    a    monument    of   fertile    invention, 


exuberant  facility  and  energetic  handling  of  material.  Not  less 
excellent  is  the  didactic  poem  on  orange  trees,  De  hortis  Hesperi- 
dum.  His  most  original  compositions  in  verse,  however,  are 
elegiac  and  hendecasyllabic  pieces  on  personal  topics — the  De 
conjugali  amore,  Eridanus,  Tumuli,  Naeniae,  Baiae,  &c. — in 
which  he  uttered  his  vehemently  passionate  emotions  with  a 
warmth  of  southern  colouring,  an  evident  sincerity,  and  a  truth 
of  painting  from  reality  which  excuse  their  erotic  freedom. 

Pontano's  prose  and  poems  were  printed  by  the  Aldi  at  Venice. 
For  his  life  see  Ardito,  Giovanni  Pontano  e  i  suoi  tempi  (Naples, 
1871);  for  his  place  in  the  history  of  literature,  Symonds,  Renais- 
sance in  Italy.  (J.  A.  S.) 

PONTARLIER,  a  frontier  town  of  eastern  France,  capital  of 
an  arrondissement  in  the  department  of  Doubs,  36  m.  S.E.  of 
Besangon  by  road.  Pop.  (1906),  7896.  It  is  situated  2750  ft. 
above  sea-level  on  the  Doubs,  about  four  miles  from  the  Swiss 
frontier,  and  forms  an  important  strategic  point  at  the  mouth 
of  the  defile  of  La  Cluse,  one  of  the  principal  passes  across  the 
Jura.  The  pass  is  defended  by  the  modern  fort  of  Larmont, 
and  by  the  Fort  de  Joux,  which  was  originally  built  in  the  loth 
century  by  the  family  of  Joux  and  played  a  conspicuous  part 
in  the  history  of  Franche-Comte.  Pontarlier  is  the  junction 
of  railway  lines  to  Neuchatel,  Lausanne,  Lons-le-Saunier,  Dole 
and  Besangon.  A  triumphal  arch  of  the  i8th  century  com- 
memorates the  reconstruction  of  the  town  after  the  destructive 
fire  of  1736.  It  was  at  Pontarlier  that  the  French  army  of  the 
East  made  its  last  stand  against  the  Prussians  in  187 1  before 
crossing  the  Swiss  frontier.  The  distillation  of  herbs,  extensively 
cultivated  for  the  manufacture  of  absinthe,  kirsch  and  other 
liqueurs,  is  the  chief  industry.  The  town  is  the  seat  of  a  sub- 
prefect  and  has  a  tribunal  of  first  instance  and  a  communal 
college. 

PONT  AUDEMER,  a  town  of  north-western  France,  capital 
of  an  arrondissement  in  the  department  of  Eure,  39  m.  N.W. 
of  Evreux,  on  the  Risle,  a  left-bank  affluent  of  the  Seine,  and 
on  the  railway  from  Evreux  to  Honfleur.  Pop.  (1906),  5700. 
The  church  of  St  Ouen,  which  has  fine  stained  glass  of  the 
16th  century,  combines  the  late  Gothic  and  Renaissance  styles; 
its  choir  is  Romanesque.  Local  institutions  are  the  sub-prefec- 
ture, a  tribunal  of  first  instance,  a  board  of  trade-arbitration,  a 
chamber  and  tribunal  of  commerce.  Manufacturing  industry 
is  active,  and  includes  the  founding  of  malleable  metal,  a  spur 
factory,  the  manufacture  of  glue  and  paper,  cotton-spinning 
and  various  branches  of  leather  manufacture.  There  is  trade 
in  flax,  wool,  grain,  cattle,  cider,  paper,  iron,  wood  and  coal. 
The  port  has  a  length  of  over  half  a  mile  on  the  Risle,  which  is 
navigable  for  small  vessels  from  this  point  to  its  mouth  (10  m.). 
The  town  owes  its  name  to  Audomar,  a  Frank  lord,  who  in 
the  7th  or  8th  century  built  a  bridge  over  the  Risle  at  this  point. 
It  was  the  scene  of  several  provincial  ecclesiastical  councils  in 
the  12th  and  13th  centuries  and  of  meetings  of  the  estates  of 
Normandy  in  the  13th  century. 

PONTE  (Ital.  for  "  bridge  "),  a  rough  game  peculiar  to  the 
city  of  Pisa,  in  which  the  players,  divided  into  two  sides 
and  provided  with  padded  costumes,  contended  for  the 
possession  of  one  of  the  bridges  over  the  Arno.  The  weapon 
used,  both  for  offence  and  defence,  was  a  kind  of  shield  which 
served  as  a  club  as  well. 

A  history  and  description  of  the  game  may  be  found  in  William 
Heywood's  Palio  and  Ponte  (London,  1904). 

PONTECORVO,  a  city  of  Campania,  Italy,  in  the  province  of 
Caserta,  on  the  Garigliano,  about  48  m.  from  Caserta  and  3  m. 
from  Aquino  on  the  railway  from  Rome  to  Naples.  Pop.  (1901), 
10,518  (town);  12,492  (commune).  The  town  is  approached  by 
a  triumphal  arch  adorned  with  a  statue  of  Pius  IX.  The  princi- 
pality of  Pontecorvo  (about  40  sq.  m.  in  extent),  once  an  indepen- 
dent state,  belonged  alternately  to  the  Tomacelli  and  the  abbots 
of  Monte  Cassino.  Napoleon  bestowed  it  on  Bernadotte  in  1806, 
and  in  1810  it  was  incorporated  with  the  French  Empire. 

PONTiCOULANT,  LOUIS  GUSTAVE  LE  DOULCET,  Comte 
DE  (1764-1853),  French  politician,  was  born  at  Caen  on  the  17th 
of  November  1764.     He  began  a  career  in  the  army  in  1778. 


64 


PONTEFRACT 


A  moderate  supporter  of  the  revolution,  he  was  returned  to  the 
Convention  for  the  department  of  Calvados  in  1792,  and  became 
commissary  with  the  army  of  the  North.  He  voted  for  the 
imprisonment  of  Louis  XVI.  during  the  war,  and  his  banishment 
after  the  peace.  He  then  attached  himself  to  the  party  of  the 
Gironde,  and  in  August  1793  was  outlawed.  He  had  refused  to 
defend  his  compatriot  Charlotte  Corday,  who  wrote  him  a  letter 
of  reproach  on  her  way  to  the  scafiold.  He  returned  to  the 
Convention  on  the  8th  of  March  1795,  and  showed  an, unusual 
spirit  of  moderation  by  defending  Prieur  de  la  Marne  and  Robert 
Lindet.  President  of  the  Convention  in  July  1795,  he  was  for 
some  months  a  member  of  the  council  of  pubhc  safety.  He 
was  subsequently  elected  to  the  council  of  five  hundred,  but  was 
suspected  of  royalist  leanings,  and  had  to  spend  some  time  in 
retirement  before  the  estabhshment  of  the  consulate.  Becoming 
senator  in  1805,  and  count  of  the  empire  in  1808,  he  organized 
the  national  guard  in  Franche  Comte  in  1811,  and  the  defence 
of  the  north-eastern  frontier  in  1 813.  At  the  first  restoration 
Louis  XVIII.  made  him  a  peer  of  France,  and  although  he 
received  a  similar  honour  from  Napoleon  during  the  Hundred 
Days,  he  sat  in  the  upper  house  under  the  Second  Restoration. 
He  died  in> Paris  on  the  3rd  of  April  1853,  leaving  memoirs  and 
correspondence  from  which  were  extracted  four  volumes  (1861- 
1865)  of  Souvenirs  historiques  et  parlementaires  1^64-1848. 

His  son  Louis  Adolphe  Le  Doulcet,  comte  de  Pontecoulant 
(1794-1882),  served  under  Napoleon  in  1812  and  1814,  and  then 
emigrated  to  Brazil,  where  he  took  part  in  the  abortive  insurrec- 
tion at  Pernambuco  in  181 7.  He  also  organized  a  French 
volunteer  contingent  in  the  Belgian  revolution  of  1830,  and  was 
wounded  at  Louvain.  The  rest  of  his  life  was  spent  in  Paris 
in  the  study  of  ancient  music  and  acoustics.  Among  his  works 
was  one  on  the  Musee  instrumental  du  conservatoire  de  musique 
(1864).  A  younger  brother,  Philippe  Gustave  Le  Doulcet, 
comte  de  Pontecoulant  (i 795-1874),  served  in  the  army  until 
1849,  when  he  retired  to  devote  himself  to  mathematics  and 
astronomy.  His  works  include  TMorie  analytique  du  systeme 
du  monde  (Paris,  1829-1846)  and  Traite  elementaire  de  physique 
celeste  (2  vols.,  Paris,  1840). 

PONTEFRACT  (pronounced  and  sometimes  written  "  Pom- 
fret  "),  a  market  town  and  municipal  and  parKamentary  borough 
in  the  West  Riding  of  Yorkshire,  England,  21  m.  S.S.W.  from 
York,  served  by  the  Midland,  North-Eastern  and  Lancashire  & 
Yorkshire  railways.  Pop.  (1891),  9702;  (1901),  13,427.  It  is 
well  situated,  mainly  on  an  eminence,  near  the  junction  of  the 
Aire  and  the  Calder.  The  most  important  of  the  antiquarian 
remains  are  the  ruins  of  the  famous  castle  situated  on  a  rocky 
height,  originally  covering  with  its  precincts  an  area  of  over 
8  acres,  and  containing  in  aU  eight  round  towers.  The  remains 
are  principally  of  Norman  date,  and  an  unusual  feature  of  the 
stronghold  is  the  existence  of  various  subterranean  chambers  in 
the  rock.  Below  the  castle  is  AU  Saints  church,  which  suffered 
severely  during  the  siege  of  the  castle,  but  still  retains  some  work 
of  the  1 2th  century.  In  1837  the  tower  and  transepts  were 
fitted  for  divine  service.  The  church  of  St  GUes,  formerly  a 
chapel  of  ease  to  All  Saints,  but  made  parochial  in  the  i8th 
century,  is  of  Norman  date,  but  most  of»the  present  structure 
is  modern.  The  17th-century  spire  was  removed  in  1707,  and 
replaced  by  a  square  tower,  which  was  rebuilt  in  1797;  the  chan- 
cel was  rebuilt  in  1869.  In  Southgate  is  an  ancient  hermitage 
and  oratory  cut  out  of  the  solid  rock,  which  dates  from  1396. 
On  St.  Thomas's  Hill,  where  Thomas,  earl  of  Lancaster,  was 
beheaded  in  1322,  a  chantry  was  erected  in  1373,  the  site  of 
which  is  now  occupied  by  a  windmill  built  of  its  stones.  At 
Monkhill  there  are  the  remains  of  a  Tudor  building  called  the 
Old  Hall,  probably  constructed  out  of  the  old  priory  of  St  John's. 
A  grammar  school  of  ancient  foundation,  renewed  by  Elizabeth 
and  George  III.,  occupies  modern  buildings.  The  town-hall 
was  built  at  the  close  of  the  i8th  century  on  the  site  of  one 
erected  in  1656,  which  succeeded  the  old  moot-hall  dating  from 
Saxon  times.  Among  other  buildings  are  the  court  house,  the 
market  hall,  the  assembly  rooms  (a  handsome  building  adjoining 
the  town-hall),   and  large  barracks.     The  foundation  of  the 


principal  almshouse,  that  of  St  Nicholas,  dates  from  before  the 
Conquest.  Trinity  Hospital  was  founded  by  Sir  Robert  KnoUes 
(d.  1407),  an  eminent  mihtary  commander  in  the -French  wars 
of  Edward  III.  At  Ackworth,  in  the  neighbourhood,  there  is  a 
large  school  of  the  Society  of  Friends  or  Quakers  (1778),  in  the 
foundation  of  which  Dr  John  FothergiU  (17 12-1780)  was  a  prime 
mover.  There  are  extensive  gardens  and  nurseries  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Pontefract,  and  hquorice  is  largely  grown 
for  the  manufacture  of  the  celebrated  Pomfret  cakes.  The 
town  possesses  ironfoundries,  sack  and  matting  manufactories, 
tanneries,  breweries,  corn  mills  and  brick  and  terra-cotta  works. 
The  parliamentary  borough,  falling  within  the  Osgoldcross 
division  of  the  county,  returns  one  member  (before  1885  the 
number  was  two).  The  town  is  governed  by  a  mayor,  six  alder- 
men and  18  councillors.    Area,  4078  acres. 

The  remains  of  a  Roman  camp  have  been  discovered  near 
Pontefract,  but  there  is  no  trace  of  settlement  in  the  town  itself 
until  after  the  Conquest.  At  the  time  of  the  Domesday  Survey 
Tateshall  (now  Tanshelf,  a  suburb  of  the  town)  was  the  chief 
manor  and  contained  60  burgesses,  while  Kirkby,  which  after- 
wards became  the  borough  of  Pontefract,  was  one  of  its  members. 
The  change  was  probably  owing  to  the  fact  that  Ilbert  de  Lacy, 
to  whom  the  Conqueror  had  granted  the  whole  of  the  honour  of 
Pontefract,  founded  a  castle  at  Kirkby,  on  a  site  said  to  have 
been  occupied  by  a  fortification  raised  by  AUric,  a  Saxon  thane. 
Several  reasons  are  given  for  the  change  of  name  but  none  is  at 
all  satisfactory.  One  account  says  that  it  was  caused  by  a 
broken  bridge  which  delayed  the  Conqueror's  advance  to  the 
north,  but  this  is  known  to  have  been  at  Ferrybridge,  three 
miles  away;  a  second  says  that  the  new  name  was  derived  from 
a  Norman  town  called  Pontfrete,  which,  however,  never  existed; 
and  a  third  that  it  was  caused  by  the  breaking  of  a  bridge  in 
1 1 53  on  the  arrival  of  the  archbishop  of  York,  St  WiUiani,  when 
several  people  were  miraculously  preserved  from  drowning, 
although  the  town  was  already  known  as  Pontefract  in  1140 
when  Archbishop  Thurstan  died  there.  The  manor  remained 
in  the  Lacy  family  until  it  passed  by  marriage  to  Thomas,  duke 
of  Lancaster,  who  was  beheaded  on  a  hiU  outside  the  town  after 
the  battle  of  Boroughbridge.  His  estates  were  restored  to  his 
brother  Henry,  earl  of  Lancaster,  on  the  accession  of  Edward  HI., 
and  the  manor  has  since  then  formed  part  of  the  duchy  of 
Lancaster.  The  town  took  part  in  most  of  the  rebellions  in  the 
north  of  England,  and  in  1399  Richard  II.  was  imprisoned  and 
secretly  murdered  in  the  castle.  During  the  Wars  of  the  Roses 
the  town  was  loyal  to  Henry  VI.,  and  several  of  the  Yorkist 
leaders  were  executed  here  after  the  battle  of  Wakefield.  It  was 
taken  by  Robert  Aske,  leader  of  the  Pilgrimage  of  Grace,  in 
1536.  In  1642  the  castle  was  garrisoned  for  Charles  I.  and 
sustained  four  sieges,  the  second,  in  1644,  being  successful, 
but  two  years  later  it  was  retaken  by  the  royahsts,  who  held  it 
until  after  the  execution  of  the  king,  when  they  surrendered  to 
General  Lambert  and  the  castle  was  destroyed. 

Roger  de  Lacy  in  1194  granted  a  charter  to  the  burgesses 
confirming  their  liberties  and  right  to  be  a  free  borough  at  a 
fee-farm  of  i2d.  yearly  for  every  toft,  granting  them  the  same 
privileges  as  the  burgesses  of  Grimsby,  and  that  their  reeve 
should  be  chosen  annually  by  the  lord  of  the  manor  at  his  court 
leet,  preference  being  given  to  the  burgesses  if  they  would  pay 
as  much  as  others  for  the  office.  Henry  de  Lacy  cofirmed  this 
charter  in  1278  and  in  1484  Richard  III.  incorporated  the  town 
under  the  title  of  mayor  and  burgesses  and  granted  a  gild 
merchant  with  a  hanse.  His  charter  was  withdrawn  on  the 
accession  of  Henry  VII.  and  a  similar  one  was  granted,  while  in 
1489  the  king  gave  the  burgesses  licence  to  continue  choosing  a 
mayor  as  they  had  done  in  the  time  of  Richard  III.  In  1606-1607 
James  I.  confirmed  the  charter  of  Henry  VII.  and  regulated  the 
choice  of  the  mayor  by  providing  that  he  should  be  elected  from 
among  the  chief  burgesses  by  the  burgesses  themselves.  The 
privilege  of  returning  two  members  to  parliament  which  had 
belonged  to  Pontefract  at  the  end  of  the  13th  century  was  revived 
in  1620-1621  on  the  grounds  that  the  charter  of  1606-1607 
had  restored  all  their  privileges  to  the  burgesses.     Since   the 


PONTEVEDRA— PONTIAC 


65 


Redistribution  of  Seats  Act  of  1885  one  member  only  has  been 
returned.  Liquorice  was  largely  grown  as  early  as  1 700-1 701, 
when  the  corporation  prohibited'  the  sale  of  buds  or  sets  of 
the  plant.  Richard  III.  by  his  incorporatidn  charter  granted 
the  market  rights  in  the  borough  to  the  burgesses,  who  still 
hold  them  under  his  charter. 

See  Vidoria,  County  History:  Yorkshire;  Eiihtk  Report  of  the  Royal 
Commission  onliislorical  Mq.niiscripts  (1870-18^7)  yBook  of  Entries  of 
the  Pantefract  Corporation,  1653-1726,  (ed.  by  Richard  Holmes,  1882),; 
Benjamin  Boothroyd,  The  History  .of  the  Ancient  Borough  of  Ponte- 
fract  (1807);  George  Foic,  The  History  of  PoMefrdd  (1827). 

PONTEVEDRA,  a  maritime  province  of  north-western  Spain, 
formed  in  1833  of  districts  taken  firom  Galicia,  and  bounded 
on  the  N.  by  Corunna,  E.  by  Lugo  and  Orense,  S.  by  Portugal 
and  W.  by  the  Atlantic.  Pop.  (1900),  457,262;  area,  1695  sq.  m. 
Pontevedra  is  the  smallest  of  the  provinces  of  Spain  except 
the  three  Basque  Provinces;  its  density  of  population,  269-8 
inhabitants  per  square  mile,  is  only  excelled  in  the  provinces  of 
Barcelona  and  Biscay^  (Vizcaya).  Both  of  these  are  mining 
and  manufacturing  districts,  while  Pontevedra  is  dependent 
on  agriculture  arid  fisheries.  The  surface  is  everywhere  moun- 
tainous, and  consists  almost  entirely  of  arable  land,  pasture  or 
forest.  The  coast-line  is  deeply  indented;  navigation  is  rendered 
difficult  by  the  prevalence  of  fogs  in  summer  and  storms  in 
winter.  The  river  Mine  (Portuguese  Minho)  forms  the  southern 
frontier,  and  is  navigable  by  small  ships  as  far  as  Salvatierra; 
and  the  province  is  watered  by  many  smaller  streams,  all  flowing, 
like  the  Mino,  into  the  Atlantic.  The  largest  of  these  are  the 
UUa,  which  separates  Pontevedra  from  Corunna,  the  Umja  and 
the  Lerez.  Pontevedra!  has  a  mild  climate,  a  fertile  soil  and  a 
very  heavy  rainfall.  Large  agricultural  fairs  are  held  in  the 
chief  towns,  arid  there  is  a  considerable  export  trade  in  cattle 
to  Great  Britain  and  Portugal,  hams,  salt  meat  and  fish,  eggs, 
breadstuiis,  leather  and  wine.  Vigo  is  the  headquarters  of 
shipping,  and  one  of  the  chief  ports  of  riorthern  Spain.  There 
are  also  good  harbours  at  Bayona,  Carril,  Marin,  Villagarcia  and 
elsewhere  among  the  dedp  estuaries  of  the  coast.  At  Tuy  the 
Spanish  and  Portuguese  railways-meet,  and  from  this  town  one 
line  goes  up  the  Mino  valley  to  Orense,  and  another  northward 
along  the  coast  to  Santiago  de  Compostela. 

PONTEVEDRA,  the  capital  of  the  Spanish  province  of  Ponte- 
vedra; on  the  Tuy-Corunna  railway,  and  on  the  river  Lerez, 
which  here  enters  the  Ria  de  Pontevedra,  an  inlet  of  the  Atlantic. 
Pop.  (1900),  22,330.  The  name  of  the  town  is  derived  from  the 
ancient  Roman  bridge  {pons  vetus)  of  twelve  arches,  which  spans 
the  Lerez  near  its  mouth.  Pontevedra  is  a  picturesque  town, 
mainly  built  of  granite,  and  still  partly  enclosed  by  medieval 
fortifications.  It  contains  handsomife  provincial  and  municipal 
ihalls  erected  in  the  igth  century,  and  many  convents,  some  of 
•which  have  been  converted  into  hospitals  or  schools.  Marin  arid 
Sangenjo  are  ports  on  the  Ria  de  Pontevedra,  which  is  the  seat 
of  a  thriving  sardine  fishery.  There  is  an  active  trade  in  grain, 
■wine  and  fruit;  cloth,  hats,  leather  and  pottery  are  manufactured. 

PONTIAC  {c.  1726-1769),  Indian  chief  of  the  Ottawa  and 
leader  in  the  "  Conspiracy  of  Poritiac  "  in  1763-64,  was  born 
between  1712  and  1720  probably  on  the  Maumee  river,  near  the 
mouth  of  the  Auglaize.  His  father  was  an  Ottawa,  and  his 
mother  an  Ojibwa.  By  1755  he  had  become'a  chief  of  the 
Ottawa  and  a  leadeir  of  the  loose  confederacy  of  the  Ottawa, 
Potawatomi  and  Ojibwa.  He  was  an  ally  of  France  and 
pdssibly  commanded  the  Ottawa  in  the  defeat  (July  9,  1755)  of 
General  Edward  Braddock.  In  November  1760  he  met  Major 
Robert  Rogers,  then  on  his  way  to  occupy  Michilimackinac  and 
other  forts  surrendered  by  the  French,  and  agreed  to  let  the 
English  troops  pass  unmolested  on  condition  that  he  should  be 
treated  with  respect  by  the  British.  Like  other  Indians  he  soon 
realized  the  difference  between  French  and  English  rule — ^that 
the  Indians  were  no  longer  welcomed  at  the  forts  arid  that  they 
would  ultihiately  be  deprived  of  their  huriting  grounds  by  en- 
croaching Enghsh  settleriients.  French  hunters  and  traders 
encouraged  Indian  disaffection  with  vague  promises  of  help  frorii 
France;  in  1 76 2  an  Indiari  "prophet"  among  the  Delawares 
On  the  Muskingum  preached  a  union  of  the  Indians  to  expel  the 

XXII.  3 


English;  and  in  that  year  (as  in  1761)  there  were  abortive  con- 
spiracies to  massacre  the  English  garrisons  of  Detroit,  Fort 
Niagara  and  Fort  Pitt  (now  Pittsburg).  Pontiac  seems  to  have 
been  chief  of  a  magic  association  (the  Metai),  and  he  took  advan- 
tage of  the  religious  fervour  and  the  general  unrest  among  the 
Indiaris  to  orgariize  in  the  winter  of  1762-63  a  simultaneous 
attack  on  the  Enghsh  forts  to  be  made  in  May  1763  at  a  certain 
phase  of  the  moon.  On  the  27th  of  April  1763,  before  ameeting 
near  Detroit  of  delegates  from  most  of  the  Algonquian  tribes,  he 
outlined  his  plans.  On  the  7th  of  May,  with  60  warriors,  he 
attempted  unsuccessfully  to  gain  admission  to  Detroit,  which 
then  had  a  garrison  of  about  160  under  Major  Henry  Gladwin 
(1730-1791);  and  then  besieged  the  fort  from  the  9th  of  May  to 
the  end  of  October.  On  the  28th  of  May  reinforcements  from 
Fort  Niagara  were  ambuscaded  near  the  mouth  of  the  Detroit. 
In  June  the  Wyaridot  a;nd  Potawatomi  withdrew  from  the  siege, 
but  on  the  29th  of  July  they  attacked  reinforcements  (280  men, 
including  20  of  Rogers's  rangers)  from  Fort  Niagara  under 
Captain  James  Dalyell  (or  DalzeU),  who,  however,  gained  the 
fort,  and  in  spite  of  Gladwin's  [opposition  on  the  31st  of  July 
attacked  Pontiac's  camp,  but  was  ambuscaded  on  Bloody  Run 
and  was  killed,  nearly  60  others  being  killed  or  wounded.  On 
the  12th  of  October  the  Potawatomi,  Ojibwa  and  Wyandot  made 
peace  with  the  English;  with  the  Ottawa  Pontiac  continued  the 
siege  until  the  30th  of  October,  when  he  learned  from  Neyon 
de  la  Valliere,  commandant  of  Fort  Chartres  (among  the  Illinois) 
that  he  would  not  be  aided  by  the  French.  Pontiac  then 
withdrew  to  the  Maumee. 

Fort  Pitt  with  a  garrison  of  330  men  under  Captain  Simeon 
Ecuyer  was  attacked  on  the  22nd  of  June  and  was  besieged 
from  the  27th  of  July  to  the  ist  of  August,  when  the  Indians 
withdrew  to  meet  a  relief  expedition  of  500  men,  mostly  High- 
landers, under  Colonel  Henry  Bouquet  (1719-1766),  who  had 
set  out  from  Carlisle,  Penrisylvania,  on  the  i8th  of  July,  a,nd 
relieved  Fort  Ligonier  (on  the  site  of  the  borough  of  Ligonier, 
Westmoreland  county,  Penn.)  on  the  2nd  of  August,  but 
was  surprised  on  the  5th,  and  fought  (5th  and  6th)  the  battle 
of  Bushy  Run  (25  m.  S.E.  of  Fort  Pitt),  finally  flanking  and 
routing  the  Indians  after  tricking  them  by  a  feinted  retreat  of 
a  part  of  his  force.  Bouquet  reached  Fort  Pitt  on  the  loth 
of  August.  At  MichiHmackinac  (Mackinac),  Michigan,  on  the 
4th  of  June,  the  Indians  gained  admission  to  the  fort  by  a  trick, 
killed  nearly  a  score  of  the  garrison  and  captured  the  remainder, 
including  Captain  George  Etherington,  the  commander,  besides 
several  English  traders,  including  Alexander  Henry  (1739-1824).^ 
Some  of  the  captives  were  seized  by  the  Ottawa,  who  had  taken 
no  part  in  the  attack;  a  part  of  these  were  released,  and  reached 
Montreal  on  the  13th  of  August.  Seven  of  the  prisoners  kept 
by  the  Ojibwa  were  killed  in  cold  blood  by  one  of  their  chiefs. 
Fort  Sandusky  (on  the  site  of  Sandusky,  Ohio)  was  taken  on  the 
16th  of  May  by  Wyandot;  and  Fort  St  Joseph  (on  the  site  of  the 
present  Niles,  Mich.)  was  captured  on  the  25th  of  May  and  11 
men(outofitsgarrisonof  14)  were  massacred,  the  others  with  the 
commandant.  Ensign  Schlosser,  being  taken  to  Detroit  and 
exchanged  for  Indian  prisoners.  On  the  27th  of  May  Fort 
Miami  (on  the  site  of  Fort  Wayne,  Indiana)  surrendered  to  the 
Indians  after  its  commander,  Ensign  Holmes,  had  been  treacher- 
ously killed.  Fort  Ouiatanon  (about  5  m.  south-west  of  the  present 
Lafayette,  Indiana)  and  Fort  Presque  Isle  (on  the  site  of  Erie, 
Penn.)  were  taken  by  the  Indians  on  the  ist  and  i6th  of 
June  respectively;  and  Fort  Le  Boeuf  (on  the  site  of  Waterford, 

^  Henry,  a  native  of  New  Brunswick,  N.J.,  had  become  a  fur- 
trader  at  Fort  Michilimackinac  in  1761.  He  was  rescued  by 
Wawatam,  an  Ottawa,  who  had  adopted  him  as  a  brother;  in  1764 
he  took  part  in  Colonel  John  Bradstreet's  expedition;  in  1770,  with 
Sir  William  Johnson,  the  duke  of  Gloucester  and  others,  formed  a 
Company  to  mine  copper  in  the  Lake  Superior  region;  was  a  fur- 
trader  again  until  1796;  and  then  became  a  merchant  in  Montreal. 
His  Travels  and  Adventures  in  Canada  and  the  Indian  Territories 
between  the  Years  1760  and  1776  (1809;  reprinted  1901)' is  a  valuable 
account  of  the  fur  trade  and  of  his  adventures  at  Michilimackinac. 
He  is  not  to  be  confused  with  his  nephew  of  the  same  name,  also  a 
fur-trader,  whose  journal  was  published  in  1897  in  3  vols.,  as  New 
Light  on  the  Early  History  of  the  Greater  Northwest. 


66 


PONTIAC— PONTIVY 


Penn.)  was  surprised  on  the  i8th,  but  its  garrison  escaped, 
and  seven  (out  of  13)  got  safely  to  Fort  Pitt  Fort  Venango 
(near  the  site  of  the  present  Venango,  Penn.)  was  taken 
and  burnt  about  the  same  time  by  some  Senecas  (the  only 
Iroquois  in  the  conspiracy),  who  massacred  the  garrison  and 
later  burned  the  commander,  Lieut.  Gordon.  About  500 
Senecas  on  the  14th  of  September  surprised  a  wagon  train, 
escorted  by  24  soldiers,  from  Fort  Schlosser  (2  m.  above  Niagara 
Falls),  drove  most  of  them  over  the  brink  of  the  Devil's  Hole 
(below  the  cataract),  and  then  nearly  annihilated  a  party  from 
Fort  Niagara  sent  to  the  rescue. 

In  1763,  although  the  main  attacks  on  Detroit  and  Fort  Pitt 
had  failed,  nearly  every  minor  fort  attacked  was  captured, 
about  200  settlers  and  traders  were  killed,  and  in  property 
destroyed  or  plundered  the  English  lost  about  £100,000,  the 
greatest  loss  in  men  and  property  being  in  western  Pennsylvania. 

In  June  1764  Colonel  John  Bradstreet  (1711-1774)  led  about 
1200  men  from  Albany  to  Fort  Niagara,  where  at  a  great  gather- 
ing of  the  Indians  several  treaties  were  made  in  July;  in  August 
he  made  at  Presque  Isle  a  treaty  (afterwards  annulled  by 
General  Thomas  Gage)  with  some  Delaware  and  Shawnee  chiefs; 
and  in  September  made  treaties  (both  unsatisfactory)  with  the 
Wyandot,  Ottawa  and  Miami  at  Sandusky,  and  with  various 
chiefs  at  Detroit.  He  sent  Captain  Howard  to  occupy  the  forts 
at  Michilimackinac,  Green  Bay  and  Sault  Ste  Marie,  and  Captain 
Morris  up  the  Maumee  river,  where  he  conferred  with  Pontiac, 
and  then  to  Fort  Miami,  where  he  narrowly  escaped  death  at 
the  hands  of  the  Miami;  and  with  his  men  Bradstreet  returned 
to  Oswego  in  November,  having  accomplished  little  of  value. 
An  expedition  of  1500  men  under  Colonel  Bouquet  left  Carlisle, 
Pennsylvania,  in  August,  and  near  the  site  of  the  present 
Tuscarawas,  Ohio,  induced  the  Indians  to  release  their  prisoners 
and  to  stop  fighting — the  practical  end  of  the  conspiracy. 
Pontiac  himself  made  submission  to  Sir  William  Johnson  on  the 
2Sth  of  July  1766  at  Oswego,  New  York.  In  April  1769  he  was 
murdered,  when  drunk,  at  Cahokia  (nearly  opposite  St  Louis) 
by  a  Kaskaskia  Indian  bribed  by  an  English  trader ;  and  he  was 
buried  near  the  St  Louis  Fort.  His  death  occasioned  a  bitter 
war  in  which  a  remnant  of  the  Illinois  was  practically  annihilated 
in  1770  at  Starved  Rock  (between  the  present  Ottawa  and  La 
Salle),  Illinois,  by  the  Potawatomi,  who  had  been  followers  of 
Pontiac.  Pontiac  was  one  of  the  most  remarkable  men  of  the 
Indian  race  in  American  history,  and  was  notable  in  particular 
for  his  power  (rare  among  the  Indians)  of  organization. 

See  Francis  Parkman,  The  Conspiracy  of  Pontiac  (2  vols.,  Boston, 
1851;  loth  ed.,  1896). 

PONTIAC,  a  city  and  the  county-seat  of  Oakland  county, 
Michigan,  U.S.A.,  on  the  Clinton  river,  about  26  m.  N.W.  of 
Detroit.  Pop.  (1890),  6200;  (1900)  9769,  of  whom  2020  were 
foreign-bom;  (igio  U.S.  census)  14,532.  It  is  served  by  the  Grand 
Trunk  and  the  Pontiac,  Oxford  &  Northern  railways  (being  the 
southern  terminus  of  the  latter),  and  by  the  Detroit  &  Pontiac 
and  the  North-Western  electric  inter-urban  lines.  In  the  sur- 
rounding country  there  are  many  small,  picturesque  lakes  (the 
largest  being  Orchard,  about  6  m.  south-east  of  Pontiac,  Cass 
and  Elizabeth  lakes),  and  there  is  good  hjinting  and  fishing  in 
the  vicinity.  In  Pontiac  is  the  Eastern  Michigan  Asylum  for 
the  insane  (1878),  with  grounds  covering  more  than  500  acres. 
The  city  has  various  manufactures,  and  the  value  of  the  factory 
products  increased  from  $2,470,887  in  1900  to  $3,047,422  in 
1904,  or  23-3%.  Agricultural  products,  fruit  and  wool  from 
the  surrounding  country  are  shipped  in  considerable  quantities. 
The  municipality  owns  and  operates  its  waterworks.  Pontiac, 
named  in  honour  of  the  famous  Indian  chief  of  that  name,  was 
laid  out  as  a  town  in  r8i8,  became  the  county-seat  in  1820,  was 
incorporated  as  a  village  in  1837,  and  was  chartered  in  1861. 

PONTIANUS,  pope  from  230  to  235.  He  was  exiled  by  the 
emperor  Maximinus  to  Sardinia,  and  in  consequence  of  this  sen- 
tence resigned  (Sept.  28,  235).     He  was  succeeded  by  Anteros. 

PONTIFEX.  The  collegium  of  the  Pontifices  was  the  most 
important  priesthood  of  ancient  Rome,  being  specially  charged 
with  the  administration  of  the  jus  divinum,  i.e.  that  part  of  the 


civil  law  which  regulated  the  relations  of  the  community  with 
the  deities  recognized  by  the  state  officially,  together  with  a 
general  superintendence  of  the  worship  of  gens  and  family. 
The  name  is  clearly  derived  from  pons  and  facere,  but  whether 
this  should  be  taken  as  indicating  any  special  connexion  with  the 
sacred  bridge  over  the  Tiber  {Pons  SuUicius),  or  what  the  original 
meaning  may  have  been,  cannot  now  be  determiiied.  The 
college  existed  under  the  monarchy,  when  its  members  were 
probably  three  in  number;  they  may  safely  be  considered  as 
legal  advisers  of  the  rex  in  all  matters  of  religion.  Under  the 
republic  they  emerge  into  prominence  under  a  pontifex  maximus, 
who  took  over  the  king's  duties  as  chief  administrator  of  religious 
law,  just  as  his  chief  sacrificial  duties  were  taken  by  the  rex 
sacrorum;  his  dwelUng  was  the  regia,  "  the  house  of  the  king." 
During  the  republican  period  the  number  of  pontifices  increased, 
probably  by  multiples  of  three,  until  after  Sulla  (82  B.C.)  we 
find  them  fifteen;  for  the  year  57  B.C.  we  have  a  complete  list 
of  them  in  Cicero  (Harusp.  resp.  6,  12).  Included  in  the 
collegium  were  also  the  rex  sacrorum,  the  flamines,  three  assistant 
pontifices  (minores),  and  the  vestal  virgins,  who  were  aU  chosen 
by  the  pontifex  maximus.  Vacancies  in  the  body  of  pontifices 
were  originally  filled  by  co-optation;  but  from  the  second  Punic 
War  onwards  the  pontifex  maximus  was  chosen  by  a  peculiar 
form  of  popular  election,  and  in  the  last  age  of  the  repulDlic  this 
held  good  for  aU  the  members.     They  aU  held  office  for  Mfe. 

The  immense  authority  of  the  college  centred  in  the  pontifex 
maximus,  the  other  pontifices  forming  his  consilium  or  advising 
body.  His  functions  were  partly  sacrificial  or  rituah'stic,  but 
these  were  the  least  important ;  the  real  power  lay  in  the  adminis- 
tration of  the  jus  divinum,  the  chief  departments  of  which  may 
briefly  be  described  as  follows:  (i)  the  regulation  of  all  expiatory 
ceremonials  needed  as  the  result  of  pestilence,  lightning,  &c.; 
(2)  the  consecration  of  all  temples  and  other  sacred  places  and 
objects  dedicated  to  the  gods  by  the  state  through  its  magis- 
trates; (3)  the  regulation  of  the  calendar  both  astronomically 
and  in  detailed  application  to  the  pubUc  life  of  the  state;  (4)  the 
administration  of  the  law  relating  to  burials  and  burying-places, 
and  the  worship  of  the  Manes,  or  dead  ancestors;  (5)  the  superin- 
tendence of  all  marriages  by  confarreatio,  i.e.  originally  of  all 
legal  patrician  marriages;  (6)  the  administration  of  the  law  of 
adoption  and  of  testamentary  succession.  They  had  also  the 
care  of  the  state  archives,  of  the  lists  of  magistrates,  and  kept 
records  of  their  own  decisions  {commentarii)  and  of  the  chief 
events  of  each  year  (annates) . 

It  is  obvious  that  a  priesthood  having  such  functions  as  these, 
and  holding  office  for  life,  must  have  been  a  great  power  in  the 
state,  and  for  the  first  three  centuries  of  the  repubhc  it  is  probable 
that  the  pontifex  maximus  was  in  fact  its  most  powerful  member. 
The  office  might  be  combined  with  a  magistracy,  and,  though 
its  powers  were  declaratory  rather  than  executive,  it  may  fairly 
be  described  as  quasi-magisterial.  Under  the  later  repubhc  it 
was  coveted  chiefly  for  the  great  dignity  of  the  position;  Julius 
Caesar  held  it  for  the  last  twenty  years  of  his  life,  and  Augustus 
took  it  after  the  death  of  Lepidus  in  12  B.C.,  after  which  it 
became  inseparable  from  the  office  of  the  reigning  emperor. 
With  the  decay  of  the  empire  the  title  very  naturally  fell  to  the 
popes,  whose  functions  as  administrators  of  religious  law  closely 
resembled  those  of  the  ancient  Roman  priesthood,  hence  the 
modern  use  of  "  pontifi  "  and  "  pontifical." 

For  further  details  consult  Marquardt,  Staatsverwaltung,  iii. 
235  seq. ;  Wissowa,  Religion  iind  Kultus  der  Romer,  430  seq. ; 
Bouchd-Leclercq,  Les  Pontifes,  passim.  (W.  W.  F.*) 

PONTIVY,  a  town  of  western  France,  chief  town  of  an  arron- 
dissement  in  the  department  of  Morbihan,  46  m.  N.N.W.  of 
Vannes  by  rail.  Pop.  (1906),  6312  (town);  9506  (commune). 
The  town,  situated  on  the  Blavet,  at  its  confluence  with  the 
Nantes-Brest  canal,  comprises  two  distinct  parts — the  old  town 
and  that  to  the  south  known  as  Napol6onville.  The  latter, 
built  by  order  of  Napoleon  I.,  who  desired  to  make  it  the  military 
headquarters  for  Brittany,  and  consisting  chiefly  of  barracks, 
subsequently  gave  its  name  to  the  whole  town,  but  in  1871  the 
old  name  was  resumed.     The  ancient  castle  (1485)  of  the  dukes 


PONT-L'ABBE— PONTOON 


67 


of  Rohan,  whose  capital  the  town  was,  is  occupied  by  the  Mus^e 
le  Brigant  of  art  and  archaeology.  A  monument  to  commem- 
orate the  Breton- Angevin  Union,  the  deputies  of  which  met  at 
Pontivy  in  1790,  was  erected  in  1894,  and  there  are  statues  of 
Dr  Guepin,  a,  democrat,  and  General  de  Lourmel  (d.  1854).  The 
town  has  a  sub-prefecture,  a  tribunal  of  first  instance,  and  a 
lycee  for  boys.  Pontivy  had  its  origin  in  a  monastery  founded 
in  the  7th  century  by  St  Ivy,  a  monk  of  Lindisfarne. 

PONT-L'ABBfi,  a  town  of  western  France  in  the  department 
of  Finistere,  13  m.  S.W.  of  Quimper  by  rail.  Pop.  (1906),  of  the 
town  4485,  of  the  commune  6432.  The  town  is  situated  on  the 
right  bank  of  the  estuary  or  river  of  Pont-1'Abbe,  2  m.  from  the 
sea.  Its  port  carries  on  fishing,  imports  timber,  coal,  &c.,  and 
exports  mine-props  and  the  cereals  and  vegetables  of  the  neigh- 
bourhood. Of  the  old  buildings  of  the  town  the  chief  is  a  church 
of  the  14th,  isth  and  i6th  centuries,  once  attached  to  a  Carmelite 
convent;  an  old  castle  is  occupied  by  the  hotel  de  ville.  The 
local  costumes,  trimmed  with  the  bright-coloured  embroideries 
for  which  the  town  is  noted,  are  among  the  most  striking  in 
Brittany;  the  bigotiden  or  head-dress  of  the  women  has  given  its 
name  to  the  inhabitants.  Pont-l'Abbe  carries  on  flotir-milling 
and  the  extraction  of  chemicals  from  seaweed. 

PONTMARTIN,  ARMAND  AUGUSTIN  JOSEPH  MARIE 
FERRARD,  Comte  de  (1811-1890),  French  critic  and  man  of 
letters,  was  born  at  Avignon  (Vaucluse)  on  the  i6th  of  July  1811. 
Imbued  by  family  tradition  with  legitimist  sympathies,  he  began 
by  attacking  the  followers  of  the  encyclopaedists  and  their 
successors.  In  the  Assemblee  nationale  he  published  his  Causeries 
lUtiraires,  a  series  of  attacks  on  prominent  Liberals,  which  created 
some  sensation.  Pontmartin  was  an  indefatigable  journalist, 
and  most  of  his  papers  were  eventually  published  in  volume 
form:  Contes  et  reveries  d'un  planteur  de  choux  (1845);  Causeries 
du  samedi  (1857-1860);  Nouveaux  samedis  (1865-1881),  &c. 
But  the  most  famous  of  all  his  books  is  Les  Jeudis  de  Mme. 
Charbonneau  (1862),  which  under  the  form  of  a  novel  offered 
a  series  of  malicious  and  witty  portraits  of  contemporary 
writers.  Pontmartin  died  at  Avignon  on  the  29th  of  March 
i8go. 

See  Hatzfeld  and  Meunier,  Les  Critiques  litteraires  du  XIX' 
siecle  (1894). 

PONTOISE,  a  town  of  northern  France,  capital  of  an  arron- 
dissement  of  the  department  of  Seine-et-Oise,  18  m.  N.W.  of 
Paris  on  the  railway  to  Dieppe.  Pop.  (1906),  7963-  Pontoise 
is  picturesquely  situated  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Oise  where  it 
is  joined  by  the  Viosne.  The  traffic  on  the  main  river  is  large, 
and  the  tributary  drives  numerous  mills.  Of  the  many  churches 
that  used  to  exist  in  the  town  two  only  remain:  St  Maclou,  a 
church  of  the  12th  century,  altered  and  restored  in  the  15th  and 
1 6th  centuries  by  Pierre  Lemercier,  the  famous  architect  of  St 
Eustache  at  Paris,  and  containing  a  fine  holy  sepulchre  of  the 
i6th  century;  and  Notre-Dame,  of  the  close  of  the  i6th  century, 
which  contains  the  tomb  of  St  Gautier,  abbot  of  Meulan  in  the 
1 2th  century.  At  the  top  of  the  flight  of  steps  by  which  St 
Maclou  is  approached  is  the  statue  of  General  Leclerc,  a  native  of 
the  town  and  husband  of  Pauline  Bqnaparte.  Grain  and  flour 
are  the  principal  staples  of  the  trade;  a  well-known  fair  is  held 
in  November.  The  town  has  a  sub-prefecture,  tribunals  of  first 
instance  and  of  commerce  and  a  communal  college.  At  Meriel, 
near  Pontoise,  there  are  interesting  remains  of  the  Cistercian 
abbey  of  Le  Val.  Pontoise  existed  in  the  time  of  the  Gauls  as 
Briva  Isarae  (Bridge  of  the  Oise).  It  was  destroyed  by  the 
Normans  in  the  9th  century,  united  with  Normandy  in  1032,  and 
acquired  by  Philip  I.  in  1064.  Calpital  of  the  French  Vexin,  it 
possessed  an  important  stronghold  and  played  a  conspicuous 
part  in  the  wars  between  the  French  and  the  dukes  of  Normandy 
and  in  the  Hundred  Years'  War.  The  English  took  it  in  1419, 
and  again  in  1437.  In  1441  Charles  VII.  took  it  by  storm  after 
a  three  months'  siege.  After  belonging  to  the  count  of  Charolais 
down  to  the  treaty  of  ;Conflans,  it' was  given  as  a  dowry  to  Jeanne 
of  France  when  she  was  divorced  by  Louis  Xll.  The  parlement 
of  Paris  several  times  met  in  the  town;  and  in  1561  the  states- 
general  convoked  at  Orleans  removed  thither  after  the  death  of 


Francis  II.  During  the  Fronde  it  offered  a  refuge  to  Louis  XIV. 
and  Mazarin.  Henry  III.  made  it  an  apanage  for  his  brother 
the  duke  of  Anjou.  At  a  later  period  it  passed  to  the  duke  of 
Conti.     Down  to  the  Revolution  it  remained  a  monastic  town. 

PONTOON  (Fr.  ponton,  from  Lat.  pons,  a  bridge),  a  flat- 
bottomed  boat,  used  as  a  ferry  boat  or  lighter;  especially  a  boat 
of  particular  design  intended  to  form  part  of  a  military  bridge. 
In  modern  hydraulic  engineering  the  words  ponton  and  pontoon 
are  used  to  designate  hoUow  water-tight  structures  which  are 
secured  to  sunken  wrecks  and  bring  them  up  to  the  surface,  and 
also  the  hollow  chambers  which  serve  as  gates  for  docks  arid 
sluices,  and  are  lowered  and  raised  by  the  admission  and  pumping 
out  of  water. 

Military  Pontoon  Bridges. — From  time  immemorial  floating 
bridges  of  vessels  bearing  a  roadway  of  beams  and  planks  have 
been  employed  to  facilitate  the  passage  of  rivers  and  arms  of  the 
sea.  Xerxes  crossed  the  Hellespont  on  a  double  bridge,  one  line 
supported  on  three  hundred  and  sixty,  the  other  on  three  hundred 
and  fourteen  vessels,  anchored  head  and  stem  with  their  keels 
in  the  direction  of  the  current.  Darius  threw  similar  bridges 
across  the  Bosporus  and  the  Danube  in  his  war  against  the 
Scythians,  and  the  Ten  Thousand  employed  a  bridge  of  boats 
to  cross  the  river  Tigris  in  their  retreat  from  Persia.  Floating 
bridges  have  been  repeatedly  constructed  over  rivers  in  Europe 
and  Asia,  not  merely  temporarfly  for  the  passage  of  an  army, 
but  permanently  for  the  requirements  of  the  country;  and  to  this 
day  many  of  the  great  rivers  in  India  are  crossed,  on  the  lines  of 
the  principal  roads,  by  floating  bridges,  which  are  for  the  most 
part  supported  on  boats  such  as  are  employed  for  ordinary  traffic 
on  the  river. 

But  light  vessels  which  can  be  taken  out  of  the  water  and 
lifted  on  to  carriages  are  required  for  transport  with  an  army  in 
the  field.  Alexander  the  Great  occasionally  carried  with  his 
army  vessels  divided  into  portions,  which  were  put  together 
on  reaching  the  banks  of  a  river,  as  in  crossing  the  Hydaspes ;  he 
is  even  said  to  have  carried  his  army  over  the  Oxus  by  means 
of  rafts  made  of  the  hide  tents  of  the  soldiers  stuffed  with  straw, 
when  he  found  that  all  the  river  boats  had  been  burnt.  Cyrus 
crossed  the  Euphrates  on  stuffed  skins.  The  practice  of  carrying 
about  skins  to  be  inflated  when  troops  had  to  cross  a  river,  which 
was  adopted  by  both  Greeks  and  Romans,  stfll  exists  in  the 
East.  In  the  4th  century  the  emperor  Juhan  crossed  the  Tigris, 
Euphrates  and  other  rivers  by  bridges  of  boats  made  of  skins 
stretched  over  osier  frames.  In  the  wars  of  the  17th  century 
pontoons  are  found  as  regular  components  of  the  trains  of  armies, 
the  Germans  using  a  leather,  the  Dutch  a  tin  and  the  French  a 
copper  "  skin  "  over  stout  timber  frames. 

Modern  military  pontoons  have  been  made  of  two  forms,  open 
as  an  undecked  boat,  or  closed  as  a  decked  canoe  or  cylinder. 
During  the  Peninsular  War  the  English  employed  open  bateaux; 
but  the  experience  gained  in  that  war  induced  them  to  introduce 
the  closed  form.  General  Colleton  devised  a  buoy  pontoon, 
cylindrical  with  conical  ends  and  made  of  wooden  staves  Uke  a 
cask.  Then  General  Sir  Charles  Pasley  introduced  demi-pon- 
toons,  like  decked  canoes  with  pointed  bows  and  square  sterns, 
a  pair,  attached  stern  wise,  forming  a  single  "  pier  "  of  support 
for  the  roadway;  they  were  constructed  of  light  timber  frames 
covered  with  sheet  copper  and  were  decked  with  wood;  each 
demi-pontoon  was  divided  internally  into  separate  compartments 
by  partitions  which  were  made  as  water-tight  as  possible,  and 
also  supplied  with  the  means  of  pumping  out  water;  when  trans- 
ported overland  with  an  army  a  pair  of  demi-pontoons  and  the 
superstructure  of  one  bay  formed  the  load  for  a  single  carriage 
weighing  27-75  cwt.  when  loaded.  The  Pasley  was  superseded 
by  the  Blanshard  pontoon,  a  tin  coated  cylinder  with  hemis- 
pherical ends,  for  which  great  mobility  was  claimed,  two  pon- 
toons and  two  bays  superstructure  being  carried  on  one  waggon, 
giving  a  weight  of  about  45  cwt.,  which  was  intended  to  be  drawn 
by  four  horses.  The  Blanshard  pontoon  was  long  used  in  the 
British  army,  but  was  ultimately  discarded;  and  British 
engineers  capie  to  the  conclusion  that  it  was  desirable  to  return 
to  the  form  of  the  open  bateau  to  which  the  engineers  of  all  the 


68 


PONIOON 


Continental  armies  had  meanwhile  constantly  adhered.  Captain 
Fowke,  R.E.,  invented  a  folding  open  bateau,  made  of  water- 
proof canvas  attached  to  shding  ribs,  so  that  for  transport  it 
could  be  collapsed  like  the  bellows  of  an  accordion  and  for  use 
could  be  extended  by  a  pair  of  stretchers.  This  was  followed  by 
the  pontoon  designed  by  Colonel  Blood,  R.E.,  an  open  bateau 
with  decked  ends  and  sides  partly  decked  where  the  rowlock 
blocks  were  fixed.  It  consisted  of  six  sets  of  framed  ribs  con- 
nected by  a  deep  kelson,  two  side  streaks,  and  three  bottom 
streaks.  The  sides  and  bottom  were  of  thin  yellow  pine  with 
canvas  secured  to  both  surfaces  by  india-rubber  solution,  and 
coated  outside  with  marine  glue.  The  central  interval  between 
the  pontoons  in  forming  a  bridge  was  invariably  maintained  at 
15  ft.;  for  the  support  of  the  roadway  five  baulks  were  ordinarily 
employed,  but  nine  for  the  passage  of  siege  artillery  and  the 
heaviest  loads;  they  fitted  on  to  saddles  resting  on  central 
saddle  beams.  The  pontoons  were  not  immersed  to  within  [  ft. 
of  the  tops  of  their  "  coamings  "  when  carrying  ordinary  loads, 
as  of  infantry  in  marching  order  "  in  fours  "  crowded  at  a  check, 
or  the  i6-pounder  R.M.L.  gun  of  position  weighing  43  cwt.;  nor 
were  they  immersed  to  within  6  in.  when  carrying  extraordinary 
loads,  such  as  disorganized  infantry,  or  the  64-pounder  R.M.L. 
gun  weighing  98  cwt.  In  designing  this  pontoon  the  chief  points 
attended  to  were — (i)  improvement  in  power  of  support,  (2) 
simplification  in  bridge  construction,  (3)  reduction  of  weight  in 
transport,  and  (4)  adaptation  for  use  singly  as  boats  for  ferrying 
purposes.  One  pontoon  with  the  superstructure  for  a  single 
bay  constituted  a  load  for  one  waggon,  with  a  total  weight 
behind  horses  of  about  40  cwt. 

The  following  table  (from  Ency.  Brit.  9th  ed.)  shows  the  powers 
of  various  pontoons  in  use  by  different  nations  in  the  past.  Modern 
improvements  are  comparatively  few.  The  "  working  power  of 
support  "  has  been  calculated  in  most  instances  by  deducting  from 
the  "  available  buoyancy  "  one-fourth  for  open  and  one-tenth  for 
closed  vessels: — 


In  the  English  and  French  equipment  the  pontoons  were  origmally 
made  of  two  sizes,  the  sriialler  and  lighter  for  the  "  advanced  guard, 
the  larger  and  heavier  for  the  "reserve;"  in  both  equipments 
the  same  size  pontoon  is  now  adopted  for  general  requirements,  the 
superstructure  being  strengthened  when  necessary  for  very  heavy 
weights.  The  German  army  has  an  undivided  galvanized  iron  pon- 
toon, 24  ft.  6  in.  long,  handy  as  a  boat,  but  of  inadequate  buoyancy 
for  heavy  traffic,  with  the  result  that  the  span  has  to  be  diminished 
and  ipso  facto  the  waterway  obstructed.  The  Austrian  and  Italian 
pontoons  are  made  in  three  pieces,  two  with  bows  and  a  middle 
piece  without;  not  less  than  two  pieces  are  ordinarily  employed,  and 
the  third  is  introduced  when  great  supporting  power  is  required, 
but  in  all  cases  a  constant  interval  is  maintained  between  the 
pontoons.  On  the  other  hand,  in  the  greater  number  of  pontoon 
equipments  greater  supporting  power  is  obtained  not  by  increasing 
the  number  of  supports  but  by  diminishing  the  central  interval 
between  the  pontoons.  Within  certain  limits  it  does  not  matter 
whether  the  buoyancy  is  made  up  of  a  large  number  of  small  or  a 
small  number  of  large  vessels,  so  long  as  the  waterway  is  not  unduly 
contracted  and  the  obstruction  offered  to  a  swift  current  dangerously 
increased;  but  it  is  to  be  remembered  that  pontoon  bridges  have 
failed  as  frequently  from  being  washed  away  as  from  insufficient 
buoyancy.  In  Austria  efforts  have  been  made  to  diminish  the  weight 
of  the  Birago  equipment  by  the  substitution  of  steel  for  iron.  The 
present  pontoon,  in  three  pieces,  is  of  steel,  and  39  ft.  4  in.  long,  like 
the  old  pattern. 

In  the  British  army  Colonel  Blood's  equipment  was  later  modified 
by  the  introduction  of  a  bipartite  pontoon  designed  in  1889  by 
Lieut.  Clauson,  R.E.  Each  pontoon  is  carried  on  one  waggon  with 
a  bay  of  superstructure,  and  consists  of  two  sections,  a  bow-piece  and 
a  stern-piece,  connected  together  by  easily  manipulated  couplings 
of  phosphor  bronze.  Decks  and  "  coamings  "  are  dispensed  with, 
and  the  rowlock  holes  are  sunk  in  a  strong  gunwale.  The  detach- 
able saddle-beam,  which  receives  the  load  on  the  centre  of  the 
thwarts,  is  made  in  sections,  so  as  to  form  a  continuous  saddle  of 
any  length  required.  The  baulks  (or  road-bearers)  and  chesses 
(or  planks)  remain  unaltered,  but  chess-holders  and  chess-bearers 
are  added  for  use  in  constructing  light  bridges  for  infantry  in  file. 
In  this  kind  of  bridge  each  pontoon  section  is  used  separately, 
with  a  roadway  of  chesses  placed  longitudinally  four  abreast.  In 
the  normal  or  medium  bridge  two  sections,  and  in  heavy  bridge 
three  sections  are  joined  together.     The  chief  advantages  of  the 


Pontoon. 

.3 

II 

d  1=1 

5-3 

^1 
IP 

Weight  of 
Pontoon  and 
one  Bay  of 
Superetructure . 

II 

.3 

asi 

11 

ll 

Greatest 
!  possible  load  at 
100  lb  per  foot 
superficial  of 
roadway. 

Ft. 

Cub.  Ft. 

th 

lb 

lb 

lb 

Ft. 

lb 

lb 

Ft. 

lb 

Gribeauval :  open  bateau,  oak 

36 

3 

593 

45.044 

8,044 

37,000 

27.750 

22-8 

1.215 

840 

15-6 

35.568 

Austrian:  open,  wooden,  1799 

27 

0 

354 

22,123 

3,332 

18,791 

14,093 

i6-6 

849 

560 

II-4 

18,924 

Aust. -Birago :  open,  wooden;  two  pieces  . 

28 

0 

303 

18,907 

3.249 

15,658 

11,744 

21-7 

542 

560 

9-3 

20,181 

,,                ,,           ,,             three     ,, 

39 

4 

445 

27,791 

3.884 

23,907 

17.930 

21-7 

827 

560 

9-3 

20,181 

,,               ,,     iron;  two  pieces 

28 

0 

353 

22,090 

3.698 

18,392 

13.794 

21-7 

636 

560 

9-3 

20,181 

II                .,          „     three     ,, 

39 

4 

530 

33.135 

4.501 

28,634 

21,476 

21-7 

991 

560 

9-3 

20,181 

French :  open,  wooden ;  reserve 

30 

9 

325 

20,286 

3.608 

16,678 

12,509 

19-7 

635 

560 

10-5 

20,685 

,,         ,,            ,,       advanced  guard 

19 

7 

156 

9.734 

1,506 

8,228 

6,171 

16-4 

376 

560 

9-3 

15,252 

,,          ,,             ,,       general 

30 

9 

321 

20,065 

3,153 

16,912 

12,684 

19-7 

644 

560 

9-8 

19.306 

Prussian:  open,  wooden;  open  order 

23 

7 

164 

10,226 

2,393 

7,833 

5,875 

15-3 

384 

560 

9.9 

15,147 

,,           ,,           ,,           close  order 

23 

7 

164 

10,226 

2,213 

8,013 

6,010 

11-2 

535 

560 

9-9 

11,088 

,,           ,,             iron ;  open  order 

24 

7 

214 

13.385 

2,209 

11.176 

8,382 

15-3 

561 

560 

9-9 

15,147 

,,           ,,           ,,           close  order 

24 

7 

214 

13.385 

2,029 

11.356 

8,517 

11-2 

759 

560 

9-9 

11,088 

Italian:  open  wooden;  one  piece 

19 

6 

283 

17,660 

3,582 

14,078 

10,559 

26-3 

402 

560 

9-8 

25,774 

,,           ,,           ,,        two  pieces 

39 

2 

565 

35.320 

4,572 

30,748 

23,061 

26-3 

878 

560 

9-8 

25,774 

,,          modified ;  one  piece 

24 

6 

325 

20,290 

3,401 

16,889 

12,669 

23-0 

551 

560 

9-8 

22,540 

,,               ,,            two  pieces        .      .            .      . 

49 

2 

649 

40,580 

4,489 

36,091 

27,068 

23-0 

1,178 

560 

9-8 

22,540 

Russian^  °P^"' '^^"'^^^°"        i  open  order   *     . 
/  wooden  framework ;  )  close  order 

21 

0 

209 

13,042 

2,355 

10,687 

8.015 

i6-6 

493 

560 

10-4 

17,264 

21 

0 

209 

13,042 

2,083 

10,959 

8,219 

11-7 

705 

560 

10-4 

12,168 

Belgian:  open,  iron;  one  piece 

24 

8 

297 

18,584 

3,336 

15,248 

11,436 

19-7 

580 

560 

9-5 

18,715 

,,              ,,       ,,         two  pieces 

49 

2 

595 

37.168 

4.548 

32,620 

24.465 

19-7 

1,244 

560 

9-5 

18,715 

Ampr,VanJ  india-rubber,   three;  ^  open  order     . 
American  |  cylinders  connected ;  \  close  order     . 

20 

0 

130 

8.125 

1,980 

6.145 

5.530 

i8-o 

307 

580 

11-0 

19,800 

20-0 

130 

8,125 

1,824 

6,301 

5,761 

14-7 

393 

560 

1 1-0 

18,370 

English  Pontoons. 

Peninsular      (    open,  tin;  reserve 

equipment  \        ,,        ,,    advanced  guard 

i8-9 

209 

13,092 

2,374 

10,718 

8,039 

i6-8 

477 

560 

lO-O 

16,800 

I5-I 

120 

7,520 

1,654 

5.866 

4.400 

14-0 

314 

560 

9,0 

12,600 

Pasley:  closed  demi-canoe;  copper 

25-0 

141 

8,781 

2.103 

6,678 

6,010 

12-5 

481 

560 

lO-O 

12,500 

Blanshard :  cylinder,  tin ;  open  order  . 

22-5 

109 

6,785 

1,600 

5,185 

4,667 

12-5 

373 

560 

10-0 

12,500 

,,                 ,,      ,,            c  ose  order  . 

22-5 

109 

6.785 

1,408 

5.377 

4.839 

8-3 

581 

560 

lO-O 

8,300 

,,                 ,,      .,            light  pattern     . 

15-5 

26 

1,640 

340 

1,300 

1,170 

5-3 

220 

280 

7-0 

3,710 

Fowke :  open,  collapsible„canvas ;  open  order 

22-0 

134 

8,460 

1,246 

7,214 

5,411 

lO'O 

541 

560 

lO-O 

10,000 

Forbes :  closed,  spherangular,  tin ;  open  order 

24-2 

128 

7.977 

1,689 

6,288 

5,659 

II-O 

514 

560 

10-0 

11,000 

Blood :  open,  wooden ;  general        .... 

2i-e 

280 

17,500 

2,300 

15,200 

13,350 

15-0 

890 

560 

m-o 

15,000 

PONTOPPIDAN,  E.— PONTORMO 


69 


equipment  are  (l)  the  buoyancy  of  the  piers  can  be  proportioned 
to  the  weight  of  trafific  and  to  the  roughness  of  the  water;  (2) 
owing  to  the  special  design  of  the  bows,  boats  and  rafts  are  easy  to 
row,  while  the  pontoons  in  bridge  oppose  little  resistance  to  the 
current,  and  so  require  less  anchor  power;  (3)  transport  rafts,  pier- 
heads and  flying  bridges  can  be  constructed  with  great  ease,  owing 
to  the  flush  gunwales  on  which  baulks  can  rest  if  necessary ;  (4)  the 
pontoon  sections  are  convenient  to  handle,  easy  to  ship  or  to 
transport  by  rail,  and  can  readily  be  replaced  singly  if  damaged  in 
bridge.  A  canoe  pontoon  and  superstructure  adapted  for  pack 
transport  has  also  been  adopted  from  designs  by  Colonel  (Sir)  Elliott 
Wood,  C.B.,  R.E.  The  pontoon  consists  of  four  sections  laced 
together,  each  section  being  a  framework  of  wood  covered  with 
waterproof  sheeting.  Three  pontoons  and  eight  composite  planks 
form  a  "unit,"  from  which  can  be  constructed  48  ft.  of  bridge  for 
infantry  in  file,  84  ft.  for  infantry  in  single  file,  or  a  raft  to  carry  15 
men  or  an  empty  wagon. 

For  the  British  army  in  India  the  standard  pontoon  for  many 
years  was  the  Pasley;  it  was  seldom  used,  however,  for  boats  could 
almost  always  be  procured  on  the  spot  in  sufficient  numbers  where- 
ever  a  floating  bridge  had  to  be  constructed.  Later  an  equipment 
was  prepared  for  the  Indian  army  of  demi-pontoons,  similar  to  the 
Blood  pontoon  cut  in  half,  and  therefore  more  mobile;  each  has 
a  bow  and  a  square  stern,  and  they  are  joined  at  the  sterns  when 
required  to  form  a  "  pier  "  ;  they  are  fitted  with  movable  covers  and 
can  therefore  be  used  in  much  rougher  water  than  pontoons  of  the 
home  pattern,  and  their  power  of  support  and  breadth  of  roadway 
are  the  same._  The  Chitral  Relief  Expedition  of  1895,  however, 
revealed  certain  defects.  The  shape  of  the  bow  was  unsuited  to 
rapid  currents;  the  balance,  was  not  satisfactory,  and  the  copper 
sheathing  cracked. ,  Experiments  were  then  undertaken  with  the 
bipartite  pontoon. 

The  india-rubber  pontoon  does  not  appear  to  have  been  generally 
employed_  even  in  America,  where  it  was  invented.  The  engineer 
officers  with  the  army  of  the  Potomac,  after  full  experience  of  the 
india-rubber  pontoon  and  countless  other  inventions  of  American 
genius,  adopted  the  French  equipment,  which  they  found  "  most 
excellent,  useful  and  reliable  for  all  military'  purposes."  The 
Russians,  in  crossing  the  Danube  in  their  war  with  Turkey  in  1878, 
employed  the  Austrian  equipment.  Aluminium  pontoons  have 
been  tried  in  Germany,  but  have  not  been  adopted. 

For  light  bridging  work  the  Berthon  and  other  collapsible  boats 
have  been  adopted  in  Germany  and  Great  Britain,  especially  for 
cavalry  work  in  advance  of  the  army.  The  German  folding  boat  is 
made  of  wood  framework  and  canvas  skin;  two  boats  are  easily 
carried  on  one  "  folding-boat  wagon."  The  total  length  of  the  three 
sections  together  is  21  ft.  6  in.  The  British  field  troop  R.E., 
attached  to  cavalry,  carries  two  collapsible  boats  18  ft.  6  in.  long. 

The  methods  of  constructing  pontoon  bridges  have  been  simpli- 
fied of  late  years  in  most  armies,  and  are  usually  restricted  to  (l) 
adding  pontoons  one  by  one  to  the  head  of  the  bridge;  (2)  con- 
necting rafts  of  two  or  more  pontoons  into .  bridge  by  intermediate 
bays  of  superstructure;  and  (3)  swinging  across  the  river  a  bridge 
previously  prepared  alongside  the  shore.  The  formation  of  a  bridge 
from  rafts  touching  one  another  consumes  an  excessive  amount 
of  equipment,  and  opposes  unnecessary  resistance  to  the  stream ;  it 
is  therefore  being  discarded  in  most  armies.  "  Booming  out  " 
the  bridge  bay  by  bay  from  the  shore  until  the  head  reaches  the 
opposite  bank  is  unsuited  for  rapid  currents,  and  is  almost  obsolete 
except  for  light  infantry  bridges. 

In  every  army  the  pontoon  service  is  in  the  hands  of  technical 
specialists.^  But  there  are  many  other  forms  of  military 
bridging,  in  which  the  specialist  only  supervises  the  work  of  the 
ordinary  soldier,  or  indeed,  takes  no  part  whatever.  Troops  of 
all  arms  are  expected  to  be  familiar  with  certain  methods  of 
rough  temporary  bridging.  In  the  British  service  the  forms 
of  temporary  timber  bridge  usually  employed  are  called  trestle, 
lock  and  floating.  The  trestle  bridge  in  its  various  forms  con- 
sists of  a  series  of  two-legged  or  three-legged  trestles  carrying  the 
road-bearers  and  chesses  which  form  the  roadway.  Trestles 
can  be  improvised,  but  some  are  carried,  ready  for  use,  by 
mobile  engineer  units  and  they  are  frequently  combined  with 
pontoon  bridges  at  the  shore  ends,  where  holding  ground  for 
the  feet  of  the  trestles  is  found.  Lock  bridges  never  touch 
water,  forming  single  spans  over  a  chasm.  These  consist  of 
spars  made  into  frames  of  which  the  feet  rest  in  the  banks  of  the 
river  and  the  heads  are  interlocked,  the  whole  being  securely 
lashed.  Another  type  of  frame-bridge  is  the  cantilever,  which 
has  been  used  in    Indian  frontier  expeditions  to  bridge  swift 

1  In  Germany,  however,  as  mentioned  below,  light  bridging 
material  has  been  placed  in  the  hands  of  the  cavalry.  This  tendency, 
in  accordance  with  the  needs  of  modern  armies,  will  probably 
become  more  pronounced  in  the  future.  It  began  with  the  pro- 
vision of  demolition  equipment  for  the  cavalry  pioneers. 


steep-banked  streams.  Improvised  suspension  bridges  are  also 
used.  Floating  bridges  are  made  not  only  of  pontoons  but  also 
of  boats  of  all  sorts,  casks  lashed  together,  and  rafts.  They  are 
almost  always  combined  with  one  or  two  bays  of  trestle  bridging 
at  the  shore  ends. 

The  organization  of  bridging  personnel  in  different  armies  shows 
as  much  divergence  of  opinion  as  the  design  of  pontoon  equipment. 
In  Great  Britain,  since  the  divisional  reorganization,  the  bridging 
trains  have  been  assigned  to  the  "army  troops,"  which  include 
two_  "  bridging  trains,"  totalling  14  officers  and  454  men  with  92 
vehicles,  most  of  them  six-horsed.  Each  train  carries  32  pontoons 
and  32  bays  of  superstructure,  as  well  as  16  trestles  and  8  bays  of 
the  appropriate  superstructure,  and  can  construct  200  yds.  of 
medium  bridge  in  all.  Besides  these  trains  the  divisional  engineer 
units  (2  field  companies  per  division)  bear  with  them  in  all  4  pontoons 
and  4  trestles,  with  the  necessary  bays  of  superstructure,  their 
total  bridging  capacity  being  about  40  yds.  of  medium  bridge. 
In  France  each  army  corps  has  a  brid.ging  train  which  admits  of 
the  construction  of  bridges  to  the  extent  of  about  120  yds.  of 
medium  and  140  yds.  of  light  bridging  and  bears  besides  2  "  advanced 
guard  "  trains  which  can  provide  33  yds.  of  medium  bridging  each. 
Besides  the  corjis  trains  there  are  also  "  army  "  trains,  five  in  all, 
which  can  furnish  280  yds.  of  medium  bridging  apiece.  These 
would  be  allotted  in  accordance  with  the  requirements  of  particular 
campaigns.  In  Germany  the  increasing  importance  attached  to 
independent  cavalry  operations  has  led  to  the  assignment  of  a 
folding-boat  wagon  to  every  cavalry  regiment.  The  regimental 
equipment  provides  for  a  ferry,  capable  of  taking  25  to  30  infantrymen, 
one  artillery  vehicle  or  four  horses  at  one  journey,  a  foot-bridge 
22  to  35  yds.  in  length,  or  a  light  bridge  of  8  to  13  yds.  By 
assembling  the  material  of  a  whole  cavalry  division  of  6  regiments, 
a  foot-bridge  of  no  to  210  yds.  or  a  light  bridge  of  57  to  70  yds. 
can  be  constructed.  The  corps  bridging  train  of  a  German  army 
corps  can  construct  140  yds.  of  medium  or  170  yds.  of  light 
bridging,  and  each  of  the  two  divisional  trains,  40  yds.  of  medium 
and  48  yds.  of  light  bridging. 

PONTOPPIDAN,  ERIK  (1698-1764),  Danish  author,  was 
born  at  Aarhus  on  the  24th  of  August  1698.  He  studied 
divinity  at  the  university  of  Copenhagen,  and  for  some  time 
acted  as  a  travelling  tutor.  In  1735  he  became  one  of  the 
chaplains  of  the  king.  In  1738  he  was  made  professor  extra- 
ordinary of  theology  at  Copenhagen,  and  in  1745  bishop  of 
Bergen,  Norway,  where  he  died  on  the  20th  of  December  1764. 

His  principal  works  are:  Theatrum  Daniae  veteris  et  modemae 
(^to,  1730),  a  description  of  the  geography,  natural  history,  an- 
tiquities, &c.,  of  Denmark;  Gesta  et  vestigia  danorum  extra  Daniam 
(3  vols.  8vo,  1740),  a  laborious  but  uncritical  work;  Annates 
ecclesiae  danicae  (3  vols.,  1 741-1747);  Marmora  danica,  selectiora 
(2  vols,  fol.,  1739-1741);  Glossarium  norvegicum  (1749);  Det  forste 
forsog  Norges  naturlige  historie  (410,  1752-1754);  Eng.  trans., 
Natural  History  of  Norway  (2  vols.,  1755),  containing  curious 
accounts,  often  referred  to,  of  the  Kraaken,  sea-serpent,  and  the 
like;  Origines  hafnienses  (1760);  Menoza  (3  vols.,  1742-1743),  a 
religious  novel.  His  Danske  Atlas  (7  vols.  4to),  an  historical  and 
topographical  account  of  Denmark,  was  mostly  posthumous. 

See  an  article  by  S.  M.  Gjellerup  in  Danish  Biografisk  Lexikon 
(vol.  xiii.,  1899). 

PONTOPPIDAN,  HENRIK  (1857-  ),  Danish  author,  son 
of  a  pastor,  was  born  at  Fredericia  on  the  24th  of  July  1857. 
He  studied  physics  and  mathematics  at  the  university  of  Copen- 
hagen, and  when  he  was  eighteen  he  travelled  on  foot  through 
Germany  and  Switzerland.  His  novels  show  an  intimate 
acquaintance  with  peasant  life  and  character,  the  earlier  ones 
showing  clear  evidence  of  the  influence  of  KjeUand.  An 
excellent  example  of  his  work  is  in  the  trilogy  dealing  with  the 
history  of  Emanuel  Hansted,  a  theorizing  radical  parson  who 
marries  a  peasant  wife.  These  three  stories,  Muld  ("  Soil," 
1891),  Det  Forjaettede  Land  ("  The  Promised  Land,"  1892),  and 
Dommens  Dag  (1895)  are  marked  by  fine  discrimination  and 
great  narrative  power.  Among  his  other  works  are  Fra  Hytterne 
(1887),  Folkelivsskildringer  (2  parts,  1 888-1 890),  &ti6l  Skyer  (1890). 
He  began  in  1898  a  new  series  in  Lykke  Per,  the  story  of  a  typical 
Jutlander. 

See  an  article  of  Niels  Moller  in  Dansk  Biografisk  Lexikon  (vol. 
xiii.,  1899). 

PONTORMO,  JACOPO  DA  (1494-1557),  whose  family  name 
was  Carucci,  Italian  painter  of  the  Florentine  school,  was  born 
at  Pantormo  in  1494,  son  of  a  painter  of  ordinary  ability,  was 
apprenticed  to  Leonardo  da  Vinci,  and  afterwards  took  lessons 
from  Piero  di  Cosimo.     At  the  age  of  eighteen  he  became  a 


70 


PONTREMOLI— PONTUS 


journeyman  to  Andrea  del  Sarto,  and  was  remarked  as  a  young 
man  of  exceptional  accomplishment  and  promise.  Later  on, 
but  still  in  early  youth,  he  executed,  in  continuation  of  Andrea's 
labours,  the  "  Visitation,"  in  the  cloister  of  the  Servi  in  Florence 
— one  of  the  principal  surviving  evidences  of  his  powers.  The 
most  extensive  series  of  works  which  he  ever  undertook  was  a 
set  of  frescoes  in  the  church  of  S.  Lorenzo,  Florence,  from  the 
"  Creation  of  Man  to  the  Deluge,"  closing  with  the  "  Last 
Judgment."  By  this  time,  towards  1546,  he  had  fallen  under 
the  dangerous  speU  of  Michelangelo's  colossal  genius  and  super- 
human style;  and  Pontormo,  after  working  on  at  the  frescoes 
for  eleven  years,  left  them  incomplete,  and  the  object  of  general 
disappointment  and  disparagement.  They  were  finished  by 
Angelo  Bronzino,  but  have  long  since  vanished  under  whitewash. 
Among  the  best  works  of  Pontormo  are  his  portraits,  which 
include  the  likenesses  of  various  members  of  the  Medici  family; 
they  are  vigorous,  animated  and  highly  finished.  He  was  fond 
of  new  and  odd  experiments  both  in  style  of  art  and  in  method  of 
painting.  From  Da  Vinci  he  caught  one  of  the  marked  physio- 
gnomic traits  of  his  visages,  smiles  and  dimples.  At  one  time 
he  took  to  direct  imitation  or  reproduction  of  Albert  Dtirer, 
and  executed  a  series  of  paintings  founded  on  the  Passion 
subjects  of  the  German  master,  not  only  in  composition,  but 
even  in  such  pecuHarities  as  the  treatment  of  draperies,  &c. 
Pontormo  died  of  dropsy  on  the  2nd  of  January  iSS7,  mortified 
at  the  ill  success  of  his  frescoes  in  S.  Lorenzo;  he  was  buried 
below  his  work  in  the  Servi. 

PONTREMOLI,  a  town  and  bishop's  see  of  the  province  of 
Massa  and  Carrara,  Tuscany,  Italy,  in  the  upper  valley  of  the 
Magra,  25  m.  N.  by  E.  of  Spezia  by  rail  and  49  m.  S.S.W.  of 
Parma,  843  ft.  above  sea-level.  Pop.  (1901),  4107  (town); 
14,570  (commune).  It  has  a  17th-century  cathedral.  The 
church  of  the  Annunziata  with  its  Augustinian  monastery  is 
interesting.  There  are  also  mineral  springs.  The  town,  which 
is  well  situated  among  the  mountains,  was  an  independent 
repubhc  in  the  12th  and  13th  centuries,  and  in  1495  was  sacked 
by  the  troops  of  Charles  VIII.  of  France.  It  was  much  damaged 
by  an  earthquake  in  1834. 

PONTUS,  a  name  applied  in  ancient  times  to  extensive  tracts 
of  country  in  the  north-east  of  Asia  Minor  bordering  on  the 
Euxine  (Black  Sea),  which  was  often  called  simply  Pontes 
(the  Main),  by  the  Greeks.  The  exact  signification  of  this 
purely  territorial  name  varied  greatly  at  different  times.  The 
Greeks  used  it  loosely  of  various  parts  of  the  shores  of  the  Euxine, 
and  the  term  did  not  get  a  definite  connotation  till  after  the 
establishment  of  the  kingdom  founded  beyond  the  Halys  during 
the  troubled  period  following  the  death  of  Alexander  the  Great, 
about  301  B.C.,  by  Mithradates  I.,  Ktistes,  son  of  a  Persian 
satrap  in  the  service  of  Antigonus,  one  of  Alexander's  successors, 
and  ruled  by  a  succession  of  kings,  mostly  bearing  the  same  name, 
till  64  B.C.  As  the  greater  part  of  this  kingdom  lay  within 
the  immense  region  of  Cappadocia,  which  in  early  ages  extended 
from  the  borders  of  Cilicia  to  the  Euxine,  the  kingdom  as  a 
whole  was  at  first  called  "  Cappadocia  towards  the  Pontus  " 
(irpos  rc3  Ilovra)),  but  afterwards  simply  "  Pontus,"  the  name 
Cappadocia  being  henceforth  restricted*' to  the  southern  half 
of  the  region  previously  included  under  that  title.  Under  the 
last  king,  Mithradates  Eupator,  commonly  called  the  Great, 
the  realm  of  Pontus  included  not  only  Pontic  Cappadocia  but 
also  the  seaboard  from  the  Bithynian  frontier  to  Colchis,  part 
of  inland  Paphlagonia,  and  Lesser  Armenia  (see  under  Mithra- 
dates). With  the  destruction  of  this  kingdom  by  Pompey 
in  64  B.C.,  the  meaning  of  the  name  Pontus  underwent  a  change. 
Part  of  the  kingdom  was  now  annexed  to  the  Roman  Empire, 
being  united  with  Bithynia  in  a  double  province  called  "  Pontus 
and  Bithynia":  this  part  included  (possibly  from  the  first, 
but  certainly  from  about  40  B.C.  onwards)  only  the  seaboard 
between  Heracleia  (Eregli)  and  Amisus  (Samsun) ,  the  ora  Pontica. 
Hereafter  the  simple  name  Pontus  without  quahfication  was 
regularly  employed  to  denote  the  half  of  this  dual  province, 
especially  by  Romans  and  people  speaking  from  the  Roman 
point  of  view;  it  is  so  used  almost  always  in  the  New  Testament. 


But  it  was  also  frequently  used  to  denote  (in  whole  or  part)  that 
portion  of  the  old  Mithradatic  kingdom  which  lay  between  the 
Halys  (roughly)  and  the  borders  of  Colchis,  Lesser  Armenia, 
Cappadocia  and  Galatia— the  region  properly  designated  by 
the  title  "  Cappadocia  towards  the  Pontus,"  which  was  always 
the  nucleus  of  the  Pontic  kingdom. 

This  region  is  regarded  by  the  geographer  Strabo  (a.d.  19-20), 
himself  a  native  of  the  country,  as  Pontus  in  the  strict  sense 
of 'the  term  (Geogr.  p.  678).  Its  native  population  was  of  the 
same  stock  as  that  of  Cappadocia,  of  which  it  had  formed  a  part, 
an  Oriental  race  often  called  by  the  Greeks  Leucosyri  or  White 
Syrians,  as  distinguished  from  the  southern  Syrians,  who  were 
of  a  darker  complexion,  but  their  precise  ethnological  relations 
are  uncertain.  Geographically  it  is  a  table-land,  forming  the 
north-east  corner  of  the  great  plateau  of  Asia  Minor,  edged  on  the 
north  by  a  lofty  mountain  rim,  along  the  foot  of  which  runs  a 
fringe  of  coast-land.  The  table-land  consists  of  a  series  of  fertile 
plains,  of  varying  size  and  elevation  separated  from  each  other 
by  upland  tracts  or  mountains,  and  it  is  drained  almost  entirely 
by  the  river  Iris  {Yeshil  Irmak)  and  its  numerous  tributaries, 
the  largest  of  which  are  the  Scylax  ( Tchekerek  Irmak)  with  many 
affluents  and  the  Lycus  {Kalkid  Irmak),  all  three  rising  in  the 
highlands  near,  or  on,  the  frontier  of  Armenia  Minor  and  flovmg 
first  in  a  westerly  and  then  in  a  north-westerly  direction  to 
merge  their  waters  in  a  joint  stream,  which  (under  the  name 
of  the  Iris)  pierces  the  mountain-wall  and  emerges  on  the  east 
of  Amisus  {Samsun).  Between  the  Halys  and  the  Iris  the 
mountain  rim  is  comparatively  low  and  broken,  but  east  of  the 
Iris  it  is  a  continuous  lofty  ridge  (called  by  the  ancients  Pary- 
adres  and  Scydises),  whose  rugged  northern  slopes  are  furrowed 
by  torrent  beds,  down  which  a  host  of  small  streams  (among 
them  the  Thermodon,  famed  in  Amazon  story)  tumble  to  the 
sea.  These  inaccessible  slopes  were  inhabited  even  in  Strabo's 
time  by  wild,  half-barbarous  tribes,  of  whose  ethnical  relations 
we  are  ignorant — the  Chalybes  (identified  by  the  Greeks  with 
Homer's  Chalybes),  Tibareni,  Mosynoeci  and  Macrones,  on 
whose  manners  and  condition  some  light  is  thrown  by  Xenophon 
{Anah.  V).  But  the  fringe  of  coast-land  from  Trebizond 
westward  is  one  of  the  most  beautiful  parts  of  Asia  Minor  and 
is  justly  extolled  by  Strabo  for  its  wonderful  productiveness. 

The  sea-coast,  like  the  rest  of  the  south  shore  of  the  Euxine, 
was  studded  with  Greek  colonies  founded  from  the  6th  century 
onwards:  Amisus,  a  colony  of  Miletus,  which  in  the  5th  century 
received  a  body  of  Athenian  settlers,  now  the  port  of  Samsun; 
Cotyora,  now  Ordu;  Cerasus,  the  later  Phamacia,  now  Kerasund; 
and  Trapezus  {Trebizond),  a  famous  city  from  Xenophon's 
time  till  the  end  of  the  middle  ages.  The  last  three  were 
colonies  of  Sinope,  itself  a  Milesian  colony.  The  chief  towns 
in  the  interior  were  Amasia,  on  the  Iris,  the  birthplace  of  Strabo, 
the  capital  of  Mithradates  the  Great,  and  the  burial-place  of  the 
earlier  kings,  whose  tombs  still  exist;  Comana,  higher  up  the 
river,  a  famous  centre  of  the  worship  of  the  goddess  Ma  (or 
Cybele);  Zela,  another  great  religious  centre,  refouBded  by 
Pompey,  now  Zlleh;  Eupatoria,  refounded  by  Pompey  as 
Magnopohs  at  the  junction  of  the  Lycus  and  Iris;  Cabira, 
Pompey's  Diospolis,  afterwards  Neocaesarea,  now  Niksar; 
Sebastopohs  on  the  Scylax,  now  Sulu  Serai;  Sebasteia,  now 
Sivas;  and  Megalopolis,  a  foundation  of  Pompey,  somewhere  in 
the  same  district. 

The  history  of  this  region  is  the  history  of  the  advance  of 
the  Roman  Empire  towards  the  Euphrates.  Its  political 
position  between  64  and  41  B.C.,  when  Mark  Antony  became 
master  of  the  East,  is  not  quite  certain.  Part  of  it  was  handed 
over  by  Pompey  to  client  princes:  the  coast-land  east  of  the 
Halys  (except  the  territory  of  Amisus)  and  the  hill-tribes  of 
Paryadres  were  given,  with  Lesser  Armenia,  to  the  Galatian 
chief  Deiotarus,  with  the  title  of  king;  Comana  was  left  under 
the  rule  of  its  high-priest.  The  rest  of  the  interior  was  parti- 
tioned by  Pompey  amongst  the  inland  cities,  almost  aU  of  which 
were  founded  by  him,  and,  according  to  one  view,  was  included 
together  with  the  seaboard  west  of  Amisus  and  the  corner  of  north- 
east Paphlagonia  possessed  by  Mithradates  in  his  new  province 


PONTUS  DE  TYARD— PONTYPRIDD 


71 


Pontus-Bithynia.  Others  maintain  that  only  the  seaboard 
was  included  in  the  province,  the  inland  cities  being  constituted 
self-governing,  "  protected "  communities.  The  latter  view 
is  more  in  conformity  with  Roman  pohcy  in  the  East,  which 
did  not  usually  annex  countries  tOl  they  reached  (under  the 
rule  of  cHent  princes)  a  certain  level  of  civilization  and  order, 
but  it  is  difficult  to  reconcile  with  Strabo's  statements  (p.  541 
sqq.).  In  any  case,  during  the  years  following  40  B.C.  all  inland 
Pontus  was  handed  over,  hke  north-east  Paphlagonia,  to  native 
dynasts.  The  Pontic  possessions  of  Deiotarus  (d.  40  B.C.)  were 
given  with  additions  (e.g.  Cabira)  in  39  B.C.  to  Darius,  son  of 
Pharnaces,  and  in  36  B.C.  to  Polemon,  son  of  a  rhetorician  of 
Laodicea  on  the  Lycus.  The  high-priest  of  Comana,  Lycomedes, 
received  an  accession  of  territory  and  the  royal  title.  The 
territories  of  Zela  and  MegalopoUs  were  divided  between  Lyco- 
medes, the  high-priest  of  Zela  and  Ateporix,  who  ruled  the 
principality  of  Carana  (later  Sebastopolis).  Amasia  and 
Amisus  were  also  given  to  native  princes. 

After  the  battle  of  Actium  (31  B.C.)  Augustus  restored 
Amisus  as  a  "  free  city  "  to  the  province  of  Bithynia-Pontus, 
but  made  no  other  serious  change.  Polemon  retained  his  king- 
dom till  his  death  in  8  B.C.,  when  it  passed  to  his  widow  Pytho- 
doris.  But  presently  the  process  of  annexation  began  and  the 
Pontic  districts  were  gradually  incorporated  in  the  empire, 
each  being  attached  to  the  province  of  Galatia,  then  the  centre 
of  Roman  forward  policy,  (i)  The  western  district  was  an- 
nexed in  two  sections,  Sebastopolis  and  Amasia  in  3-2  B.C., 
and  Comana  in  a.d.  34-35.  To  distinguish  this  district  from 
the  province  Pontus  and  Polemon's  Pontus,  it  was  henceforth 
called  Pontus  galaticus  (as  being  the  first  part  attached  to 
Galatia).  (2)  Polemon's  kingdom,  ruled  since  a.d.  38  by  Pole- 
mon II.,  grandson  of  the  former  king,  was  annexed  by  Nero  in 
A.D.  64-65,  and  distinguished  by  the  title  of  Pontus  polemoniacus, 
which  survived  for  centuries.  [But  the  simple  name  Pontus, 
hitherto  commonly  used  to  designate  Polemon's  realm,  is  still 
employed  to  denote  this  district  by  itself  or  in  conjunction 
with  Pontus  Galaticus,  where  the  context  makes  the  meaning 
clear  {e.g.  in  inscriptions  and  on  coins).]  Polemoniacus 
included  the  sea-coast  from  the  Thermodon  to  Cotyora  and  the 
inland  cities  Zela,  Magnopolis,  Megalopolis,  Neocaesarea  and 
Sebasteia  (according  to  Ptolemy,  but  apparently  annexed  since 
2  B.C.,  according  to  its  coins).  (3)  Finally,  at  the  same  time 
(a.d.  64)  was  annexed  the  remaining  eastern  part  of  Pontus, 
which  formed  part  of  Polemon's  realm  but  was  attached  to 
the  province  Cappadocia  and  distinguished  by  the  epithet 
cappadocicus.  These  three  districts  formed  distinct  adminis- 
trative divisions  within  the  provinces  to  which  they  were 
attached,  with  separate  capitals  Amasia,  Neocaesarea  and 
Trapezus;  but  the  first  two  were  afterwards  merged  in  one, 
sometimes  called  Pontus  mediterraneus,  with  Neocaesarea  as 
capital,  probably  when  they  were  definitively  transferred 
(about  a.d.  114)  to  Cappadocia,  then  the  great  frontier  military 
province. 

With  the  reorganization  of  the  provincial  system  under 
Diocletian  (about  a.d.  295),  the  Pontic  districts  were  divided 
up  between  four  provinces  of  the  dioecesis  pontica:  (i)  Paphla- 
gonia, to  which  was  attached  most  of  the  old  province  Pontus; 
(2)  Diospontus,  re-named  Helenopontus  by  Constantine,  con- 
taining the  rest  of  the  province  Pontus  and  the  adjoining  dis- 
trict, eight  cities  in  all  (including  Sinope,  Amisus  and  Zela)  with 
Amasia  as  capital;  (3)  Pontus  Polemoniacus,  containing  Comana, 
Polemonium,  Cerasus  and  Trapezus  with  Neocaesarea  as 
capital;  and  (4)  Armenia  Minor,  five  cities,  with  Sebasteia,  as 
capital.  This  rearrangement  gave  place  in  turn  to  the  Byzantine 
system  of  military  districts  {themes). 

Christianity  was  introduced  into  the  province  Pontus  (the 
Ora  pontica)  by  way  of  the  sea  in  the  ist  century  after  Christ 
and  was  deeply  rooted  when  Pliny  governed  the  province 
(a.d.  111-113).  But  the  Christianization  of  the  inland  Pontic 
districts  began  only  about  the  middle  of  the  3rd  century  and 
was  largely  due  to  the  missionary  zeal  of  Gregory  Thaumaturgus, 
bishop  of  Neocaesarea. 


See  Ramsay,  Histor.  Geoer.  of  Asia  Minor  (1890) ;  Anderson  and 
Cumont,  Studia  pontica  (1903  et  seq.);  Babelon  and  Reinach, 
Recueil  des  monnaies  d'Asie  min.,  t.  i.  (1904) ;  H.  Gregoire,  "  Voyage 
dans  le  Pont  "  &c.  in  Bull,  de  corres.  hell.  (1909).        (J.  G.  C.  A.) 

PONTUS  DE  TYARD  (c.  1521-1605),  French  poet  and  member 
of  the  Pleiade  (see  Datjrat),  was  seigneur  of  Bissy  in  Burgundy, 
where  he  was  born  in  or  about  1521.  He  was  a  friend  of  Antoine 
Heroet  and  Maurice  Sceve,  and  to  a  certain  extent  anticipated 
Ronsard  and  Joachim  Du  Bellay.  His  Erreurs  amour euses, 
originally  pubhshed  in  1549,  was  augmented  with  other  poems 
in  successive  editions  tiU  1573.  On  the  whole  his  poetry  is 
inferior  to  that  of  his  companions,  but  he  was  one  of  the  first 
to  write  sonnets  in  French  (the  actual  priority  belongs  to  Melin 
de  St  Gelais).  It  is  also  said  that  he  introduced  the  sestine 
into  France,  or  rather  reintroduced  it,  for  it  was  originally 
a  Provencal  invention.  In  his  later  years  he  gave  himself  up 
to  the  study  of  mathematics  and  philosophy.  He  became  bishop 
of  ChS,lons-sur-Sa6ne  in  1578,  and  in  1587  appeared  his  Discours 
philosophiques.  He  was  a  zealous  defender  of  the  cause  of 
Henry  III.  against  the  pretensions  of  the  Guises.  This  attitude 
brought  down  on  him  the  vengeance  of  the  league;  he  was 
driven  from  Chalons  and  his  chateau  at  Bissy  was  plundered. 
He  survived  all  the  members  of  the  PMiade  and  hved  to  see  the 
onslaught  made  on  their  doctrines  by  Malherbe.  Pontus 
resigned  his  bishopric  in  1594,  and  retired  to  the  chateau  de 
Bragny,  where  he  died  on  the  23rd  of  September  1605. 

His  Oeuvres  poUigues  may  be  found  in  the  Pleiade  frangaise  (1875) 
of  M.  Ch.  Marty-Laveaux. 

PONTYPOOL,  a  market  town  in  the  northern  parliamentary 
division  of  Monmouthshire,  England,  8  m.  N.  of  Newport, 
served  by  the  Great  Western,  London  &  North-Western,  and 
Rhymney  railways.  Pop.  of  urban  district  (1901),  6126.  It 
is  beautifully  situated  on  an  acchvity  above  the  Afon  Lwyd, 
a  tributary  of  the  Usk.  Its  prosperity  is  due  to  its  situation 
on  the  edge  of  the  great  coal-  and  iron-field  of  Monmouthshire 
and  Glamorganshire.  The  earliest  record  of  trade  in  iron  is  in 
1588,  but  it  was  developed  chiefly  in  the  beginning  of  the  i8th 
century  by  the  family  of  Hanbury,  the  proprietors  of  Pontypool 
Park.  Pontypool  was  formerly  famed  for  its  japanned  goods, 
invented  by  Thomas  Allwood,  a  native  of  Northampton,  who 
settled  in  the  town  in  the  reign  of  Charles  II.,  but  the  manu- 
facture has  long  been  transferred  elsewhere.  The  town  and 
neighbourhood  contain  large  forges  and  iron  mills  for  the  manu- 
facture of  iron-work  and  tin-plate.  Water  communication 
is  afforded  with  Newport  by  the  Monmouthshire  Canal.  On 
the  south-east  of  Pontypool  is  the  urban  district  of  Panteg, 
including  Griffithstown,  with  a  population  (1901)  of  7484. 

PONTYPRIDD,  a  parish,  market  town,  and  urban  district, 
in  the  eastern  parliamentary  division  of  Glamorganshire,  Wales, 
situated  on  the  Taff  at  its  junction  with  the  Rhondda,  on  the 
Taff  Vale  railway,  and  on  the  Glamorganshire  Canal,  12  m. 
N.N.W.  from  Cardiff,  12  S.  from  Merthyr-Tydfil,  and  169  by  rail 
from  London.  It  is  also  connected  with  Newport  by  a  Great 
Western  line  iSj  m.  long.  Pop.  (1901),  32,316.  It  receives  its 
name  from  a  remarkable  bridge  of  one  arch  spanning  the  Taff, 
erected  in  1755  by  William  Edwards,  a  self-taught  mason. 
The  bridge  is  a  perfect  segment  of  a  circle,  the  chord  being 
140  ft.,  and  the  height  at  low  water  36  ft.  A  three-arched  bridge 
was  erected  close  to  it  in  1857.  The  town  is  built  at  the  junc- 
tion of  the  three  parishes  of  Llanwonno,  Llantwit  Fardre  and 
Eglwysilan,  out  of  portions  of  which  Glyntaff  was  formed  into 
an  ecclesiastical  parish  in  1848,  and  from  this  Pontypridd  was 
carved  in  1884.  The  urban  district  was  constituted  into  a 
civU  parish  in  1894.  The  church  of  St  Catherine,  built  in 
1868,  enlarged  in  1885,  is  in  early  Decorated  style;  other  places 
of  worship  are  the  Baptist,  Calvinistic  Methodist,  Congrega- 
tional, and  Wesleyan  chapels.  The  principal  secular  buildings 
are  a  masonic  haU,  town-hall  buUt  above  the  market,  free  hbrary 
(1890),  county  intermediate  school  (1895)  and  court-house. 
Near  the  town  is  a  far-famed  rocking-stone  9^  tons  in  weight, 
known  as  the  Maen  Chwyf,  round  which  a  circle  of  small  stones 
was  set  up  in  the  middle  of  the  19th  century  under  the  direction 


72 


PONY— POOLE,  R.  S. 


of  Myvyr  Morganwg,  who  used  to  style  himself  archdruid  of 
Wales.  The  place  became,  for  a  time,  famous  as  a  meeting 
place  for  neo-Druidic  gatherings.  Pontypridd  was  an  insig- 
nificant village  till  the  opening  of  the  Taff  Vale  railway  into 
the  town  in  1840,  and  it  owed  its  progress  chiefly  to  the  de- 
velopment of  the  coal  areas  of  the  Rhondda  Valley,  for  which 
district  it  serves  as  the  market  town  and  chief  business  centre. 
It  also  possesses  anchor,  chain,  and  cable  works,  chemical  works, 
and  iron  and  brass  foundries.  Pontypridd  has,  jointly  with 
Rhondda,  a  stipendiary  magistrate  since  1872. 

PONY  (from  the  Lowland  Scots  powney,  probably  from  O.  Fr. 
pouleriet,  diminutive  of  poulain,  a  colt  or  foal;  Late  Lat.  pullanus, 
Lat.  pullus,  a  young  animal),  a  horse  of  a  small  breed,  sometimes 
confined  to  such  as  do  not  exceed  13  hands  in  height,  but 
generally  applied  to  any  horse  under  14  hands  (see  Horse).  The 
word  is  of  frequent  use  as  a  slang  term — e.g.  for  a  sum  of  £25; 
for  a  liquor  measure  or  glass  containing  less  than  a  half-pint; 
and  in  America  for  a  literal  translation  of  a  foreign  or  classical 
author,  a  "  crib." 

PONZA  (anc.  Pontiae),  the  principal  of  a  small  group  of 
islands  belonging  to  Italy.  Pop.  (1901),  462T.  The  group  is  of 
volcanic  origin,  and  includes  Palmarola  (anc.  Palmaria),  Zannone 
(Sinonia),  Ventotene  (Pandateria,  pop.  in  1901,  1986)  and  San 
Stefano.  It  is  situated  about  20  m.  S.  of  Monte  Circeo  and 
70  m.  W.  of  Naples,  and  belongs  partly  to  the  province  of  Caserta 
and  partly  to  that  of  Naples  (Ventotene).  There  is  regular 
communication  with  Naples  by  steamer,  and  in  summer  with 
Anzio.  The  islands  rise  to  a  height  of  about  70  ft.  above  sea- 
level.  They  are  now  penal  settlements,  and  their  isolated 
character  led  to  their  being  similarly  used  in  ancient  times.  A 
colony  with  Latin  rights  was  founded  on  Pontiae  in  313  B.C. 
Nero,  Germanicus's  eldest  son,  and  the  sisters  of  Caligula,  were 
confined  upon  it;  while  Pandateria  was  the  place  of  banishment 
of  Julia,  daughter  of  Augustus,  of  her  daughter  Agrippina  the 
elder,  and  of  Octavia,  the  divorced  wife  of  Nero. 

POOD,  a  Russian  weight,  equivalent  to  40  tb  Russian  and 
about  36  lb  avoirdupois.  A  little  more  than  62  poods  go  to 
the  ton.  The  word  is  an  adaptation  of  the  Low  German  or 
Norse  pund,  pound. 

POOL,  (i)  A  pond,  or  a  small  body  of  stiU  water;  also  a 
place  in  a  river  or  stream  where  the  water  is  deep  and  still,  so 
applied  in  the  Thames  to  that  part  of  the  river  known  as  The 
Pool,  which  reaches  from  below  London  Bridge  to  Limehouse. 
The  word  in  Old  Enghsh  was  pol,  which  may  be  related  to  pull 
or  pyll,  and  the  similar  Celtic  words,  e.g.  Cornish  pol,  a  creek, 
common  on  the  Bristol  Channel  and  estuary  of  the  Severn,  on 
the  English  side  in  the  form  "  pill."  A  further  connexion  has 
been  suggested  with  Lat.  palus,  marsh;  Or.  ttjjXos,  mud.  (2) 
A  name  for  the  stakes,  penalties,  &c.,  in  various  card  and  other 
games  when  collected  together  to  be  paid  out  to  the  winners; 
also  the  name  of  a  variety  of  games  of  billiards  {q.v.).  This 
word  has  a  curious  history.  It  is  certainly  adapted  from  Fr. 
poule,  hen,  chicken,  apparently  a  slang  term  for  the  stakes  in 
a  game,  possibly,  as  the  New  English  Dictionary  suggests,  used 
as  a  synonym  for  plunder,  booty.  "  Chicken-hazard  "  might 
be  cited  as  a  parallel,  though  that  has  t(pen  taken  to  be  a  cor- 
ruption of  "  chequeen,"  a  form  of  the  Turkish  coin,  a  sequin. 
When  the  word  came  into  use  in  Enghsh  at  the  end  of  the  17th 
century,  it  seems  to  have  been  at  once  identified  with  "  pool," 
pond,  as  Fr.  fiche  {ficher,  to  fix),  a  counter,  was  with  "fish," 
counters  in  card  games  often  taking  the  form  of  "  fish  "  made 
of  mother-of-pearl,  &c.  "  Pool,"  in  the  sense  of  a  common 
fund,  has  been  adopted  as  a  commercial  term  for  a  combination 
for  the  purpose  of  speculating  in  stocks  and  shares,  the  several 
owners  of  securities  "  pooling"  them  and  placing  them  under  a 
single  control,  and  sharing  all  losses  and  profits.  Similarly 
the  name  is  given  to  a  form  of  trade  combination,  especially  in 
railway  or  shipping  companies,  by  which  the  receipts  or  profits 
are  divided  on  a  certain  agreed-upon  basis,  for  the  purpose  of 
avoiding  competition  (see  Trusts). 

POOLE,  MATTHEW  (1624-1679),  English  Nonconformist 
theologian,  was  born  at  York,  educated  at  Emmanuel  College, 


Cambridge,  and  from  1649  till  the  passing  of  the  Act  of  Unifor- 
mity (1662)  held  the  rectojy  of  St  Michael  le  Querne,  London. 
Subsequent  troubles  led  to  his  withdrawal  to  Holland,  and  he 
died  at  Amsterdam  in  1679.  The  work  with  which  his  name 
is  principally  associated  is  the  Synopsis  criticorum  biUicorum 
(5  vols,  fol.,  1669-1676),  in  which  he  summarizes  the  views  of  one 
hundred  and  fifty  bibhcal  critics.  He  also  wrote  English  Anno- 
tations on  the  Holy  Bible,  as  far  as  Isa.  Iviii. — a  work  which 
was  completed  by  several  Of  his  Nonconformist  brethren,  and 
published  in  2  vols.  fol.  in  1683. 

POOLE,  PAUL  FALCONER  (1806-1879),  Enghsh  painter, 
was  born  at  Bristol  in  1806.  Though  self-taught  his  fine  feeUng 
for  colour,  poetic  sympathy  and  dramatic  power  gained  for  him 
a  high  position  among  British  artists.  He  exhibited  his  first 
work  in  the  Royal  Academy  at  the  age  of  twenty-five,  the  sub- 
ject being  "  The  Well,"  a  scene  in  Naples.  There  was  an  interval 
of  seven  years  before. he  next  exhibited  his  "  Farewell,  Farewell  " 
in  1837,  which  was  followed  by  the  "  Emigrant's  Departure," 
"  Hermann  and  Dorothea  "  and  "  By  the  Waters  of  Babylon." 
In  1843  his  position  was  made  secure  by  his  "  Solomon  Eagle," 
and  by  his  success  in  the  Cartoon  Exhibition,  in  which  he  received 
from  the  Fine  Art  Commissioners  a  prize  of  £300  sterhng.  After 
his  exhibition  of  the  "  Surrender  of  Syon  House  "  he  was  elected 
an  associate  of  the  Royal  Academy  in  1846,  and  was  made  an 
academician  in  1861.    He  died  in  1879. 

Poole's  subjects  divide  themselves  into  two  orders — one 
idylhc,  the  other  dramatic.  Of  the  former  his  "  May  Day  " 
(1852)  is  a  typical  example.  Of  both  styles  there  were  excellent 
examples  to  be  seen  in  the  small  collection  of  his  works  shown 
at  Burhngton  House  in  the  Winter  Exhibition  of  1883-1884. 
Among  his  early  dramatic  pictures  was  "  Solomon  Eagle  ex- 
horting the  People  to  Repentance  during  the  Plague  of  1665," 
painted  in  1843.  To  this  class  belongs  also  the  "  Messenger 
announcing  to  Job  the  Irruption  of  the  Sabeans  and  the 
Slaughter  of  the  Servants  "  (exhibited  in  1850),  and  "  Robert, 
Duke  of  Normandy  and  Arietta  "  (1848).  Finer  examples  of 
his  more  mature  power  in  this  direction  are  to  be  found  in  his 
"  Prodigal  Son,"  painted  in  1869;  the  "Escape  of  Glaucusand 
lone  with  the  bUnd  girl  Nydia  from  Pompeii"  (i860);  and 
"  Cunstaunce  sent  adrift  by  the  Constable  of  Alia,  King  of 
Northumberland,"  painted  in  1868.  More  peacefiil  than  these 
are  the  "  Song  of  Troubadours  "  (painted  in  1854)  and  the  "  Goths 
in  Italy"  (1851),  the  latter  an  important  historical  work  of 
great  power  and  beauty.  Of  a  less  lofty  strain,  but  still  more 
beautiful  in  its  workmanship,  is  the  "  Seventh  Day  of  the 
Decameron,"  painted  in  1857.  In  this  picture  Poole  rises  to  his 
fuU  height  as  a  colourist.  In  his  pastorals  he  is  soft  and  tender, 
as  in  the  "  Mountain  Path  "  (1853),  the  "  Water-cress  Gatherers  " 
(1870),  the  "  Shepston  Maiden  "  (1872).  But  when  he  turns  to 
the  grander  and  more  subhme  views  of  nature  his  work  is  bold 
and  vigorous.  Fine  examples  of  this  style  may  be  seen  in  the 
"  Vision  of  Ezekiel  "  of  the  National  Gallery,  "  Solitude " 
(1876),  the  "Entrance  to  the  Cave  of  Mammon"  (1875),  the 
"  Dragon's  Cavern"  (1877),  and  perhaps  best  of  all  in  the  "Lion 
in  the  Path  "  (1873),  a  great  representation  of  mountain  and 
cloud  form. 

POOLE,  REGINALD  STUART  (1832-1895),  English  archae- 
ologist and  orientahst,  was  born  in  London  on  the  27  th  of 
January  1832.  His  father  was  the  Rev.  Edward  Poole,  a  well- 
known  bibliophile.  His  mother,  Sopha,  authoress  of  The 
Englishwoman  in  Egypt  (1844),  was  the  sister  of  E.  W.  Lane, 
the  Arabic  scholar,  with  whom  R.  S.  Poole  lived  in  Cairo  from 
1842  to^  1849,  thus  imbibing  an  early  taste  for  Egyptian 
antiquities.  In  1852  he  became  an  assistant  in  the  British 
Museum,  and  was  assigned  to  the  department  of  coins  and 
medals,  of  which  in  1870  he  became  keeper.  In  that  capacity 
he  did  work  of  the  highest  value,  alike  as  a  writer,  teacher  and 
administrator.  In  1882  he  was  largely  responsible  for  founding 
the  Egypt  Exploration  Fund,  and  in  1884  for  starting  the  Society 
of  Enghsh  Medallists.  He  retired  in  1893,  and  died  on  the  8th 
of  February  1895.  Some  of  Poole's  best  work  was  done  in  his 
articles  for  the  Ency.  Brit.  (9th  ed.)  on  Egypt,  Hieroglyphics 


POOLE— POOP 


73 


and  Numismatics,  and  considerable  portions  have  been  retained 
in  the  present  edition,  even  though  later  research  has  been 
active  in  his  sphere  of  work;  he  also  wrote  for  Smith's  Dictionary 
of  the  Bible,  and  published  several  volumes  dealing  with  his 
special  subjects.  He  was  for  some  time  professor  of  archae- 
ology at  University  College,  London,  and  also  lecturer  at  the 
Royal  Academy. 

His  elder  brother,  Edward  Stanley  Poole  (1830-1867), 
who  was  chief  clerk  in  the  science  and  art  department  at  South 
Kensington,  was  an  Arabic  scholar,  whose  early  death  cut  short 
a  promising  career.  His  two  sons,  Stanley  Lane-Poole  (b.  1854), 
professor  of  Arabic  in  Trinity  College,  Dublin,  and  Reginald 
Lane-Poole  (b.  1857),  keeper  of  the  archives  at  Oxford, 
lecturer  in  diplomatic,  and  author  of  various  historical  works, 
carried  on  the  family  tradition  of  scholarship. 

POOLE,  a  municipal  borough,  county  in  itself,  market  town 
and  seaport  in  the  eastern  parliamentary  division  of  Dor- 
setshire, England,  113!  m.  S.W.  by  W.  from  London  by  the 
London  &  South-Western  railway.  Pop.  (1901),  19,463.  It 
is  picturesquely  situated  on  a  peninsula  between  Holes  Bay 
and  the  shallow  irregular  inlets  of  Poole  Harbour.  There  are 
several  modern  churches,  a  guildhall,  public  library  and  school 
of  art.  Poole  Harbour,  extending  inland  6  m.,  with  a  general 
breadth  of  4  m.,  has  a  very  narrow  entrance,  and  is  studded 
with  low  islands,  on  the  largest  of  which,  Brownsea  or  Branksea, 
is  a  castle,  transformed  into  a  residence,  erected  as  a  defence 
of  the  harbour  in  Tudor  times,  and  strengthened  by  Charles  I. 
Potters'  clay  is  worked  here.  At  low  water  the  harbour  is 
entirely  emptied  except  a  narrow  channel,  when  there  is  a 
depth  of  8|  ft.  There  are  some  valuable  oyster  beds.  There 
is  a  considerable  general  coasting  trade,  and  clay  is  exported 
to  the  Staffordshire  potteries.  Some  shipbuilding  is  carried 
on,  and  there  are  manufacturers  of  cordage,  netting  and  sail- 
cloth. The  town  also  possesses  potteries,  decorative  tileworks, 
iron  foundries,  agricultural  implement  works  and  flour-mills. 
Poole  Park,  containing  40  acres  of  land  and  62  acres  of  water, 
was  acquired  in  1887  and  1889,  and  Branksome  Park,  of 
40  acres,  in  1895.  The  borough  is  under  a  mayor,  6  aldermen 
and  18  councillors.    Area,  5333  acres. 

Although  the  neighbourhood  abounds  in  British  earth- 
works and  barrows,  and  there  are  traces  of  a  Roman  road  lead- 
ing from  Poole  to  WimbornCj  Poole  (La  Pole)  is  not  mentioned 
by  the  early  chroniclers  or  in  Domesday  Book.  The  manor, 
part  of  that  of  Canford,  belonged  in  1086  to  Edward  of  Salis- 
bury, and  passed  by  marriage  to  Wilham  Longespee,  earl  of 
Salisijury,  thence  to  Edmund  de  Lacy,  earl  of  Lincoln,  and  with 
his  heiress  to  Thomas,  earl  of  Lancaster,  and  so  to  the  Crown. 
Poole  is  first  mentioned  in  a  writ  of  1224,  addressed  to  the  bailiffs 
and  good  men  of  La  Pole,  ordering  them  to  retain  all  ships  within 
their  port.  Entries  in  the  Patent  Rolls  show  that  Poole  had 
considerable  trade  before  WiUiam  de  Longespee,  earl  of  Salis- 
bury, granted  the  burgesses  a  charter  about  1248  assuring  to 
them  all  liberties  and  free  customs  within  his  borough.  The 
bailiff  was  to  be  chosen  by  the  lord  from  six  men  elected  by 
the  burgesses,  and  was  to  hold  pleas  for  breach  of  measures 
md  assizes.  It  is  uncertain  when  the  burgesses  obtained  their 
town  at  the  fee-farm  rent  of  £8,  13s.  4d.  mentioned  in  1312. 
The  mayor,  bailiffs  and  good  men  are  first  mentioned  in  13 11 
md  were  required  to  provide  two  ships  for  service  against 
Robert  de  Brus.  In  1372  the  burgesses  obtained  assize  of 
aread  and  ale,  and  right  to  hold  the  courts  of  the  lord  of  the 
nanor,  the  prepositus  being  styled  his  mayor.  The  burgesses 
ffere  licensed  in  1433  to  fortify  the  town;  this  was  renewed  in 
[462,  when  the  mayor  was  given  cognisance  of  the  staple. 
Elizabeth  incorporated  Poole  in  1569  and  made  it  a  separate 
;ounty;  Charles  II.  gave  a  charter  in  1667.  The  corporation 
vas  suspended,  after  a  writ  of  quo  warranto  in  1686,  the  town 
)eing  governed  by  the  commission  of  the  peace  until  the 
:harters  were  renewed  in  1688.  Poole  returned  two  members  to 
)arliament  in  1362  and  1368,  and  regularly  from  1452  to  1867, 
vhen  the  representation  was  reduced,  ceasing  in  1885.  It  is 
mcertain  when  the   Thursday  market   was   granted,  but  the 


present  fairs  on  the  Feasts  of  SS  Philip  and  James  and  AU 
Saints  were  granted  in  1453-  Poole,  as  the  headquarters  of  the 
Parhamentary  forces  in  Dorset  during  the  Civil  War,  escaped 
the  siege  that  crippled  so  many  of  its  neighbours.  When 
Charles  II.  visited  the  town  in  1665  a  large  trade  was  carried  on 
in  stockings,  though  the  prosperity  of  Poole  still  depended  on 
its  usefulness  as  a  port. 

POONA,  or  Puna,  a  city  and  district  of  British  India,  in 
the  Central  division  of  Bombay.  The  city  is  at  the  confluence 
of  the  Mutha  and  Mula  rivers,  1850  ft.  above  sea-level  and  119  m. 
S.E.  from  Bombay  on  the  Great  Indian  Peninsula  railway. 
Municipal  area,  about  4  sq.  m.;  pop.  (1901),  153,320.  It  is 
pleasantly  situated  amid  extensive  gardens,  with  a  large  num- 
ber of  modern  public  buildings,  and  also  many  temples  and 
palaces  dating  from  the  16th  to  the  19th  century.  The  palace 
of  the  peshwas  is  a  ruin,  having  been  destroyed  by  fire  in  1827. 
From  its  healthy  situation  Poona  has  been  chosen  not  only 
as  the  headquarters  of  the  6th  division  of  the  Southern  army, 
but  also  as  the  residence  of  the  governor  of  Bombay  during  the 
rainy  season,  from  June  to  September.  The  native  town,  along 
the  river  bank,  is  somewhat  poorly  built.  The  European  quarter, 
including  the  cantonment,  extends  north-west  towards  Kirkee. 
The  waterworks  were  constructed  mainly  by  the  munificence 
of  Sir  Jamsetjee  Jeejeebhoy.  Poona  was  never  a  great  centre 
of  trade  or  manufacture  though  stiU  noted  for  brass-work, ' 
jewelry  and  other  articles  of  luxury.  Cotton-mills,  paper- 
mills,  a  brewery  (at  Dapuri),  flour-mills,  factories  of  ice  and 
mineral  waters,  and  dairy  farms  furnish  the  chief  industries. 
Educational  institutions  are  numerous.  They  include  the 
government  Deccan  College,  with  a  law  class;  the  aided  Fer- 
gusson  college;  the  government  colleges  of  science  and  agricul- 
ture; high  schools;  training  schools  for  masters  and  mistresses; 
medical  school;  and  municipal  technical  school.  The  recent 
history  of  Poona  has  been  painfully  associated  with  the  plague. 
During  1897,  when  the  city  was  first  attacked,  the  death-rate 
rose  to  93  per  1000  in  Poona  city,  71  per  1000  in  the  canton- 
ment, and  93  per  1000  in  Kirkee. 

The  District  of  Poona  has  an  area  of  5349  sq.  m.  Popula- 
tion (1901),  995,330,  showing  an  increase  of  18%  after  the  dis- 
astrous famine  of  1876-1877,  but  a  decrease  of  7%  in  the  last 
decade.  Towards  the  west  the  country  is  undulating,  and 
numerous  spurs  from  the  Western  Ghats  enter  the  district;  to 
the  east  it  opens  out  into  plains.  It  is  watered  by  many  streams 
which,  rising  in  the  ghats,  flow  eastwards  until  they  join  the 
Bhima,  a  river  which  intersects  the  district  from  north  to  south. 
The  principal  crops  are  millets,  pulses,  oil-seeds,  wheat,  rice,  sugar- 
cane, vegetables  and  fruit  (including  grapes).  The  two  most 
important  irrigation  works  in  the  Deccan  are  the  Mutha  canal, 
with  which  the  Poona  waterworks  are  connected,  and  the  Nira 
canal.  There  are  manufactures  of  cotton,  silk  and  blankets. 
The  district  is  traversed  by  the  Great  Indian  Peninsula  railway, 
and  also  by  the  Southern  Mahratta  Hne,  which  starts  from  Poona 
city  towards  Satara.  It  is  liable  to  drought,  from  which  it 
suffered  severely  in  1866-1867,  1876-1877,  and  again  in 
1896-1897. 

In  the  17th  century  the  district  formed  part  of  the  Mahom- 
medan  kingdom  of  Ahmadnagar.  Sivaji  was  born  within  its 
boundaries  at  Junnar  in  1627,  and  he  was  brought  up  at  Poona 
town  as  the  headquarters  of  the  hereditary  fief  of  his  father. 
The  district  thus  was  the  early  centre  of  the  Mahratta  power; 
and  when  Satara  became  first  the  capital  and  later  the  prison 
of  the  descendants  of  Sivaji,  Poona  continued  to  be  the  seat  of 
government  under  their  hereditary  ministers,  with  the  title 
of  peshwa.  Many  stirring  scenes  in  Mahratta  history  were 
enacted  here.  Holkar  defeated  the  last  peshwa  under  its  walls, 
and  his  flight  to  Bassein  led  to  the  treaty  by  which  he  put 
himself  under  British  protection.  He  was  reinstated  in  1802, 
but,  unable  to  maintain  friendly  relations,  he  attacked  the 
British  at  Kirkee  in  181 7,  and  his  kingdom  passed  from  him. 

POOP  (Lat.  puppis,  stern),  the  stern  or  after-part  of  a  ship;  in 
the  1 6th  and  1 7th  centuries  a  lofty  and  castellated  deck.  The  verb 
"  to  poop  "  is  used  of  a  wave  breaking  over  the  stern  of  a  vessel. 


74 


POORE— POOR  LAW 


POORE  (or  Poor),  RICHARD  (d.  1237),  English  bishop,  was 
a  son  of  Richard  of  Ilchester,  bishop  of  Winchester.  About 
1197  he  was  chosen  dean  of  Sarum  and,  after  being  an  un- 
successful candidate  for  the  bishoprics  of  Winchester  and  of 
Durham,  he  became  bishop  of  Chichester  in  1214.  In  1217  he 
was  translated  to  SaUsbury,  where  he  succeeded  his  elder  brother, 
Herbert  Poore,  and  in  1228  to  Durham.  He  died  at  Tarrant 
Monkton,  Dorset,  said  by  some  to  be  his  birthplace,  on  the  isth 
of  April  1237.  Poore  took  some  part  in  public  affairs,  under 
Henry  III.,  but  the  great  work  of  his  life  was  done  at  Salisbury. 
Having  in  1219  removed  his  see  from  Old  to  New  Sarum,  or 
Salisbury,  he  began  the  building  of  the  magnificent  cathedral 
there;  he  laid  the  foundation  stone  in  April  1220,  and  during 
his  episcopate  he  found  money  and  forwarded  the  work  in  other 
ways.  For  the  city  the  bishop  secured  a  charter  from  Henry  III. 
and  he  was  responsible  for  the  plan  on  which  it  was  buUt, 
a  plan  which  to  some  extent  it  still  retains.  He  had  something 
to  do  with  drawing  up  some  statutes  for  his  cathedral;  he  is 
said  to  be  responsible  for  the  final  form  of  the  "  use  of  Sarum," 
and  he  was  probably  the  author  of  the  Ancren  Riwle,  a  valuable 
"  picture  of  contemporary  hfe,  manners  and  feeling  "  written 
in  Middle  English.  His  supposed  identity  with  the  jurist, 
Eicardus  Anglicus,  is  more  doubtful. 

POOR  LAW.  The  phrase  "  poor  law "  in  English  usage 
denotes  the  legislation  embodying  the  measures  taken  by  the 
state  for  the  rehef  of  paupers  and  its  administration.  The 
history  of  the  subject  and  its  problems  generally  are  dealt  with 
in  the  article  Chaeity  and  Charities,  and  other  information 
will  be  found  in  Unemployment  and  Vagrancy.  This  article 
wiU  deal  only  with  the  practice  in  the  United  Kingdom  as 
adopted  after  the  reform  of  the  poor  law  in  1834  and  amended 
by  subsequent  acts.  This  reform  was  brought  about  mainly 
by  the  rapid  increase  of  the  poor  rate  at  the  beginning  of  the 
19th  century,  showing  that  a  change  was  necessary  either 
in  the  poor  law  as  it  then  existed  or  in  the  mode  of  its  adminis- 
tration. 

A  commission  was  appointed  in  1832  "  to  make  dUigent  and 
full  inquiry  into  the  practical  operation  of  the  laws  for  the 
rehef  of  the  poor  in  England  and  Wales,  and  into  the  manner  in 
which  those  laws  were  administered,  and  to  report  their  opinion 
as  to  what  beneficial  alterations  could  be  made."  The  com- 
missioners reported  "  fuUy  on  the  great  abuse  of  the  legislative 
provision  for  the  poor  as  directed  to  be  employed  by  the  statute 
of  Elizabeth,"  finding  "that  the  great  source  of  abuse  was  the 
outdoor  rehef  afforded  to  the  able-bodied  on  their  own  account 
or  on  that  of  their  famihes,  given  either  in  kind  or  in  money." 
They  also  reported  that  "  great  maladministration  existed  in 
the  workhouses."  To  remedy  the  evils  they  proposed  con- 
siderable alterations  in  the  law,  and  the  principal  portion  of 
their  suggestions  was  embodied  in  the  Poor  Law  Amendment 
Act  1834.  By  virtue  of  this  act  three  commissioners  were 
appointed  (originally  for  five  years,  but  subsequently  con- 
tinued from  time  to  time),  styled  "  the  poor  law  commissioners 
for  England  and  Wales,"  sitting  as  a  board,  and  appointing 
assistant  commissioners  and  other  officers.  The  administration 
of  relief  according  to  the  existing  laws  was  subject  to  their 
direction  and  control,  and  to  their  orders  and  regulations  for 
the  government  of  workhouses  and  the  guidance  and  control 
of  guardians  and  vestries  and  the  keeping  and  allowing  of 
accounts  and  contracts,  without  interfering  with  ordinary  relief 
in  individual  cases.  The  whole  of  England  and  Wales  was 
divided  into  twenty-one  districts,  to  each  of  which  an  assistant 
commissioner  was  appointed.  The  commissioners  under  their 
powers  formed  poor  law  unions  by  uniting  parishes  for  general 
administration,  and  building  workhouses,  guardians  elected  by 
the  ratepayers  (or  ex  officio)  having  the  general  government 
and  administration  of  rehef.  The  expense  was  apportioned  to 
each  parish  on  settled  principles  and  rules,  with  power,  however, 
to  treat  the  united  parishes  as  one  for  certain  purposes.  Out- 
door relief  might  be  given,  on  the  order  of  two  justices,  to  poor 
persons  wholly  unable  to  work  from  old  age  or  infirmity. 

The  obstacles  which  the  act  had  to  contend  with  in  London 


chiefly  arose  from  the  confusion  and  perplexity  of  jurisdiction 
which  existed  in  the  one  hundred  and  seventy  parishes  com- 
prised within  the  city  of  London  and  the  metropolitan  district, 
some  of  these  containing  governing  bodies  of  their  own;  in  some 
the  parish  business  was  professedly  managed  by  open  vestries, 
in  others  by  select  vestries,  and  in  addition  to  these  there  were 
elective  vestries,  while  the  majority  of  the  large  parishes  were 
managed  under  local  acts  by  boards  of  directors,  governors 
and  trustees.  These  governing  bodies  executed  a  great  variety 
of  functions  besides  regulating  the  management  of  the  poor. 
The  power,  patronage  and  the  indirect  advantages  which  arose 
from  the  administration  of  the  local  funds  were  so  great  that 
much  opposition  took  place  when  it  was  proposed  to  interfere 
by  constituting  a  board  to  be  annually  chosen  and  freely  elected 
by  the  ratepayers,  on  which  the  duty  of  regulating  the  expen- 
diture for  the  relief  of  the  poor  was  to  depend.  The  general 
management  of  the  poor  was,  however,  on  a  somewhat  better 
footing  in  London  than  in  the  coimtry. 

The  act  of  1834  was  rather  to  restore  the  scope  and  intention 
of  the  statute  of  EHzabeth  by  placing  its  administration  in  the 
hands  of  responsible  persons  chosen  by  the  ratepayers,  and 
themselves  controlled  by  the  orders  of  a  central  body,  than  to 
create  a  new  system  of  poor  laws.  The  agents  and  instruments 
by  which  the  administration  of  rehef  is  afforded  are  the  fol- 
lowing. The  description  apphes  to  the  year  1910,  but,  as 
noticed  below,  the  question  of  further  reform  was  already  to 
the  fore,  and  the  precise  direction  in  which  changes  should  go 
was  a  highly  controversial  matter. 

The  guardians  of  the  poor  regulate  the  cases  and  description 
of  relief  within  the  union;  a  certain  number  of  guardians  are 
elected  from  time  to  time  by  the  ratepayers.  The 
number  was  formerly  determined  by  the  central 
board,^  by  whom  full  directions  as  to  the  mode  of  election 
were  given.  In  addition  to  those  elected  there  were  ex  officio 
guardians,  principally  local  magistrates.  However,  both  these 
and  nominated  guardians  were  done  away  with  by  the  Local 
Government  Act  1894.  The  plural  vote  (which  gave  to  the 
votes  of  the  larger  ratepayers  a  higher  value)  was  also  aboHshed; 
and  in  place  of  the  old  property  quahfication  for  the  ofiSce  of 
guardian  a  ratepaying  or  residential  qualification  was  sub- 
stituted. In  urban  districts  the  act  in  other  respects  left  the 
board  of  guardians  untouched,  but  in  rural  districts  it  inaugu- 
rated a  poHcy  of  consohdating  local  authorities.  In  the  rural 
districts  the  district  council  is  practically  amalgamated  with  the 
guardians,  for,  though  each  body  retains  a  separate  corporate 
existence,  the  district  councillors  are  the  guardians,  and  guar- 
dians as  such  are  no  longer  elected.  These  electoral  changes, 
extremely  democratic  in  their  character,  brought  about  no 
marked  general  change  in  poor  law  administration.  Here  and 
there  abrupt  changes  of  pohcy  were  made,  but  the  difiiculty  of 
bringing  general  principles  to  bear  on  the  administration  of  the 
law  remained  much  as  before. 

The  guardians  hold  their  meetings  frequently,  according  to  the 
exigencies  of  the  union.  Individual  cases  are  brought  to  their 
notice — most  cases  of  resident  poor  by  the  reheving  oificer  of 
the  union;  the  case  of  casual  paupers  by  him  or  by  the  work- 
house officers  by  whom  they  were  admitted  in  the  first  instance. 
The  resident  poor  frequently  appear  in  person  before  the  guar- 
dians. The  mode  of  voting  which  the  guardians  foUow  in  respect 
to  any  matter  they  differ  on  is  minutely  regulated,  and  all  their 
proceedings,  as  well  as  those  of  their  officers,  are  entered  in  pre- 
scribed books  and  forms.  They  have  a  clerk,  generally  a  local 
solicitor  of  experience,  who  has  a  variety  of  responsible  duties 
in  advising,  conducting  correspondence  and  keeping  books  of 

'  After  an  intermediate  transfer  in  1847  of  the  powers  of  the 
poor  law  commissioners,  and  the  constitution  of  a  fresh  board 
styled  "  commissioners  for  administering  the  laws  for  relief  of  the 
poor  in  England,"  it  was  found  expedient  to  concentrate  in  one 
department  of  the  government  the  supervision  of  the  laws  relating 
to  the  public  health,  the  relief  of  the  poor  and  local  government; 
and  this  concentration  was  in  1 871  carried  out  by  the  establishment 
(by  Act  of  Parliament  34  &  35  Vict.c.  70)  of  the  local  government 
board. 


POOR  LAW 


75 


accounts,  and  carrying  out  the  directions  of  the  guardians, 
who  in  their  turn  are  subject  to  the  general  or  special  regulations 
of  the  local  government  board. 

It  may  be  mentioned  here  that  the  chief  difficulty  in  under- 
standing the  EngHsh  poor  law  arises  from  the  fact  that  there  are 
three  authorities,  each  of  them  able  to  alter  its  administration 
fundamentally.  The  poor  law  is  not  only  the  creation  of 
statutes  passed  by  parHament;  it  is  also  controlled  by  the 
subordinate  jurisdiction  of  the  local  government  board,  which  in 
virtue  of  various  acts  has  the  power  to  issue  orders.  In  a 
single  year  the  local  government  board  may  issue  nearly  two 
thousand  orders,  over  a  thousand  of  them  having  special  reference 
to  the  poor  law.  It  is  not  possible  therefore  even  to  summarize 
the  mass  of  subordinate  legislation.  A  third  source  of  authority 
is  the  local  board  of  guardians,  which,  within  the  discretion 
allowed  to  it  by  statutes  and  orders,  can  so  variously  administer 
the  law  that  it  is  difficult  to  understand  how  procedure  so 
fundamentally  different  can  be  based  on  one  and  the  same  law. 
This  elasticity,  admirable  or  mischievous,  as  we  choose  to 
regard  it,  is  the  most  characteristic  feature  of  the  English  poor 
law  system.  The  various  officers  of  the  union,  from  the  medical 
officers  to  workhouse  porters,  including  masters  and  matrons 
of  workhouses,  are  generally  appointed  by  the  guardians,  and 
the  areas,  duties  and  salaries  of  all  the  paid  officers  may  be 
prescribed  by  the  local  government  board. 

Among  a  multitude  of  miscellaneous  duties  and  powers  of 
the  guardians,  apart  from  the  ordinary  duties  of  ordering  or 
refusing  relief  in  individual  cases  and  superintending  the  officers 
of  the  union,  the  duties  devolve  on  them  of  considering  the 
adjustment  of  contributions  to  the  common  fund  whether 
of  divided  or  added  parishes,  and  matters  afifecting  other  unions, 
the  building  of  workhouses  and  raising  of  money  for  that  and 
other  purposes,  the  taking  of  land  on  lease,  the  hiring  of  biuldings, 
special  provisions  as  to  superaimuation  and  allowances  to  officers, 
the  maintenance  and  orders  as  to  lunatics  apart  from  individual 
instances,  and  the  consideration  of  questions  of  settlement 
and  removal.  A  paramount  obligation  rests  on  the  guardians 
to  attend  to  the  actual  visitation  of  workhouses,  schools  and 
other  institutions  and  places  in  which  the  poor  are  interested, 
and  to  call  attention  to  and  report  on  any  irregularity  or  neglect 
of  duty.  Guardians  may  charge  the  rates  with  the  expenses 
of  attending  conferences  for  the  discussion  of  matters  con- 
nected with  their  duties  (Poor  Law  Conferences  Act  1883).  In 
relation  to  expenditure  the  guardians  have  very  considerable 
but  restricted  powers.  Their  accounts  are  :audited  by  district 
auditors  appointed  by  the  local  government  board. 

Overseers  of  the  poor  are  still  appointed  under  the  statute 
of  EUzabeth,  and;  the  guardians  cannot  interfere  with  the  ap- 
_  pointment.     As,  however,  the  rehef  of  the  poor  is 

administered  by  boards  of  guardians,  the  principal 
duties  of  overseers  relate  to  the  making  and  collection  of  rates 
and  payments.  The  guardians,  by  order  of  the  local  govern- 
ment board,  may  appoint  assistant  overseers  and  collectors. 

The  conditions  of  persons  entitled  to  relief  are  indicated  by 
the  terms  of  the  statute  of  Elizabeth.  If  they  fall  within  the 
definitions  there  given  they  have  right  to  relief. 
of  Relief"^  A  fundamental  principle  with  respect  to  legal  rehef 
of  the  poor  is  that  the  condition  of  the  pauper 
ought  to  be,  on  the  whole,  less  eligible  than  that  of  the  independent 
la,bourer.  Thd  pauper  has  no  just  ground  for  complaint, 
if, .  while  his  physical  wants  are  adequately  provided  for, 
his  condition  is  less  eligible  than  that  of  the  poorest  class  of 
those  who  contribute  to  his  support.  If  a  state  of  destitution 
exists,  the  failure  of  third  persons  to  perforin  their  duty,  as  a 
husband,  or  relative  mentioned  in  the  statute  of  Elizabeth, 
neglecting  those  he  is  under  a  legal  obligation  to  support,  is  no 
answer  to  the  application.  The  rehef  should  be  afforded,  and  is 
often  a  condition  precedent  to  the  right  of  parish  officers  to  take 
proceedings,  against  the  relatives  or  to  apply  to  other  poor 
unions.  The  duty  to  give  immediate  rehef  must,  however, 
vary  with  the  circumstances.  The  case  .oi  wanderers  under 
circumstances  not  admitting  of  delay  may  be  different  from 


that  of  persons  resident  on  the  spot  where  inquiry  as  to  all  the 
circumstances  is  practicable.  The  statute  of  EHzabeth  con- 
templated that  the  relief  was  to  be  afforded  to  the  poor  resi- 
dent in  the  parish,  but  it  is  contrary  to  the  spirit  of  the  law  that 
any  person  shall  be  permitted  to  perish  from  starvation  or  want 
of  medical  assistance.  Whoever  is  by  sudden  emergency  or 
urgent  distress  deprived  of  the  ordinary  means  of  subsistence 
has  a  right  to  apply  for  immediate  relief  where  he  may 
happen  to  be.  Persons  comprehended  within  this  class  are 
called  "  casual  poor,"  although  the  term  "  casuals  "  is  generally 
used  in  reference  to  vagrants  who  take  refuge  for  a  short  time 
in  the  "  casual  wards "  of  workhouses.  Various  tests  are 
apphed  to  ascertain  whether  applicants  are  really  destitute. 
Labour  tests  are  applied  to  the  able-bodied,  and  workhouse 
tests  are  applied  to  those  to  whom  entering  a  workhouse  is 
made  a  condition  of  rehef. 

As  to  the  nature  and  kind  of  relief  given  under  the  poor  laws 
the  great  distinction  restored  rather  than  introduced  by  the 
amendment  of  the  poor  law  system  in  1834  was  Nature  and 
giving  all  rehef  to  able-bodied  persons  of  their  Kind  ot 
families  in  weU-regulated  workhouses  (that  is  to  **^''''- 
say,  places  where  they  may  be  set  to  work  according  to  the 
spirit  and  intention  of  the  statute  of  Ehzabeth) ,  and  confining 
outdoor  rehef  to  the  impotent — that  is,  all  except  the  able- 
bodied  and  their  fairuhes.  Although  workhouses  formed  a 
conspicuous  feature  in  legislation  for  the  poor  from  an  early 
period,  the  erection  of  those  buUdings  for  unions  throughout 
the  country  where  not  already  provided  foUowed  immediately 
on  the  amendment  of  the  system  in  1834.  Since  that  time  there 
has  been  a  constant  struggle  between  the  pauper  class  and 
the  administrators  of  the  law,  the  former  naturally  wishing 
to  be  reheved  at  their  own  homes,  and  in  many  instances 
choosing  rather  to  go  without  aid  than  to  remove  within 
the  walls  of  the  workhouse.  Relief  given  in  a  workhouse  is 
termed  "  in  (or  indoor)  maintenance  "  relief,  and  when  given 
at  the  homes  of  the  paupers  is  termed  "  outdoor  rehef." 

Admission  to  a  workhouse  may  be  by  a  written  order  of  the 
board  of  guardians,  or  by  the  master  or  matron  (or  in  their  absence 
by  the  porter)  without  an  order  in  any  case  ot  sudden 
or  urgent  necessity,  or  provisionally  by  a  relieving  'Y"''''^''"^^ 
officer,  or  overseer  or  churchwarden.  Any  person  who  ""'**• 
is  brought  by  a  policeman  as  having  been  found  wandering  in  a  state 
of  destitution  may  be  admitted.  It  is  to  be  observed  generally, 
with  respect  to  all  persons  who  may  apply  for  admission  into  the 
workhouse  under  circumstances  of  urgent  necessity,  that  their 
destitution,  coupled  with  the  fact  of  being  within  the  union  or 
parish,  entitles  them  to  relief,  altogether  independently  of  their 
settlement,  if  they  have  one,  which  is  a  matter  for  subsequent 
inquiry. 

The  regulations  for  the  government  of  workhouses  fall  under 
two  classes:  (i)  those  which  are  necessary  for  the  maintenance  of 
good  order  in  any  building  in  which  considerable  numbers  of 
persons  of  both  sexes  and  of  different  ages  reside;  (2)  those  which 
are  necessary  in  order  that  these  establishments  may  not  be  alms- 
houses, but  workhouses  in  the  proper  meaning  of  the  term. 

The  inmates  of  a  workhouse  are  necessarily  separated  into  certain 
classes.  In  no  well-managed  institution  of  this  sort,  in  any  country, 
are  males  and  females,  the  old  and  the  young,  the  healthy  and  the 
sick,  indiscriminately  mixed  together.  Guardians  are  required  to 
divide  the  paupers  into  certain  classes,  and  to  subdivide  any  one 
or  more  of  these  classes  in  any  manner  which  may  be  advisable, 
and  which  the  internal  arrangements  of  the  workhouse  admit;  and 
the  guardians  are  required  from  time  to  time,  after  consulting  the 
medical  officer,  to  make  necessary  arrangements  with  regard  to  per- 
sons labouring  under  any  disease  of  body  or  mind,  and,  so  far  as  cir- 
cumstances permit,  to  subdivide  any  of  the  enumerated  classes  with 
reference  to  the  moral  character  of  behaviour  or  the  previous  habits 
of  the  inmates,  or  to  such  other  grounds  as  may  seem  expedient. 

The  separation  of  married  couples  was  long  a  vexed  question,  the 
evils  on  the  one  hand  arising  from  the  former  unrestricted  practice 
being  very  great,  while  on  the  other  hand  the  separation  of  old 
couples  was  felt  as  a  great  hardship,  and  by  express  statutory  pro- 
vision in  1847  husband  and  wife,  both  being  above  the  age  of  sixty, 
received  into  a  workhouse  cannot  be  compelled  to  live  separate  and 
apart  from  each  other  (10  &  II  Vict.  c.  109,  §  23).  This  exemption 
was  carried  somewhat  further  by  contemporaneous  orders  of  the 
board,  under  which  guardians  were  not  compelled  to  separate  infirm 
couples,  provided  they  had  a  sleeping  apartment  separate  from  that 
of  other  paupers;  and  in  1876  guardians  were  empowered,  at  their 
discretion,  to  permit  husband  and  wife  where  either  of  them  is 


76 


POOR  LAW 


infirm,  sick  or  disabled  by  any  injury,  or  above  sixty  years  of  age 
to  live  togetiier,  but  every  such  case  must  be  reported  to  the  local 
government  board  (39  &  40  Vict.  c.  61,  §  10). 

The  classification  of  children  apart  from  adult  paupers  is  per- 
emptory. Even  in  those  unions  where  what  is  called  a  workhouse 
school  is  maintained  the  children  are  kept  in  detached  parts  of 
the  building,  and  do  not  associate  with  the  adult  paupers.  The 
separate  school  is  built  on  a  separate  and  often  distant  site.  Some- 
times the  separate  school  is  one  building,  sometimes  detached 
"  blocks,"  and  sometimes  a  group  of  cottage  homes.  There  still 
remain  ten  district  schools.  In  some  places  an  experiment  which 
is  called  the  scattered  homes  system  has  been  adopted.  This 
consists  in  lodging-homes  for  the  children  placed  in  different  parts 
of  the  town,  from  which  the  children  attend  the  local  public  ele- 
mentary schools.  In  the  rural  districts  and  in  less  populous  unions 
the  children  generally  attend  the  local  public  elementary  school. 
To  these  expedients  boarding-out  must  be  added.  The  above 
refers  of  course  only  to  those  children  who  as  inmates  are  under  the 
charge  of  the  guardians.  Outdoor  paupers  are  responsible  for 
the  education  of  their  children,  but  guardians  cannot  legallj'  continue 
outdoor  relief  if  the  children  are  not  sent  regularly  to  school. 

The  tendency  too  has  been  to  improve  administrative  methods 
with  reference  to  children. 

Two  important  orders  on  the  subject  of  the  boarding-out  of  poor- 
law  children  were  issued  in  1889.  By  the  Boarding  of  Children  in 
Unions  Order,  orphan  and  deserted  children  can  be  boarded  out 
with  suitable  foster-parents  in  the  union  by  all  boards  of  guardians 
except  those  in  the  metropolis.  This  can  be  done  either  through 
a  voluntary  committee  or  directly.  By  the  Boarding  Out  Order, 
orphan  and  deserted  children  may  be  boarded  out  by  all  boards  of 
guardians  without  the  limits  of  their  own  unions,  but  in  all  cases 
this  must  be  done  through  the  offices  of  properly  constituted  local 
boarding-out  committees.  The  sum  payable  to  the  foster-parents 
is  not  to  exceed  4s.  per  week  for  each  child.  The  local  committee 
require  to  be  approved  by  the  Local  Government  Board. 

The  question  of  the  education  of  poor  law  children  was  much 
discussed  in  later  years.  During  the  early  years  of  the  central 
authority,  it  was  the  object  of  the  commissioners  to  induce  boards 
of  guardians  to  unite  in  districts  for  educational  purposes.  This 
was  advocated  on  grounds  of  efficiency  and  economy.  It  was  very 
unpopular  with  the  local  authorities,  and  the  number  of  such 
districts  has  never  exceeded  a  dozen.  In  London,  where  this 
aggregation  was  certainly  less  desirable  than  in  rural  unions,  several 
districts  were  formed  and  large  district  schools  were  built.  Adverse 
criticism,  by  Mrs  Nassau  Senior  in  1874,  and  by  a  department 
committee  appointed  twenty  years  later,  was  directed  against  these 
large,  or,  as  they  are  invidiously  called,  barrack  schools.  The 
justice  of  this  condemnation  has  been  disputed,  but  it  seems 
probable  that  some  of  these  schools  had  grown  too  large.  Many 
of  these  have  been  dissolved  by  order  of  the  local  government 
board  on  the  application  of  the  unions  concerned.  This  con- 
demnation of  some  schools  has  in  certain  quarters  been  extended 
to  all  schools,  and  is  construed  by  others  as  an  unqualified 
recommendation  of  boarding  out,  a  method  of  bringing  up  poor  law 
children  obviously  requiring  even  more  careful  supervision  than  is 
needed  in  the  publicity  of  a  school. 

Other  acts  to  be  noted  are  the  Poor  Law  Act  1889  and  the  Custody 
of  Children  Act  1891,  §  3.  The  evil  of  allowing  children  who 
have  been  reputably  brought  up  in  poor  law  schools  to  relapse 
into  vicious  habits  on  return  to  the  custody  of  unworthy  parents 
has  been  the  subject  of  frequent  remark.  By  the  act  of  1889, 
guardians  are  authorized  to  detain  children  who  are  under  their 
charge,  as  having  been  deserted  by  their  parents,  up  to  the  age  of 
16  if  boys  and  of  18  if  girls.  By  the  Poor  Law  Act  1899  the 
principle  is  extended  to  orphans  and  the  children  of  bad  parents 
chargeable  to  the  rates.  The  act  of  1 89 1  goes  further,  and  enacts 
that  where  a  parent  has  (a)  abandoned  or  deserted  his  child,  or 
(&)  allowed  his  child  to  be  brought  up  by  another  person  at  that 
person's  expense,  or  by  the  guardians  of  a  poor  law  union  for  such 
a  length  of  time  and  in  such  circumstanoes  as  to  satisfy  the  court 
that  the  parent  was  unmindful  of  his  parental  duties,  the  court 
shall  not  make  an  order  for  the  delivery  of  the  child  to  the  parent 
unless  the  parent  has  satisfied  the  court  that,  having  regard  to  the 
welfare  of  the  child,  he  is  a  fit  person  to  have  the  custody  of  the 
child. 

Casual  and  poor  wayfarers  admitted  by  the  master  and  matron 
are  kept  in  a  separate  ward  and  dieted  and  set  to  work  in  such 
manner  as  the  guardians  by  resolution  direct;  and  whenever  any 
vagrants  or  mendicants  are  received  into  a  workhouse  they  are 
usually  (as  a  precaution  necessary  for  preventing  the  introduction 
of  infectious  or  contagious  diseases)  kept  entirely  separate  from  the 
other  inmates,  unless  their  stay  exceeds  a  single  night. 

For  the  guidance  of  guardians  an  important  circular  was  issued 
from  the  local  government  board  on  the  15th  of  March  1886.  It 
stated  that  while  "  the  board  have  no  doubt  that  the  powers  which 
the  guardians  possess  are  fully  sufficient  to  enable  them  to  deal 
with  ordinary  pauperism,  and  to  meet  the  demand  for  relief  from 
the  classes  who  usually  seek  it,"  yet  "  these  provisions  do  not  in 
all  cases  meet  the  emergency.  What  is  required  to  relieve  artisans 
and  others  who  have  hitherto  avoided  poor  law  assistance,  and  who 


are  temporarily  deprived  of  employment,  is — (l)  ^york  which  will 
not  involve  the  stigma  of  pauperism;  (2)  work  which  all  can  per- 
form, whatever  may  have  been  their  previous  occupations;  (3) 
work  which  does  not  compete  with  that  of  other  _  labourers  at 
present  in  employment;  and  lastly,  work  which  is  not  likely 
to  interfere  with  the  resumption  of  regular  employment  in  their 
own  trades  by  those  who  seek  it." 

The  circular  went  on  to  recommend  that  guardians  should  confer 
with  the  local  authorities,  "  and  endeavour  to  arrange  with  the 
latter  for  the  execution  of  works  on  which  unskilled  labour  may 
be  immediately  employed."  The  conditions  of  such  work  were 
(i)  the  men  to  be  employed  must  be  recommended  by  the  guardians; 
(2)  the  wages  must  be  less  than  the  wages  ordinarily  paid  for  such 
work. 

The  circular  was  widely  distributed.  Many  boards  that  were 
inchned  in  that  direction  regarded  it  as  an  encouragement  to  open 
or  to  promote  the  opening  of  relief  works.  Others,  again,  looked 
closely  at  the  conditions,  and  declared  roundly  that  it  was  impos- 
sible to  fulfil  them.  A  poor  law  authority,  they  said,  cannot  give 
relief  which  will  not  subject  the  recipients  to  the  legal  (if  any)  and 
economic  disabilities  attaching  to  the  receipt  of  poor  law  relief. 
Work  which  all  can  perform  can  only  be  found  in  the  shape  of 
task-work  under  adequate  supervision.  If  the  work  is  of  a  useful 
and  necessary  character,  it  must  compete  with  the  labour  of  others 
belonging  to  the  trades  affected.  If  the  relief  works  are  opened  by 
authorities  other  than  the  poor  law  guardians,  the  conditions  that 
the  men  were  only  to  be  employed  when  recommended  by  the 
guardians,  and  then  paid  less  than  the  current  ra.te  of  wages,  were 
calculated,  it  was  urged,  to  secure  bad  work,  discontent,  and  all 
the  "  stigma  of  pauperism."  The  ambiguity  of  the  circular  indeed 
was  such,  that  both  action  and  inaction  seem  amply  justified  by  it. 

In  the  administration  of  medical  relief  to  the  sick,  the  objects 
kept  in  view  are:  (i)  to  provide  medical  aid  for  persons  who  are 
really  destitute,  and  (2)  to  prevent  medical  relief  from  Medical 
generating  or  encouraging  pauperism,  and  with  this  Hellet. 
view  to  withdraw  from  the  labouring  classes,  as  well 
as  from  the  administrators  of  relief  and  the  medical  officers,  all 
motives  for  applying  for  or  administering  medical  relief,  unless 
where  the  circumstances  render  it  absolutely  necessary. 

Unions  are  formed  into  medical  districts  limited  in  area  and 
population,  to  which  a  paid  medical  officer  is  appointed,  who  is 
furnished  with  a  list  of  all  such  aged  and  infirm  persons  and  persons 
permanently  sick  or  disabled  as  are  actually  receiving  relief  and 
residing  within  the  medical  officer's  district.  Every  person  named 
in  the  list  receives  a  ticket,  and  on  exhibiting  it  to  the  medical 
officer  is  entitled  to  advice,  attendance  and  medicine  as  his  case 
may  require.  Medical  outdoor  relief  in  connexion  with  dispen- 
saries is  regulated  in  asylum  districts  of  the  metropolis  by  the 
Metropolitan  Poor  Act  1867  (30  &  31  Vict.  c.  6).  In  connexion 
with  medical  relief  must  be  noted  the  Medical  Relief  Disqualifica- 
tion Removal  Act  1885.  This  act  relieved  voters  from  disquali- 
fication which  would  otherwise  attach  in  consequence  of  the  receipt 
by  them  or  their  families  of  medical  or  surgical  assistance,  or  of 
medicine,  at  the  expense  of  the  poor  rate.  This  does  not  apply 
to  guardian  elections,  and  |it  does  not  include  persons  who,  in 
addition  to  medical  relief,  receive  nourishment  or  other  relief  from 
the  poor  rate.  The  provisions  which  require  the  removal  of  the 
names  of  paupers  from  the  electoral  roll  are,  it  is  understood,  very 
perfunctorily  carried  out.  The  Outdoor  Relief  Friendly  Societies 
Act  1894  authorized  guardians,  in  calculating  the  proper  allowance 
to  be  made,  to  disregard  an  income  derived  from  a  friendly  society, 
and  to  give  relief  as  if  the  appUcant  in  receipt  of  such  an  allowance 
was  wholly  destitute.  This  act  is  a  curious  illustration  of  the 
English  poor  law  system.  In  earlier  years,  notably  in  what  is 
known  as  Paget's  letter  (22nd  Rep.  Poor  Law  Board,  p.  108),  the 
central  board,  had,  in  answer  to  inquiry,  pointed  out  that  such 
preferential  treatment  given  to  men  receiving  benefit,  insufficient 
to  maintain  them,  from  a  friendly  society,  could  not  in  equity 
be  withheld  from  persons  in  receipt  of  an  adequate  benefit,  or  from 
those  whose  savings  took  the  form  of  a  deposit  in  a  bank,  of  a  share 
in  a  co-operative  society,  or  of  cottage  property;  and  further,  that 
an  engagement  on  the  part  of  guardians  to  supplement  insufficient 
allowance  from  a  friendly  society  was  a  bounty  on  inadequate  and 
insolvent  friendly  society  finance.  The  central  board  went  so 
far  as  to  say  that  relief  given  in  such  disregard  of  the  pauper's 
income  was  illegal.  They  had,  however,  issued  no  peremptory 
order  on  the  subject,  nor  had  guardians  been  surcharged  for  neglect 
of  the  rule.  The  local  authorities  followed  their  own  discretion, 
and  a  very  general  practice  was  to  reckon  friendly  society  allowances 
at  half  their  value.  The  above  act  set  aside  the  central  board's 
earlier  interpretation  of  the  law.  It  made,  however,  no  attempt 
to  enforce  its  procedure  on  the  numerous  boards  of  guardians  who 
regard  the  course  thereby  authorized  as  contrary  toVpublic  policy. 

A  lunatic  asylum  is  required  to  be  provided  by  a  county  or 
borough  for  the  reception  of  pauper  lunatics,  with  a  committee  of 
visitors  who,  among  other  duties,  fix  a  weekly  sum  to 
be  charged  for  the  lodging,  maintenance,  medicine  and  '-'""'""■ 
clothing  of  each  pauper  lunatic  confined  in  such  asylum.  Several 
acts  were  passed.  The  Lunacy  Act  1890  consolidated  the  acts 
affecting  lunatics.    It  was  further  amendecl  by  the  Lunacy  Act  1891. 


POOR  LAW 


77 


An  explanatory  letter  issued  by  the  local  government  board  will 
be  found  in  the  20th  Annual  Report,  p.  23.  The  tendency  of  this  and 
of  all  recent  legislation  for  an  afflicted  class  has  been  to  increase  the 
care  and  the  safeguards  for  their  proper  treatment. 

A  settlement  is  the  right  acquired  in  any  one  of  the  modes  pointed 
out  by  the  poor  laws  to  become  a  recipient  of  the  benefit  of  those 
laws  in  that  parish  or  place  where  the  right  has  been  last  acquired. 

No  relief  is  given  from  the  poor  rates  of  a  parish  to  any  person 
who  does  not  reside  within  the  union,  except  where  such  person 
The  Ques-  being  casually  within  a  parish  becomes  destitute  by 
tlon  ot  sudden  distress,   or  where  such  person  is  entitled  to 

•'Settle'  receive  relief  from  any  parish  where  non-resident 
menu"  under    justice's    order    (applicable    to    persons    under 

orders  of  removal  and  to  non-resident  lunatics),  and  except  to 
widows  and  legitimate  children  where  the  widow  was  resident  with 
her  husband  at  the  time  of  his  death  out  of  the  union  in  which  she 
was  not  settled,  or  where  a,  child  under  sixteen  is  maintained  in  a 
workhouse  or  establishment  for  the  education  of  pauper  children 
not  situate  in  the  union,  and  in  some  other  exceptional  cases. 

Immediately  before  the  passing  of  the  Poor  Law  Amendment 
Act  1834  settlements  were  acquired  by  birth,  hiring  and  service, 
apprenticeship,  renting  a  tenement,  estate,  office  or  payment  of 
rates.  In  addition  to  these  an  acknowledgment  (by  certificate),  by 
relief  or  acts  of  acquiescence)  has  practically  the  effect  of  a  settle- 
ment, for,  if  unexplained,  such  an  acknowledgment  stops  the  parish 
from  disputing  a  settlement  in  the  parish  acknowledging.  The 
Poor  Law  Amendment  Act  1834  abolished  settlement  by  hiring 
and  service  (or  by  residence  under  it)  and  by  serving  an  office,  and 
by  apprenticeship  in  the  sea  service.  Moreover  the  guardians  of 
a  union  might  agree  (subject  to  the  approval  of  the  commissioners) 
that  all  the  parishes  forming  it  should  for  the  purposes  of  settle- 
ment be  considered  as  one  parish. 

It  is  to  be  observed  that,  for  the  purposes  of  relief,  settlement 
and  removal  and  burial,  the  workhouse  of  any  parish  is  considered 
as  situated  in  the  parish  to  which  each  poor  person  is  chargeable. 

There  may  be  a  settlement. by  parentage,  for  legitimate  children 
take  the  settlement  of  their  father,  or  if  he  has  no  settlement  they 
are  entitled  to  the  settlement  of  their  mother;  and  it  is  only  when 
both  these  sources  fail  discovery  that  their  right  of  settlement  by 
birth  (accrues;  for  until  the  settlement  of  the  father  or  mother  has 
been  ascertained  the  settlement  of  a  legitimate  child,  like  that  of  a 
bastard,  is  in  the  place  where  the  birth  took  place. 

A  settlement  attaches  to  those  persons  who  have  a  settlement  of 
some  kind.  Foreigners  born  out  of  the  country  and  not  acquiring 
any  in  one  of  the  modes  pointed  out  must  be  provided  for,  if  requiring 
relief,  where  they  happen  to  be. 

As  the  burden  of  maintaining  the  poor  is  thrown  on  the  parish 
of  settlement,  when  the  necessity  for  immediate  relief  arises  in 
another  parish,  the  important  question  arises  whether  the  pauper 
can  be  removed ;  for,  although  the  parish  where  the  pauper  happens 
to  be  must  afford  immediate  relief  without  waiting  for  removal, 
the  parish  of  settlement  cannot  in  general  be  charged  with  the 
cost  unless  the  pauper  is  capable  of  being  removed.  The  question 
of  removability  is  distinct  from  settlement.^  A  pauper  often 
acquires  a  status  or  irremovability  without  gaining  a  settlement. 

Irremovability  is  a  principle  of  great  public  importance  quite 
irrespective  of  the  incident  of  cost  as  between  one  parish  or  another. 
Before  the  introduction  of  a  status  of  irremovability  removal  might 
take  place  (subject  to  powers  of  suspensipn  in  case  of  sickness  and 
otherwise)  after  any  interval  during  which  no  legal  settlement 
was  obtained ;  mere  length  of  residence  without  concurrent  cir- 
cumstances involving  the  acquisition  of  a  settlement  on  obtaining 
relief  gave  no  right  to  a  person  to  remain  in  the  parish  where  he 
resided. 

In  1846.it  was  enacted  that  no  person  should  be  removed  nor 
any  warrant  granted  for  the  removal  of  any  person  from  any  parish 
in  which  such  persons  had  resided  for  five  years  (9  &  10  Vict.  c.  66). 
In  1861  three  years  was  submitted  for  five  (24  &  25  Vict.  c.  55); 
and  only  four  years  later  one  year  was  substituted  for  three  (28  & 
29  Vict.  c.  79).  Apart  from  these  reductions  of  time  in  giving 
the  status  of  irremovability,  actual  removals  to  the  parish  of  settler 
ment  were  narrowed  by  provisions  giving  to  residence  in  any 
part  of  a  union  the  same  effect  as  a  residence  in  any  parish  of  that 
union  (24  &  25  Vict.  c.  55).  On  the  other  hand  the  time  during 
which  parish  relief  is  received,  or  during  which  the  person  is  in  any 
paorhouse  or  hospital  or  in  a  prison,  is  excluded  from  the  computa- 
tion of  time  (9  &  10  Vict.  c.  66): 

The  removability  as  well  as  the  settlement  of  the  family,  i.e. 
of  the  wife  and  unemancipated  children,  are  practically  subject  to 
one  and  the  same  general  rule.  Wherever  any  person  has  a  wife 
or  children  having  another  settlement,  they  are  removable  where 
he  is  reiiiovable,  and  are  not  removable  from  any  parish  or  place 
from  which  he  is  not  removable  (11  &  12  Vict.  c.  211). 

It  is,  to  be  borne  in  mind  that  no  person  exempted  from  liability 
to  be  removed  acquires,  by  reason  of  such  exemption,  any  settle- 
ment in  any  parish;  but  a  residence  for  three  years  gives  a  qualified 
settlement  (39  &  40  Vict.c.  61).     ,    '      ;  '    ,,    .    , 

The  cost  of^ relief  of  paupers  rendered'  irremovable  is  borne  by  the 
common  fund  of  the  union  (i  i  &  12  Vict.  c.  1 10,  §  3)  as  union  expenses 
(§  6),  and  any  question  arising  in  the  union  with  reference  to  the 


charging  relief  may  be  referred  to  and  decided  by  the  local  govern- 
ment board  (§  4). 

The  poor  rate  is  the  fund  from  which  the  cost  of  relief  is  princi- 
pally derived.  The  statute  of  Elizabeth  (extended  in  some  respects 
as  to  places  by  13  &  14  Charles  II.  c.  12)  embraced  p^  „  . 
two  classes  of  persons  subject  to  taxation — occupiers  **<"■***• 
of  real  property  and  inhabitants  in  respect  of  personal  property, 
although  the  rateability  under  the  latter  head  was  reluctantly 
conceded  by  the  courts  of  law,  and  was  in  practice  only  partially 
acted  upon. 

As  regards  occupiers  of  land  and  houses,  the  correct  principles  as 
to  the  persons  liable  to  be  rated  were,  after  many  erroneous  views 
and  decisions,  established  by  the  House  of  Lords  in  1865  in  the 
case  of  the  Mersey  docks.  The  only  occupier  exempt  from  the 
operation  of  the  act  of  Elizabeth  is  the  Crown,  on  the  general  prin- 
ciple that  such  liabilities  are  not  imposed  on  the  sovereign  unless 
expressly  mentioned,  and  that  principle  applies  to  the  direct  and 
immediate  servants  of  the  Crown,  whose  occupation  is  the  occupa- 
tion of  the  Crown  itself.  If  there  is  a  personal  private  beneficial 
occupation,  so  that  the  occupation  is  by  the  subject,  that  occupa- 
tion is  rateable.  Thus  for  apartments  in  a  royal  palace,  gratui- 
tously assigned  to  a  subject,  who  occupies  them  by  permissiori  of 
the  sovereign  but  for  the  subject's  benefit,  the  latter  is  rateable; 
on  the  other  hand,  where  a  lease  of  private  property  is  taken  in 
the  name  of  a  subject,  but  the  occupation  is  by  the  sovereign  or 
his  subjects  on  his  behalf,  no  rate  can  be  imposed. 

So  far  the  ground  of  exemption  is  perfectly  intelligible,  but  it 
has  been  carried  a  good  deal  further,  arid  applied  to  many  cases  in 
which  it  can  scarcely  be  said  naturally,  but  only  theoretically,  that 
the  sovereign  or  the  servants  of  the  sovereign  are  in  occupation. 
A  long  series  of  cases  have  established  that  when  property  is  occu- 
pied for  the  purposes  of  the  government  of  the  country,  including 
under  that  head  the  police,  and  the  administration  of  justice,  no 
one  is  rateable  in  respect  of  such  occupation.  And  this  applies  not 
only  to  property  occupied  for  such  purposes  by  the  servants  of  the 
great  departments  of  state  and  the  post  office,  the  Horse  Guards,  and 
the  Admiralty,  in  all  which  cases  the  occupiers  might  strictly  be 
called  the  servants  of  the  Crown,  but  to  county  buildings  occupied 
for  the  assizes  and  for  the  judge's  lodgings,  to  stations  for  the  local 
constabulary,  to  jails  and  to  county  courts  where  undertakings 
are  carried  out  by  or  for  the  government  and  the  government  is  in 
occupation;  the  same  principles  of  exemption  have  been  applied 
to  property  held  by  the  office  of  works. 

When  the  property  is  not  de  facto  occupied  by  the  Crown  or  for 
the  Crown,  it  is  rateable ;  and,  although  formerly  the  uses  of  property 
for  public  purposes,  even  where  the  Crown  was  not  constructively 
interested  in  the  way  above  pointed  out,  was  treated  as  a  ground 
for  exemption,  it  is  now  settled  that  trustees  who  are  in  law  the 
tenants  and  occupiers  of  valuable  property  in  trust  for  public  and 
even  charitable  purposes,  such  as  hospitals  or  lunatic  asylums,  are 
in  principle  rateable  notwithstanding  that  the  buildings  are  actually 
occupied  by  paupers  who  are  sick  or  insane,  and  that  the  notion 
that  persons  in  the  legal  occupation  of  valuable  property  are  not 
rateable  if  they  occupy  in  a  merely  fiduciary  character  cannot  be 
sustained. 

With  respect  to  the  particular  person  to  be  rated  where  there  is 
a  rateable  occupation,  it  is  to  be  observed  that  the  tenant,  as  dis- 
tinguished from  the  landlord,  is  the  person  to  be  rated  under  the 
statute  of  Elizabeth ;  but  occupiers  of  tenements  let  for  short  terms 
may  deduct  the  poor  rate  paid  by  them  from  their  rents,  or  the 
vestries  may  order  such  owners  to  be  rated  instead  of  the  occupiers ; 
such  payments  or  deductions  do  not  affect  qualification  and  fran- 
chises depending  on  rating  (Poor  Rate  Assessment  and  Collection 
Act  1869  and  Amendment  Act  1882). 

To  be  rated  the  occupation  must  be  such  as  to  be  of  value,  and 
in  this  sense  the  word  beneficial  occupation  has  been  used  in  many 
cases.  But  it  is  not  necessary  that  the  occupation  should  be  bene- 
ficial to  the  occupier ;  for,  if  that  were  necessary,  trustees  occupying 
for  various  purposes,  having  no  beneficial  occupation,  would  not  be 
liable,  and  their  general  liability  has  been  established  as  indicated 
in  the  examples  just  given. 

As  to  the  mode  and  amount  of  rating  it  is  no  exaggeration  to 
say  that  the  application  of  a  landlord-and-tenant  valuation  in  the 
terms  already  given  in  the  Parochial  Assessment  Act,  with  the 
deductions  there  mentioned,  has  given  rise  to  litigation  on  which 
millions  of  pounds  have  been  spent  with  respect  to  the  rating  of 
railways  alone,  although  the  established  principle  applied  to  them, 
after  much  consideration,  is  to  calculate  the  value  of  the  land  as 
increased  by  the  line. 

,  The  Parochial  Assessment  Act  referred  to  (6  &  7  Will.  IV.  c.  96) , 
comprising  various  provisions  as  to  the  mode  of  assessing  the  rate 
so  far  as  it  authorized  the  making  of  a  valuation,  was  repealed  in 
1869,  in  relation  to  the  metropolis,  and  other  provisions  made  for 
securing  uniformity  of  the  assessment  of  rateable  property  there 
(32  &  33  Vict.  c.  67). 

The  mode  in  which  a  rate  is  made  and  recovered  may  be  concisely 
stated  thus.  The  guardians  appoint  an  assessment  committee  of 
their  body  for;  the  investigation  and  supervision  of  valuations,  which 
are  made  out  in  the  first  instance  by  the  overseers  according  to  specific 
regulations  and  in  a  form  showing  among  other  headings  the  gross 


78 


POOR  LAW 


estimated  rental  of  all  property  and  the  names  of  occupiers  and 
owners,  and  the  rateable  value  after  the  deductions  specified  in  the 
Assessment  Act  already  mentioned,  and  as  prescribed  by  the  central 
board.  This  valuation  list,  made  and  signed  by  the  overseers,  is 
published,  and  all  persons  assessed  or  liable  to  be  assessed,  and  other 
interested  parties,  may,  including  the  officers  of  other  parishes, 
inspect  and  take  copies  of  and  extracts  from  that  list.  A  multitude 
of  provisions  exist  in  relation  to  the  valuation  and  supplemental 
valuation  lists.  Objections  on  the  ground  of  unfairness  or  incorrect- 
ness are  dealt  with  by  the  committee,  who  hold  meetings  to  hear 
and  determine  such  objections.  The  valuation  list,  where  approved 
by  the  committee,  is  delivered  to  the  overseers,  who  proceed  to 
make  the  rate  in  accordance  with  the  valuation  lists  and  in  a 
prescribed  form  of  rate  book.  The  parish  officers  certify  to  the 
examination  and  comparison  of  the  rate  book  with  the  assessments, 
and  obtain  the  consent  of  justices  as  required  by  the  statute  of 
Elizabeth.  This  consent  or  allowance  of  the  rate  is  merely  a 
ministerial  act,  and  if  the  rate  is  good  on  the  face  of  it  the  justices 
cannot  inquire  into  its  validity. 

The  rate  is  then  published  and  open  to  inspection.  Appeals  may 
be  made  to  special  or  quarter  sessions  against, the  rate,  subject  to  the 
restriction  that,  if  the  objection  were  such  that  it  might  have  been 
dealt  with,  on  the  valuation  lists,  no  appeal  to  sessions  is  permitted 
unless  the  valuation  list  has  been  duly  objected  to  and  the  objector 
had  failed  to  obtain  such  relief  in  the  matter  as  he  deemed  to  be  just. 

In  the  metropolis  a  common  basis  of  value  for  the  purposes  of 
government  and  local  taxation  is  provided,  including  the  promotion 
of  uniformity  in  the  assessment  of  rateable  property.  Provision  is 
made  for  the  appointment  of  an  assessment.committee  by  guardians 
or  vestries,  and  for  the  preparation  of  valuation  lists,  and  the 
deposit  and  distribution  of  valuation  lists,  and  for  the  periodical 
revision  of  valuation  lists. 

Many  endeavours  have  been  made  to  readjust  the  burden  of 
local  expenditure.  The  system  of  ma,king  grants  from  the  national 
taxes  in  aid  of  local  rates  has  been  extended.  The  principle  of  the 
metropolitan  common  poor  fund,  a  device  for  giving  metropolitan 
grants  assessed  on  the  whole  of  London  in  aid  of  the  London  local 
poor  law  authorities,  has  been  followed,  mutatis  mutandis,  in  the 
relations  between  the  national  and  the  local  exchequers.  At  the 
time  of  the  repeal  of  the  corn  laws.  Sir  Robert  Peel  expressed  an 
opinion  that  this  fiscal  change  necessitated  some  readjustment 
of  local  rates.  In  that  year,  1846,  a  beginning  of  grants  from  the 
national  exchequer  in  aid  of  local  expenditure  was  made.  The 
salaries  of  poor-law  teachers,  medical  officers  and  auditors  were 
provided  from  the  larger  area  of  taxation,  and  in  1867  the  salaries 
of  public  vaccinators  were  added  to  the  list.  In  1874  a  grant  of 
4s.  per  head  per  week  was  made  for  each  pauper  lunatic  passed  by 
the  guardians  to  the  care  of  a  lunatic  asylum.  By  the  Local 
Government  Act  1888,  supplemented  by  the  Local  Taxation 
(Customs  and  Excise)  Act  1890,  this  principle  was  more  widely 
extended.  The  various  grants  in  a.id  were  abolished,  and  in 
substitution  the  proceeds  of  certain  specified  taxes  were  set  aside 
for  local  purposes.  From  this  source,  the  gross  amount  of  which 
of  course  varies,  there  are  now  distributed  to  local  poor-law  authori- 
ties some  4s.  a  week  for  lunatics  in  asylums,  and  allowances  based 
on  their  average  expenditure  in  previous  years  in  salaries  of  officials 
and  other  specified  charges.  In  London,  in  order  not  to  conflict 
with  the  operation  of  the  common  poor  fund,  which  had  already 
spread  these  charges  over  a  wide  area,  the  grant  takes  the  form 
of  a  sum  equivalent  to  about  4d.  per  diem  for  each  indoor  pauper. 
The  number  on  which  this  calculation  is  based  is  not,  however,  to 
be  the  actual  number,  but  the  average  of  the  last  five  years  previous 
to  the  passing  of  the  act.  By  this  legislation  something  like  one- 
quarter  of  the  total  expenditure  on  poor  law  relief  is  obtained  from 
national  taxes  as  opposed  to  local  rates.  By  the  Agricultural 
Rates  Act  1896  the  occupier  of  agricultural  land  was  excused 
one-half  of  certain  rates,  including  the  poor  rate.  The  deficiency 
is  supplied  by  a  contribution  from  the  national  exchequer. 
Meanwhile,  the  spending  authority  continue  to  be  elected  by  the 
local  ratepayers.  In  this  connexion  two  further  anomalies  deserve 
notice.  By  the  Poor  Rate  Assessment  an*l  Collection  Act  1869 
owners  who  compound  to  pay  the  rates  in  respect  of  tenement 
property  are  entitled  to  certain  deductions  by  way  of  commission. 
Such  payments  by  the  owner  are  constructively  payments  by  the 
occupier,  who  thereby  is  to  be  deemed  duly  rated  for  any  qualifi- 
cation or  franchise.  Under  these  arrangements  a  large  number 
of  electors  do  not  contribute  directly  to  the  rate.  A  converse 
process  is  also  going  on,  whereby  the  ownership  of  an  important 
and  increasing  body  of  property  is  practically  unrepresented. 
This  is  due  to  the  great  growth  of  property  in  the  hands  of  railway 
companies,  docks  and  limited  liability  companies  generally.  The 
railways  alone  are  said  to  pay  considerably  over  13  %  of  the  local 
taxation  of  the  country,  and.  they  have  no  local  representation. 
There  is,  in  fact,  in  local  administration  a  divorce  between  repre- 
sentation and  taxation  to  a  greater  extent  than  is  generally  supposed, 
and  it  is  impossible  not  to  connect  the  fact  with  the  rapid  growth  of 
local  expenditure  and  indebtedness. 

Royal  Commission  of  igo^-igog. — The  main  points  of  the 
system  of  English  poor  relief,  as  still  in  force  in  1910,  are  as 


outlined  above.  That  it  has  been  inadequate  in  dealing  with 
the  various  problems  of  unemployment  and  pauperism,  which  the 
constantly  changing  conditions  of  the  industrial  world  necessarily 
evolve  had  however  been  long  acknowledged.  Accordingly, 
in  190S  a  royal  commission  was  appointed  to  inquire  into  the 
working  of  the  law  relating  to  the  relief  of  poor  persons,  and 
into  the  various  means  adopted  outside  of  the  poor  laws  for 
meeting  distress  arising  from  want  of  employment,  particularly 
during  the  periods  of  severe  industrial  depression.  The  commis- 
sion took  voluminous  evidence'  and  its  report  was  issued  in 
1  The  appendix  volumes  to  the  Report  of  the  Royal  Commission 
number  thirty-four.  Their  contents  are  as  follows  ■  vol.  1.  English 
Official  Evidence,  minutes  of  evidence  mainly  of  the  officers  of  the 
Local  Government  Board  for  England  and  Wales;  vol.  11.  London 
Evidence,  minutes  of  evidence  mainly  of  London  witnesses;  vol.  111. 
Associations  and  Critics,  minutes  of  evidence  mainly  of  critics 
of  the  Poor  Law  and  of  witnesses  representing  Poor  Law  and 
Charitable  Associations;  vol.  iv  Urban  Centres,  minutes  of 
evidence  containing  the  oral  and  written  evidence  of  the  British 
Medical  Association  and  of  witnesses  from  the  following  provincial 
urban  centres — Liverpool  and  Manchester  districts.  West  Yorkshire, 
Midland  Towns;  vol.  v.  Minutes  of  Evidence  containing  the  oral 
and  written  evidence  of  witnesses  from  urban  centres  in  the  following 
districts — South  Wales  and  North  Eastern  Counties ;  vol.  vi.  Minutes 
of  Evidence  relating  to  Scotland;  vol.  vii.  Minutes  of  Evidence 
containing  the  oral  and  written  evidence  of  witnesses  from  various 
rural  centres  in  the  South  Western,  Western  and  Eastern  Counties, 
from  the  parish  of  Poplar  Borough  and  from  the  National  Con- 
ference of  Friendly  Societies;  vol.  viii.  Minutes  of  Evidence  con- 
taining the  oral  and  written  evidence  of  witnesses  relating  chiefly 
to  the  subject  of  "unemployment";  vol.  ix.  Evidence  of  further 
witnesses  on  the  subject  of  unemployment;  vol.  x.  Minutes  of 
Evidence  relating  to  Ireland ;  vol.  xi.  Miscellaneous  Papers.  Com- 
munications from  Boards  of  Guardians  and  others,  &c., 
vol.  xii.  Reports,  Memoranda  and  Tables  prepared  by  certain  of 
the  Commissioners;  vol.  xiii.  Diocesan  Reports  on  the  Methods 
of  administering  charitable  assistance  and  the  extent  and  intensity 
of  poverty  in  England  and  Wales;  vol.  xiv.  Report  on  the  Methods 
and  Results  of  the  present  system  of  administering  indoor  and 
outdoor  poor  law  medical  relief  in  certain  unions  in  England  and 
Wales,  by  Dr  J.  C.  McVail;  vol.  xv.  Report  on  the  Administrative 
Relation  of  Charity  and  the  Poor  Law,  and  the  extent  and  the 
actual  and  potential  utility  of  Endowed  and  Voluntary  Charities 
in  England  and  Scotland,  by  A.  C.  Kay  and  H.  V.  Toynbee;  vol.  xvi. 
Reports  on  the  Relation  of  Industrial  and  Sanitary  Conditions 
to  Pauperism,  by  Steel  Maitland  and  Miss  R.  E.  Squire;  vol.  xvii. 
Reports  on  the  effect  of  Outdoor  Relief  on  Wages  and  the  Conditions 
of  Employment,  by  Thomas  Jones  and  Miss  Williams;  vol.  xviii. 
Report  on  the  Condition  of  the  Children  who  are  in  receipt  of  the 
various  forms  of  Poor  Law  Relief  in  certain  Unions  in  London 
and  in  the  Provinces,  by  Dr  Ethel  Williams  and  Miss  Longman 
and  Miss  Phillips ;  vol.  xix.  Reports  on  the  Effects  of  Employment 
or  Assistance  given  to  the  Unemployed  since  1886  as  a  means  of 
relieving  distress  outside  the  Poor  Law  in  London,  and  generally 
throughout  England  and  Wales,  and  in  Scotland  and  Ireland,  by 
Cyril  Jackson  and  Rev.  J.  C.  Pringle;  vol.  xx.  Report  on  Boy 
Labour  in  London  and  certain  other  typical  towns,  by  Cyril  Jackson, 
with  a  Memorandum  from  the  General  Post  Office  on  the  Conditions 
of  Employment  of  Telegraph  Messengers;  vol.  xxi.  Reports  on  the 
Effect  of  the  Refusal  of  Out-Relief  on  the  Applicants  for  such 
Relief,  by  Miss  G.  Harlock;  vol.  xxii.  Report  on  the  Overlapping 
of  the  work  of  the  Voluntary  General  Hospitals  with  that  of  Poor 
Law  Medical  Relief  in  certain  districts  of  London,  by  Miss  M.  B. 
Roberts;  vol.  xxiii.  Report  on  the  Condition  of  the  Children  who 
are  in  receipt  of  the  various  forms  of  Poor  Law  Relief  in  certain 
parishes  in  Scotland,  by  Dr  C.  T.  Parsons  and  Miss  Longman  and 
Miss  Phillips;  vol.  xxiv.  Report  on  a  Comparison  of  the  Physical 
Condition  of  "  Ordinary  "  Paupers  in  certain  Scottish  Poorhouses 
with  that  of  the  Able-bodied  Paupers  in  certain  English  Workhouses 
and  Labour  Yards,  by  Dr  C.  T.  Parsons;  vol.  xxv.  Statistical 
Memoranda  and  Tables  relating  to  England  and  Wales,  prepared 
by  the  Staff  of  the  Commission  and  by  Government  Departments 
and  others,  and  Actuarial  Reports;  vol.  xxvi.  Documents  relating 
more  especially  to  the  administration  of  charities;  vol.  xxvii. 
Replies  by  Distress  Committees  in  England  and  Wales  to  Questions 
circulated  on  the  subject  of  the  Unemployed  Workmen  Act  1905  • 
vol.  xxviii.  Reports  of  Visits  to  Poor  Law  and  Charitable  Institutions 
and  to  Meetings  of  Local  Authorities  in  the  United  Kingdom; 
vol.  XXIX.  Report  on  the  Methods  of  Administering  Charitable 
Assistance  and  the  extent  and  intensity  of  Poverty  in  Scotland, 
prepared  by  the  Committee  on  Church  Interests  appointed  by  the 
General  Assembly  of  the  Church  of  Scotland ;  vol.  xxx.  Documents 
relating  especially  to  Scotland;  vol.  xxxi.  Statistical  Memoranda 
and  Tables  relating  to  Ireland,  &c.;  vol.  xxxii.  Report  on  Visits 
paid  by  the  Foreign  Labour  Colonies  Committee  of  the  Commis- 
sion to  certain  Institutions  in  Holland,  Belgium,  Germany  and 
Switzerland;  vol.  xxxiii.  Foreign  and  Colonial    Systems   of    Poor 


POOR  LAW 


79 


I909.  It  consists  of  a  majority  report,  signed  by  the  chairman 
and  13  other  members,  and  a  minority  report  signed  by  4  dis- 
sentient members.  To  this  report  and  its  appendices  those 
who  wish  to  obtain  an  exhaustive  account  of  the  working  of 
the  English  poor  law  must  necessarily  have  recourse. 

The  "  majority  "  report  opens  with  a  statistical  survey  of 
poor  law  problems,  gives  an  historical  sketch  of  the  poor  laws 
MajorUy  down  tO  1834,  and  proceeds  to  deal  in  detail  with 
Report.  (-ijg  historical  development  and  present  condition 
of  the  various  branches  of  the  poor  law  under  their  appro- 
priate headings:  (a)  the  central  authority;  (b)  the  local 
authority;  (c)  the  officers  of  the  local  authority;  (d)  areas  of 
administration;  (e)  indoor  relief;  (/)  outdoor  relief;  (g)  the  aged; 
(h)  the  children;  {i)  the  able-bodied  under  the  poor  law  and 
(?)  the  causes  of  pauperism.  Other  portions  of  the  report 
deal  with  medical  relief,  distress  due  to  unemployment,  and 
charities  and  the  relief  of  distress.  In  reviewing  these  various 
subjects  the  commission  lay  bare  the  main  defects  of  the 
present  system,  which  they  briefly  summarize  as  follows: — 

i.  The  inadequacy  of  existing  poor  law  areas  to  meet  the 
growing  needs  of  administration. 

ii.    The  excessive  size  of  many  boards  of  guardians. 

iii.  The  absence  of  any  general  interest  in  poor  law  work 
and  poor  law  elections,  due  in  great  part  to  the  fact  that  poor 
law  stands  in  no  organic  relation  to  the  rest  of  local  govern- 
ment. 

iv.  The  lack  of  intelligent  uniformity  in  the  application 
of  principles  and  in  general  administration. 

V.  The  want  of  proper  investigation  and  discrimination 
in  dealing  with  applicants. 

vi.  The  tendency  in  many  boards  of  guardians  to  give  out- 
door relief  without  plan  or  purpose. 

vii.  The  unsuitability  of  the  general  workhouse  as  a  test 
or  deterrent  for  the  able-bodied;  the  aggregation  in  it  of  all 
classes  without  sufficient  classification;  and  the  absence  of  any 
system  of  friendly  and  restorative  help. 

viii.  The  lack  of  co-operation  between  poor  law  and  charity. 

ix.  The  tendency  of  candidates  to  make  lavish  promises 
of  out-relief  and  of  guardians  to  favour  their  constituents  in 
its  distribution. 

X.  General  failure  to  attract  capable  social  workers  and 
leading  citizens. 

xi.  The  general  rise  in  expenditure,  not  always  accompanied 
by  an  increase  of  efficiency  in  administration. 

xii.  The  want  of  sufficient  control  and  continuity  of  policy 
on  the  part  of  the  central  authority. 

The  commission  stated  that  these  defects  have  produced  a 
want  of  confidence  in  the  local  administration  of  the  poor  law, 
and  that  they  have  been  mainly  the  cause  of  the  introduction 
of  other  forms  of  relief  from  public  funds  which  are  unaccom- 
panied by  such  conditions  as  are  imperatively  necessary  as 
safeguards. 

The  .commission  proceed ,  to  formulate  a  scheme  of  reform,  the 
main  features  of  which  are  summarized  below: — 

Public  Assistance. — The  commissioners  state  that  the  name 
"  poor  law  "  has  gathered  about  it  associations  of  harshness,  and 
still  more  of  hopelessness,  which  might  seriously  obstruct  the 
reforms  they  recommend,  and  they  suggest  that  the  title  "  public 
assistance  "  better  expresses  the  system  of  help  outlined  in  their 
report.  They  propose  the  abolition  of  _  the  existing  boards  of 
guardians,  the  separation  of  their  duties  into  two  categories,  arid 
the  calling  into  existence  of  two  bodies  for  the  discharge  of  the 
two  sets  of  functions,  viz.  a  local  authority,  known  as  the  public 
assistance  authority,  with  an  area  conterminous  with  the  area 
of  the  county  or  county  borough,  for  central  administration  and 
control;  and  local  committees  in  existing  union  areaf  for  dealing 
with  applications,  investigating  and  supervising  cases  and  under- 
taking such  other  duties  as  may  be  delegated  by  the  public  assistance 
authority.  They  recommend  that  the  public  assistance  authority 
should  be  a  statutory  committee  of  the  County  Council,  with  one-half 
of  its  members  appointed  by  the  council  from  persons  who  are 
members  of  the  council,  and  the  other  half  of  its  members  appointed 
by  the  council  from  outside  their  number,  and  to  consist  of  persons 
experienced   in   the   local   administration  of   public   assistance  or 

Relief,  with  a  memorandum  on  the  Relief  of  Famines  in  India;  vol. 
xxxiv.  Alphabetical  Lists  of  Oral  and  Non-oral  Witnesses. 


other  qognate   work,   women  to   be  eligible  for  appointment   in 
either  case. 

Working  in  co-operation  with  the  public  assistance  authorities 
are  to  be  voluntary  aid  councils  and  committees  (the  former  super- 
vising, the  latter  executive)  for  aiding  persons  in  distress  whose 
cases  do  not  appear  to  be  suitable  for  treatment  by  the  public 
assistance  committee.  The  commission  epitomize  what  they 
consider  to  be  the  main  principles  of  a  reformed  poor  law.  They 
are  (i)  that  the  treatment  of  the  poor  who  apply  for  public  assistance 
should  be  adapted  to  the  needs  of  the  individual,  and,  if  institutional, 
should  be  governed  by  classification;  (2)  that  the  public  adminis- 
tration established  for  the  assistance  of  the  poor  should  work  in 
co-operation  with  the  local  and  private  charities  of  the  district; 
(3)  that  the  system  of  public  assistance  thus  established  should 
include  processes  of  help  which  would  be  preventive,  curative,  and 
restorative,  and  (4)  that  every  effort  should  be  made  to  foster  the 
instincts  of  independence  and  self-maintenance  amongst  those 
assisted.    They  proceed  to  recommend : — 

Indoor  or  "  InslituUonal "  Relief. — That  general  workhouses 
should  be  abolished.  That  indoor  relief  should  be  given  in  separate 
institutions  appropriate  to  the  following  classes  of  applicants, 
viz.  (o)  children,  {b)  aged  and  infirm,  (c)  sick,  {d)  able-bodied  men, 
(e)  able-bodied  women,  (/)  vagrants,  and  (g)  feeble-minded  and 
epileptics.  Powers  of  removal  to  and  detention  in  institutions 
should  be  given,  with  proper  safeguards,  to  the  public  assistance 
authority.  The  treatment  of  inmates  should  be  made  as  far  as 
possible  curative  and  restorative. 

Outdoor  Relief  or  "  Home  Assistance." — This  should  be  given  only 
after  thorough  inquiry,  except  in  cases  of  sudden  and  urgent 
necessity;  it  should  be  adequate  to  meet  the  needs  of  those  to  whom 
it  is  given;  persons  so  assisted  should  be  subject  to  supervision; 
that  such  supervision  should  include  in  its  purview  the  conditions, 
moral  and  sanitary,  under  which  the  recipient  is  living;  that 
voluntary  agencies  should  be  utilized  as  far  as  possible  for  the 
personal  care  of  individual  cases,  and  that  there  should  be  one 
uniform  order  governing  outdoor  relief  or  home  assistance. 

Children. — Effective  steps  should  be  taken  to  secure  that  the 
maintenance  of  children  in  the  workhouse  be  no  longer  recognized 
as  a  legitimate  way  of  dealing  with  them.  Boarding-out  might 
and  should  be  greatly  extended.  Power  to  adopt  children  of 
vicious  parents  should  be  more  frequently  exercised  and  accom- 
panied by  a  strict  dealing  with  the  parent,  and  the  public  assistance 
authorities  should  retain  supervision  of  adopted  children  up  to  the 
age  of  twenty-one.  A  local  government  board  circular  of  June 
1910  to  boards  of  guardians  embodied  many  of  the  recommenda- 
tions of  the  commission.  Some  recommendations,  of  course,  the 
guardians  are  not  empowered,  under  existing  legislation,  to  carry  out. 

The  Aged. — As  regards  institutional  relief,  the  aged  should 
have  accommodation  and  treatment  apart  from  the  able-bodied, 
and  be  housed  on  a  separate  site,  and  be  further  subdivided  into 
classes  as  far  as  practicable  with  reference  to  their  physical  condition 
and  their  moral  character.  As  regards  outdoor  relief,  greater 
care  should  be  taken  to  ensure  adequacy  of  relief. 

Medical  Relief  or  Assistance. — A  general  system  of  provident 
dispensaries  should  be  established,  of  which  existing  voluntary 
outdoor  medical  organizations  should  be  invited  to  form  an  integral 
part,  and  every  inducement  should  be  offered  to  the  working  classes 
below  a  certain  wage  to  become,  or  continue  to  be,  members  of  a 
provident  dispensary. 

Unemployment. — The  commission  review  the  social  and  industrial 
developments  since  1834,  deal  with  the  new  problems,  criticize  the 
existing  methods  of  relief,  and  on  their  summing  up  of  the  new 
factors  and  developments,  arrive  at  the  conclusions:  (o)  that  there 
is  an  increasing  aggregation  of  unskilled  labour  at  the  great  ports 
and  in  certain  populous  districts;  (J)  that  this  aggregation  of 
low-grade  labour  is  so  much  in  excess  of  the  normal  local  wants  as 
to  promote  and  perpetuate  under-employment,  and  (c)  that  this 
normal  condition  of  under-employment,  when  aggravated  by  periodic 
contraction  of  trade  or  by  inevitable  changes  in  methods  of  pro- 
duction, assumes  such  dimensions  as  to  require  special  machinery 
and  organization  for  its  relief  and  treatment.  The  commission 
proceed  to  make  the  following  recommendations : — 

Labour  Exchanges. — A  national  system  of  labour  exchanges 
should  be  established  and  worked  by  the  board  of  trade  for, the 
general  purpose  of  assisting  the  mobility  of  labour  and  of  collecting 
accurate  information  as  to  unemployment.  (These  were  established 
by  the  Labour  Exchanges  Act  1909;  see  Unemployment.) 

Education  and  Training  of  the  Young  for  Industrial  Life.— The, 
education  in  the  public  elementary  schools  should  be  much  less 
literary  and  more  practical,  and  better  calculated  than  at  present 
to  adapt  the  child  to  its  future  occupation.  Boys  should  be  kept 
at  school  until  the  age  of  fifteen ;  exemption  below  fifteen  should  be 
granted  only  for  boys  leaving  to  learn  a  skilled  trade,  and  there 
should  be  school  supervision  till  sixteen  and  replacing  in  school  if  not 
properly  employed. 

Regularization  of  Employment. — Government  departments  and 
local  and  public  authorities  should  be  enjoined  to  regularize  their 
work  as  far  as  possible,  and  to  endeavour,  as  far  as  possible,  to 
undertake  their  irregular  work  when  the  general  demand  for  labour 
is  slack. 


8o 


POPAYAN 


Unemployment  Insurance. — The  establishment  and  promotion 
of  unemployment  insurance,  especially  amongst  unskilled  and 
unorganized  labour,  is  of  paramount  importance  in  _  averting 
distress  arising  from  unemployment,  and  is  of  such  national  im- 
portance as  to  justify,  under  specified  conditions,  contributions 
from  public  funds  towards  its  furtherance.  The  comrnission 
further  state  that  this  insurance  can  best  be  promoted  by  utilizing 
the  agency  of  existing  trade  organizations,  or  of  organizations  of 
a  similar  character.  They  are  of  opinion  that  no  scheme  of 
unemployment  insurance,  either  foreign  or  British,  which  has  been 
brought  before  them,  is  so  free  from  objections  as  to  justify  them 
in  recommending  it  for  general  adoption. 

Labour  Colonies. — The  commission  recommend  their  establish- 
ment and  use.     (For  these  see  Vagrancy.) 

Four  out  of  the  seventeen  members  of  the  commission,  being 
unable  to  agree  with  their  colleagues,  issued  a  separate  report, 
which  is  very  nearly  as  voluminous  as  that  of  the 
Report^  majority.  Their  recommendations  were  more  drastic 
than  those  of  the  majority,  and  had  for  their  aim 
not  a  reform  of  the  poor  law  as  it  exists,  but  its  entire  break- 
up. The  minority  agree  with  the  majority  in  recommending 
the  abolition  of  workhouses,  but  instead  of  setting  up  new 
authorities,  they  consider  that  the  duties  of  the  guardians  should 
be  transferred  to  the  county  authorities,  with  an  appropriate 
distribution  among  four  existing  committees  of  the  county 
council.  They  recommend  that  the  education  committee 
become  responsible  for  the  entire  care  of  children  of  school 
age.  That  the  health  committee  should  care  for,  the  sick,  and 
permanently  incapacitated,  infants  under  school  age,  and  the 
aged  requiring  institutional  care.  The  asylums  committee 
should  have  charge  of  the  mentally  defective  and  the 
pension  committee  of  the  aged  to  whom  pensions  are  awarded. 

The  minority  consider  there  should  be  some  systematic  co- 
ordination, within  each  local  area,  of  all  forms  of  public  assis- 
tance and,  if  possible,  of  all  assistance  dispensed  by  voluntary 
agencies,  and  they  recommend  the  appointment,  by  the  county 
or  county  borough  council,  of  one  or  more  responsible  officers, 
called  "  registrars  of  public  assistance."  Their  duties  would 
be  to  keep  a  register  of  all  persons  receiving  any  form  of  public 
assistance  within  their  districts;  they  would  assess  the  charge 
to  be  made  on  individuals  liable  to  pay  any  part  of  the  cost 
of  the  service  rendered  to  them  or  their  dependants,  and  re- 
cover the  amount  thus  due.  They  would  also  have  to  consider 
the  proposals  of  the  various  committees  of  the  council  for  the 
payment  of  out-rehef,  or,  as  the  minority  prefer  to  term  it, 
"  home  aliment."  Other  various  duties  are  allotted  to  them 
in  the  report. 

The  subject  of  unemployment  was  considered  by  the  minority 
and  they  made  the  following  recommendations: — 

Ministry  of  Labour. — The  duty  of  organizing  the  national  labour 
market  should  be  placed  upon  a  minister  responsible  to  parliament. 
The  ministry  of  labour  should  have  six  distinct  and  separately 
organized  divisions;  viz.  the  national  labour  exchange;  the  trade 
insurance  division;  the  maintenance  and  training  division;  the 
industrial  regulation  division;  the  emigration  and  immigration 
division,  and  the  statistical  division. 

National  Labour  Exchange. — The  function  of  the  national  labour 
exchange  should  be,  not  only,  (a)  to  ascertain  and  report  the  surplus 
or  shortage  of  labour  of  particular  kinds,  at  particular  places;  and 
(&)  to  diminish  the  time  and  energy  now  spent  in  looking  for  work, 
and  the  consequent  leaking  between  jobs;  but  also  (c)  so  to  dovetail 
casual  and  seasonal  employments  as  to  arrange  for  practical  con- 
tinuity of  work  for  those  now  chronically  unemployed. 

Absorption  Of  Surplus  Labour. — To  reduce  the  surplus  of  labour 
the  minority  recommend  (a)  that  no  child  should  be  employed,  in 
any  occupation  whatsoever,  below  the  age  of  fifteen;  no  young 
person  under  eighteen  for  more  than  thirty  hours  per  week,  and  all 
so  employed  should  be  required  to  attend  some  suitable  public 
institution  for  not  less  than  thirty  hours  per  week  for  physical 
training  and  technical  education;  (6)  the  hours  of  labour  of  railway, 
omnibus  and  tramway  employees  should  be  reduced  to  a  maximum 
of  sixty,  if  not  of  forty-eight  m  any  one  week;  and  (c)  wage-earning 
mothers  of  young  children  should  be  withdrawn  from  the  industrial 
world  by  giving  them  sufficient  public  assistance  for  the  support  of 
their  families. 

Regularization  of  the  National  Demand  for  Labour. — In  order  to 
meet  the  periodically  recurrent  general  depressions  of  trade  the 
government  should  take  advantage  of  there  being  at  these  periods 
as  much  unemployment  of  capital  as  there  is  unemployment  of 
labour;  that  it  should  definitely  undertake,  as  far  as  practicable. 


the  regularization  of  the  national  demand  for  labour;  and  that  it 
should,  for  this  purpose,  and  to  the  extent  of  at  least  £4,000,000  a 
year,  arrange  a  portion  of  the  ordinary  work  required  by  each 
department  on  a  ten  years'  programme;  £40,000,000  worth  of  work 
for  the  decade  being  then  put  in  hand,  not  by  equal  annual  mstal- 
ments,  but  exclusively  in  the  lean  years  of  the  trade  cycle;  being 
paid  for  out  of  loans  for  short  terms  raised  as  they  are  required, 
and  being  executed  with  the  best  available  labour,  at  standard 
rates,  engaged  in  the  ordinary  way.  That  in  this  ten  years' 
programme  there  should  be  included  works  of  afforestation,  coast 
protection  and  land  reclamation;  to  be  carried  out  by  the  board 
of  agriculture  exclusively  in  the  lean  years  of  the  trade  cycle;  by 
the  most  suitable  labour  obtainable,  taken  on  in  the  ordinary  way 
at_  the  rates  locally  current  for  the  work,  and  paid  for  out  of  loans 
raised  as  required. 

Trade  Union  Insurance. — In  view  of  its  probable  adverse  effect 
on  trade  union  membership  and  organization  the  minority  com- 
missioners cannot  recommend  the  establishment  of  any  plan  of 
government  or  compulsory  insurance  against  _  unemployment. 
They  recommend,  however,  a  government  subvention  not  exceeding 
one  half  of  the  sum  actually  paid  in  the  last  preceding  year  as  out- 
of-work  benefit  should  be  offered  to  trade  unions  or  other  societies 
providing  such  benefit. 

Maintenance  and  Training. — For  the  ultimate  residuum  of  men 
in  distress  from  want  of  employment  the  minority  recommend 
that  maintenance  should  be  freely  provided,  without  disfranchise- 
ment, on  condition  that  they  submit  themselves  to  the  physical 
and  mental  training  that  they  may  prove  to  require.  Suitable 
day  training  depots  or  residential  farm  colonies  should  be  estab- 
lished, where  the  men's  whole  working  time  would  be  absorbed 
in  such  varied  beneficial  training  of  body  and  mind  as  they  proved 
capable  of;  their  wives  and  families  being,  meanwhile,  provided 
with  adequate  home  aliment. 

Authorities. — The  Report  and  Evidence  of  the  Royal  Com- 
mission of  1905-1909  is  a  library  in  itself  on  the  subject  of  pauperism. 
The  contents  of  the  various  volumes  are  given  supra.  Other  im- 
portant publications  are  Report  and  Evidence  of  Royal  Commission 
on  Aged  Poor  (1895) ;  Report  and  Evidence  of  Select  Committee  of  House 
of  Commons  on  Distress  from  Want  of  Employment  (1895);  Report 
of  Departmental  Committee  on  Vagrancy  (1906).  See  also  the 
references  in  the  bibliography  to  Charity  and  Charities;  and 
Sir  G.  NichoUs  and  T.  Mackay,  A  History  of  the  English  Poor  Law 
(3  vols.,  1899) ;  the  publications  of  the  Charity  Organization  Society; 
Reports  of  Poor  Law  Conferences.  For  list  of  subjects  discussed, 
see  index  to  Report  of  Central  Conferences. 

POPAYAN,  a  city  of  Colombia,  capital  of  the  department  of 
Cauca,  about  240  m.  S.W.  of  Bogota,  on  the  old  trade  route 
between  that  city  and  Quito,  in  2°  26'  N.,  76°  49'  W.  Pop. 
(1870),  8485;  (1906,  estimate),  10,000.  Popayan  is  built  on 
a  great  plain  sloping  N.W.  from  the  foot  of  the  volcano  Purace, 
near  the  source  of  the  Cauca  and  on  one  of  its  small  tribu- 
taries, 5712  ft.  above  the  sea.  Its  situation  is  singularly  pic- 
turesque, the  Purace  rising  to  an  elevation  of  15,420  ft.  about 
20  m.  south-east  of  the  city,  the  Sotara  volcano  to  approxi- 
mately the  same  height  about  the  same  distance  south  by 
east,  and  behind  these  at  a  greater  distance  the  Pan  de 
Azucar,  15,978  ft.  high.  The  ridge  forming  the  water-parting 
between  the  basins  of  the  Cauca  and  Patia  rivers  crosses 
between  the  Central  and  Western  Cordilleras  at  this  point 
and  culminates  a  few  miles  to  the  south.  Popayan  is  the 
seat  of  a  bishopric  dating  from  1547,  whose  cathedral  was 
built  by  the  Jesuits;  and  in  the  days  of  its  prosperity  it 
possessed  a  university  of  considerable  reputation.  It  has 
several  old  churches,  a  college,  two  seminaries  founded  about 
1870  by  the  French  Lazarists,  who  have  restored  and  occupy 
the  old  Jesuit  convent,  and  a  mint  established  in  1749.  -The 
city  was  at  one  time  an  important  commercial  and  mining 
centre,  but  much  of  its  importance  was  lost  through  the  transfer 
of  trade  to  Call  and  Pasto,  through  the  decay  of  neighbouring 
mining  industries,  and  through  political  disturbances.  Earth- 
quakes have  also  caused  much  damage  to  Popayan,  especially 
those  of  1827  and  1834.  The  modern  city  has  some  small 
manufacturing  industries,  including  woollen  fabrics  for  cloth- 
ing, but  its  trade  is  much  restricted,  and  its  importance  is 
political  rather  than  commercial. 

Popayan  was  founded  by  Sebastian  Benalcazar  in  1538  on  the 
site  of  an  Indian  settlement,  whose  chief,  Payan,  had  the  un- 
usual honour  of  having  his  name  given  to  the  usurping  town. 
In  1558  it  received  a  coat  of  arms  and  the  title  of  "  Muy  noble  y 
muy  leal"  from   the   king  of   Spain— a   distinction   of   great 


POPE 


8i 


significance  in  that  disturbed  period  of  colonial  history.  It 
is  noted  also  as  the  birthplace  of  Caldas,  the  Colombian 
naturalist,  and  of  Mosquera,  the  geographer.  There  are  hot 
sulphurous  springs  near  by  on  the  flanks  of  the  volcano 
Purace,  especially  at  Coconuco,  which  are  much  frequented 
by  Colombians. 

POPE  (Gr.  TraiTTras,  post-classical  Lat.  papa,  father),  an 
ecclesiastical  title  now  used  exclusively  to  designate  the  head 
of  the  Roman  CathoHc  Church.  In  the  4th  and  sth 
Titles.  centuries  it  was  frequently  used  in.  the  West  of  any 
bishop  (Du  Cange,,  s.v.);  but  it  gradually  came  to  be 
reserved  to  the  bishop  of  Rome,  becoming  his  of&cial  title. 
In  the  East,  on  the  other  hand,  only  the  bishop  of  Alexandria 
seems  to  have  used  it  as  a  title;  but  as  a  popular  term  it 
was  applied  to , :  priests,  and  at  the  present  day,  in  the 
Greek  Church  and  in  Russia,  all  the  priests  are  called  pappas, 
which  is  also  translated  "  pope."  Even  in  the  case  of  the 
sovereign  pontiff  the  word  pope  is  officially  only  used  as  a  less 
solemn  style:  though  the  ordinary  signature  and  heading  of 
briefs  is,  e.g.  "  Pius  P.P.X.,"  the  signature  of  bulls  is  "  Pius 
episcopus  ecclesiae  catholicae,"  and  the  heading,  "  Pius  epi- 
scopus,  servus  servorum  Dei,"  this  latter  formula  going  back  to 
the  time  of  St  Gregory  the  Great.  Other  styles  met  with  in 
official  documents  are  Pontifex,  Summus  pontifex,  Romanus 
pontifex,  Sanctissimus,  Sanciissimus  pater,  Sanctissimus  domi- 
nus  noster,  Sanctitas  sua,  Beatissimus  pater,.  Beatitudo  sua; 
while  the  pope  is  addressed  in  speaking  as  "  Sanctitas  vestra," 
or  "  Beatissime  pater."  In  the  middle  ages  is  also  found 
"  Dominus  apostolicus  "  (cf.  still,  in  the  litanies  of  the  saints), 
or  simply  "  Apostolicus." 

The  pope  is  pre-eminently,  as  successor  of  St  Peter,  bishop 
of  Rome.  Writers  are  fond  of  viewing  him  as  representing 
Various  all  the  degrees  of  the  ecclesiastical  hierarchy;  ithey 
Degrees  say  that  he  is  bishop  of  Rome,  metropolitan  of  the 
of  Juris-  Roman  province,  primate  of  Italy,  patriarch  of  the 
diction.  -western  Church  and  head  of  the  universal  Church. 
This  is  strictly  correct,  but,  with  the  exception  of  the  first 
and  last,  these  titles  are  seldom  to  be  found  in  documents.  x\nd 
if  these  terms  were  intended  to  indicate  so  many  degrees  in  the 
exercise  of  jurisdiction  they  would  not  be  correct.  As  a  matter 
of  fact,  from  the  earhest  centuries  (cf.  can.  6  of  Nicaea,  in  325), 
we  see  that  the  popes  exercised  a  special  metropohtan  juris- 
diction not  only  over  the  bishops  nearest  to  Rome,  the  future 
cardinal  bishops,  but  also  over  all  those  of  central  and  southern 
Italy,  including  SicUy  (cf.  Duchesne,  Origines  du  culte,  ch.  i), 
all  of  whom  received  their  ordination  at  his  hands.  Northern 
Italy  and  the  rest  of  the  western  Church,  still  more  the  eastern 
Church,  did  not  depend  upon  him  so  closely  for  their  administra- 
tion. His  influence  was  exercised,  however,  not  only  in 
dogmatic  questions  but  in  matters  of  discipline,  by  means 
of  appeals,  petitions  and  consultations,  not  to  mention  spon- 
taneous intervention.  This  state  of  affairs  was  defined  and 
developed  in  the  course  of  centuries,  till  it  produced  the  present 
state  of  centraUzation,  according  to  a  law  which  can  equally 
be  observed  in  other  societies.  In  practice  the  different 
degrees  of  jurisdiction,  as  represented  in  the  pope,  are  of  no 
importance:  he  is  bishop  of  Rome  and  governs  his  diocese 
by  direct  episcopal  authority; '  he  is  also  the  head  of  the 
Church,  and  in  this  capacity  governs  all  the  dioceses,  though  the 
regular  authority  of  each  bishop  in  his  own  diocese '  is  -  also 
ordinary  and  immediate,  i.e.  he  is  not  a  mere  vicaf  of  the  pope. 

But  the  mode  of,  exercise  of  a  power  and  its  intensity  are 
subject  to  variation,  while  the  power  remains:  essentially  the 
same.  This  is  the  case  with  the  power  of  'the  pope 
Primacy.  ^^^  j^j^  primacy,  the  exercise  and  manifestation  of 
which  have  been  continually  developing..  This  primacy,  a 
primacy  of  honour  and  jurisdiction,  involving  the  plenitude  of 
power  over  the  teaching,  the  worship,  the  discipline  and 
administration  of  the  Church,  is  received  by  the  pope  as 
part  of  the  succession  of  St  Peter,: together  with  the  episcopate  of 
Rome.  The  whole  episcopal  body,  with  the  pope  at  its  head, 
should  be  considered  as   succeeding  to  the   apostolic  college. 


presided  over  by  St  Peter;  and  the  head  of  it,  now  as  then,  as 
personally  invested  with  all  the  powers  enjoyed  by  the  whole 
body,  including  the  head.  Hence  the  pope,  as  supreme  in  mat- 
ters of  doctrine,  possesses  the  same  authority  and  the  same  iu- 
fallibility  as  the  whole  Church;  as  legislator  and  judge  he  pos- 
sesses the  same  power  as  the  episcopal  body  gathered  around  and 
with  him  in  oecumenical  council.  Such  are  the  two  essential 
prerogatives  of  the  papal  primacy:  infallibility  in  his  supreme 
pronouncements  in  matters  of  doctrine  (see  Infallibility); 
and  immediate  and  sovereign  jurisdiction,  under  all  its  aspects, 
over  aU  the  pastors  and  the  faithful.  These  two  privileges, 
having  been  claimed  and  enjoyed  by  the  popes  iu  the  course 
of  centuries,  were  solemnly  defined  at  the  Vatican  Council  by 
the  constitution  "  Pastor  aeternus  "  of  the  i8th  of  July  1870. 
The  two  iprincipal  passages  in  it  are  the  following,  (i)  In  the 
matter  of  jurisdiction:  "  If  any  one  say  that  the  Roman  Pontiff 
has  an  office  merely  of  inspection  and  direction,  and  not  the 
full  and  supreme  power  of  jurisdiction  over  the  whole  Church, 
not  only  in  matters  of  faith  and  morals,  but  also  as  regards 
discipHne  and  the  government  of  the  Church  scattered  through- 
out the  whole  world;  or  that  he  has  only  the  principal  portion 
and  not  the  plenitude  of  that  supreme  power;  or  that  his  power 
is  not  ordinary  and  immediate,  as  much  over  each  and  every 
church  as  over  each  and  every  pastor  and  behever:  anathema 
sit."  (2)  In  the  matter  of  infallibility:  "  We  decree  that  when 
the  Roman  Pontiff  speaks  ex  cathedra,  that  is  to  say,  when,  in 
his  capacity  as  Pastor  and  Doctor  of  all  Christians  he  defines, 
in  virtue  of  his  supreme  apostohc  authority,  a  certain  doctrine 
concerning  faith  or  morals  to  be  held  by  the  whole  Church,  he 
enjoys,  by  the  divine  assistance  promised  to  him  in  the  Blessed 
Peter,  that  infalhbility  with  which  the  divine  Redeemer  has 
thought  good  to  endow  His  Church  in  order  to  define  its 
doctrine  in  matters  of  faith  and  morals;  consequently,  these 
definitions  of  the  Roman  Pontiff  are  irreformable  in  themselves 
and  not  in  consequence  of  the  consent  of  the  Church." 

For  the  history  of  the  papacy,  and  associated  questions, 
see  Papacy,  Conclave,  Cueia  Romana,  Cardinal,  &c. 

The  ordinary  costume  of  the  pope  is  similar  to  that  of  the 
other  clergy  and  bishops,  but  white  in  colour;  his  shoes  alone 
are  different,  being  low  open  shoes,  red  in  colour,  with  a  cross 
embroidered  on  the  front;  these  are  what  are  called  the  "  mules," 
a  substitute  for  the  compagi  of  ancient  times,  formerly  reserved 
to  the  pope  and  his  clergy  (cf.  Duchesne,  op.  cit.  ch.  11,  6).  Over 
this  costume  the  pope  wears,  on  less  solemn  occasions,  the  lace 
rochet  and  the  red  mozetta,  bordered  with  ermine,  or  the 
camauro,  similar  to  the  mozetta,  but  with  the  addition  of  a  hood, 
and  over  all  the  stole  embroidered  with  his  arms.  The  pope's 
liturgical  costume  consists,  in  the  first  place,  of  all  the  elements 
comprising  that  of  the  bishops:  stockings  and  sandals,  amice, 
alb,  cincture,  tunicle  and  dalmatic,  stole,  ring,  gloves,  chasuble 
or  cope,  the  latter,  however,  with  a  morse  ornamented  with 
precious  stones,  and  for  head-dress  the  mitre  (see  Vestments). 
The  tiara  {q.v.),  the  pontifical  head-dress,  is  not  used  strictly 
speaking  in  the  course  of  the  hturgical  functions,  but  only  for 
processions.  To  these  vestments  or  insignia  the  pope  adds: 
the  falda,  a  kind  of  long  skirt  trailing  on  the  ground  all  round, 
which  the  chaplains  hold  up  while  he  is  walking.  Over  the 
chasuble  he  wears  the  fanone  (see  Amice)  ;  and  after  that  the 
pallium  (q.v.).  He  is  preceded  by  the  papal  cross,  carried  with 
the  crucifix  turned  towards  him.  When  going  to  solemn 
ceremonies  he  is  carried  on  the  sedia,  a  portable  chair  of  red 
velvet  with  a  high  backj  and  escorted  by  two  flahelli  of  peacock 
feathers.  The  papal  mass,  now  rarely  celebrated,  has  preserved 
more  faithfully  the  ancient  liturgical  usages  of  the  8th  and  gth 
centuries. 


Bibliography. — Bellarmine,  De  romano  pontifice;  Wilmers,  De 
christi  ecclesia  (Regensburg,  1897) ;  Turmel,  Histoire  de  la  theo- 
logie  positive,  vol.  ii.  (Paris,  1906) ;  Hinschius,  Kirchenrecht,  vol.  i. 
(Berlin,  1869) ;  Rudolph  Sohm,  Kirchenrecht  (1892) ;  Duchesne,  Les 
Origines  du  culte  chretien  (4th  ed.,  Paris,  1908);  Bouix,  De  papa 
(Paris,  1869) ;  Vacant,  j^tudes  theologigues  sur  les  constitutions  du 
concile  du  Vatican  (Paris,  1895) ;  Barbier  de  Montault,  Le  Costume 
et  les  usages  ecclSsiastiques  (Paris,  1897).  (A.  Bo.*) 


82 


POPE,  ALEXANDER 


POPE,  ALEXANDER  (1688-1744),  English  poet,  was  born  in 
Lombard  Street,  London,  on  the  21st  of  May  1688.  His  father, 
Alexander  Pope,  a  Roman  Catholic,  was  a  linen-draper  who 
afterwards  retired  from  business  with  a  small  fortune,  and  fixed 
his  residence  about  1700  at  Binfield  in  Windsor  Forest.  Pope's 
education  was  desultory.  His  father's  religion  would  have 
excluded  him  from  the  public  schools,  even  had  there  been  no 
other  impediment  to  his  being  sent  there.  Before  he  was  twelve 
he  had  obtained  a  smattering  of  Latin  and  Greek  from  various 
masters,  from  a  priest  in  Hampshire,  from  a  schoolmaster  at 
Twyford  near  Winchester,  from  Thomas  Deane,  who  kept  a 
school  in  Marylebone  and  afterwards  at  Hyde  Park  Corner, 
and  finally  from  another  priest  at  home.  Between  his  twelfth 
and  his  seventeenth  years  excessive  application  to  study  under- 
mined his  health,  and  he  developed  the  personal  deformity 
which  was  in  so  many  ways  to  distort  his  view  of  life.  He 
thought  himself  dying,  but  through  a  friend,  Thomas  (after- 
wards the  abbe)  Southcote,  he  obtained  the  advice  of  the  famous 
physician  John  Radcliffe,  who  prescribed  diet  and  exercise. 
Under  this  treatment  the  boy  recovered  his  strength  and  spirits. 
"  He  thought  himself  the  better,"  Spence  says,  "  in  some 
respects  for  not  having  had  a  regular  education.  He  (as  he 
observed  in  particular)  read  originally  for  the  sense,  whereas 
we  are  taught  for  so  many  years  to  read  only  for  words."  He 
afterwards  learnt  French  and  Italian,  probably  in  a  similar 
way.  He  read  translations  of  the  Greek,  Latin,  French  and 
Italian  poets,  and  by  the  age  of  twelve,  when  he  was  finally 
settled  at  home  and  left  to  himself,  he  was  not  only  a  confirmed 
reader,  but  an  eager  aspirant  to  the  highest  honours  in  poetry. 
There  is  a  story,  which  chronological  considerations  make 
extremely  improbable,  that  in  London  he  had  crept  into  Will's 
coffee-house  to  look  at  Dryden,  and  a  further  tale  that  the  old 
poet  had  given  him  a  shilling  for  a  translation  of  the  story  of 
Pyramus  and  Thisbe;  he  had  lampooned  his  schoolmaster;  he 
had  made  a  play  out  of  John  Ogilby's  Iliad  for  his  school- 
fellows; and  before  he  was  fifteen  he  had  written  an  epic,  his 
hero  being  Alcander,  a  prince  of  Rhodes,  or,  as  he  states  else- 
where, Deucalion. 

There  were,  among  the  Roman  Catholic  families  near  Bin- 
field,  men  capable  of  giving  a  direction  to  his  eager  ambition, 
men  of  literary  tastes,  and  connexions  with  the  literary  world. 
These  held  together  as  members  of  persecuted  communities 
always  do,  and  were  kept  in  touch  with  one  another  by  the 
family  priests.  Pope  was  thus  brought  under  the  notice  of  Sir 
William  Trumbull,  a  retired  diplomatist  living  at  Easthamp- 
stead,  within  a  few  miles  of  Binfield.  Thomas  Dancastle,  lord 
of  the  manor  of  Binfield,  took  an  active  interest  in  his  writings, 
and  at  Whiteknights,  near  Reading,  lived  another  Roman 
Catholic,  Anthony  Englefield,  "  a  great  lover  of  poets  and 
poetry."  Through  him  Pope  made  the  acquaintance  of 
Wycherley  and  of  Henry  Cromwell,  who  was  a  distant  cousin  of 
the  Protector,  a  gay  man  about  town,  and  somethingof  a  pedant. 
Wycherley  introduced  him  to  William  Walsh,  then  of  great 
renown  as  a  critic.^  Before  the  poet  was  seventeen  he  was 
admitted  in  this  way  to  the  society  of  London  "  wits  "  and 
men  of  fashion,  and  was  cordially  encouraged  as  a  prodigy. 
Wycherley's  correspondence  with  Pope  was  skilfully  manipu- 
lated by  the  younger  man  to  represent  Wycherley  as  sub- 
mitting, at  first  humbly  and  then  with  an  ill-grace,  to  Pope's 
criticisms.  The  publication  (Elwin  and  Courthope,  vol.  v.) 
of  the  originals  of  Wycherley's  letters  from  MSS.  at  Longleat 
showed  how  seriously  the  relations  between  the  two  friends, 
which  ceased  in  17 10,  had  been  misrepresented  in  the  version 
of  the  correspondence  which  Pope  chose  to  submit  to  the  public. 
Walsh's  contribution  to  his  development  was  the  advice  to 
study  "  correctness."  "  About  fifteen,"  he  says,  "  I  got 
acquainted  with  Mr.  Walsh.  He  used  to  encourage  me  much, 
and  used  to  tell  me  that  there  was  one  way  left  of  excelling; 

'  The  dates  of  Pope's  correspondence  with  Wycherley  are  1704- 
1710;  with  Walsh,  1705-1707,  and  with  Cromwell,  1708-1727; 
with  John  Caryll  (1666-1736)  and  his  son,  also  neighbours,  1710- 
1735- 


for,  though  we  had  several  great  poets,  we  never  had  any  one 
great  poet  that  was  correct,  and  he  desired  me  to  make  that 
my  study  and  aim  "  (Spence,  p.  280).  Trumbull  turned  Pope's 
attention  to  the  French  critics,  out  of  the  study  of  whom  grew 
the  Essay  on  Criticism;  he  suggested  the  subject  of  Windsor 
Forest,  and  he  started  the  idea  of  translating  Homer. 

It  says  something  for  Pope's  docility  at  this  stage  that  he 
recognized  so  soon  that  a  long  course  of  preparation  was  needed 
for  such  a  magnum  opus,  and  began  steadily  and  patiently, 
to  disciphne  himself.  The  epic  was  put  aside  and  afterwards 
burnt;  versification  was  industriously  practised  in  short 
"essays";  and  an  elaborate  study  was  made  of  accepted 
critics  and  models.  He  learnt  most,  as  he  acknowledged, 
from  Dryden,  but  the  harmony  of  his  verse  also  owed  something 
to  an  earlier  writer,  George  Sandys,  the  translator  of  Ovid. 
At  the  beginning  of  the  i8th  century  Dryden's  success  had  given 
great  vogue  to  translations  and  modernizations.  The  air  was 
fuU  of  theories  as  to  the  best  way  of  doing  such  things.  What 
Dryden  had  touched  Pope  did  not  presume  to  meddle  with — 
Dryden  was  his  hero  and  master;  but  there  was  much  more  of 
the  same  kind  to  be  done.  Dryden  had  rewritten  three  of  the 
Canterbury  tales;  Pope  tried  his  hand  at  the  Merchant's  Tale, 
and  the  Prologue  to  the  Wife  of  Bath's  Tale,  and  produced  also 
an  imitation  of  the  House  of  Fame.  Dryden  had  translated 
Virgil;  Pope  experimented  on  the  Thebais  of  Statins,  Ovid's 
Heroides  and  Metamorphoses,  and  the  Odyssey.  He  knew  little 
Latin  and  less  Greek,  but  there  were  older  versions  in  English 
which  helped  him  to  the  sense;  and,  when  the  correspondents 
to  whom  he  submitted  his  versions  pointed  out  mistranslations, 
he  could  answer  that  he  had  always  agreed  with  them,  but 
that  he  had  deferred  to  the  older  translators  against  his  own 
judgment.  It  was  one  of  Pope's  little  vanities  to  try  to  give 
the  impression  that  his  metrical  skill  was  more  precocious 
even  than  it  was,  and  we  cannot  accept  his  published  versions 
of  Statins  and  Chaucer  (published  in  "  miscellanies  "  at  intervals 
between  1709  and  1714)  as  incontrovertible  evidence  of  his  pro- 
ficiency at  the  age  of  sixteen  or  seventeen,  the  date,  according  to 
his  own  assertion,  of  their  composition.  But  it  is  indisputable 
that  at  the  age  of  seventeen  his  skill  in  verse  astonished  a 
veteran  critic  like  Walsh,  and  some  of  his  pastorals  were  in 
the  hands  of  Sir  George  Granville  (afterwards  Lord  Lansdowne) 
before  1706.  His  metrical  letter  to  Cromwell,  which  Elmn 
dates  in  1707,  when  Pope  was  nineteen,  is  a  brilliant  feat  of 
versification,  and  has  turns  of  wit  in  it  as  easy  and  spirited  as 
any  to  be  found  in  his  mature  satires.  Pope  was  twenty-one 
when  he  sent  the  "  Ode  on  Solitude  "  to  Cromwell,  and  said 
it  was  written  before  he  was  twelve  years  old. 

Precocious  Pope  was,  but  he  was  also  industrious;  and  he 
spent  some  eight  or  nine  years  in  arduous  and  enthusiastic 
disciphne,  reading,  studying,  experimenting,  taking  the  advice 
of  some  and  laughing  in  his  sleeve  at  the  advice  of  others, 
"  poetry  his  only  business,"  he  said,  "  and  idleness  his  only 
pleasure,"  before  anything  of  his  appeared  in  print.  In  these 
preliminary  studies  he  seems  to  have  guided  himself  by  the 
maxim  formulated  in  a  letter  to  Walsh  (dated  July  2,  1706) 
that  "  it  seems  not  so  much  the  perfection  of  sense  to  say  things 
that  had  never  been  said  before,  as  to  express  those  best  that 
have  been  said  oftenest."  His  first  publication  was  his 
"Pastorals."  Jacob  Tonson,  the  bookseller,  had  seen  these 
pastorals  in  the  hands  of  Walsh  and  Congreve,  and  sent  a 
polite  note  (April  20,  1706)  to  Pope  asking  that  he  might  have 
them  for  one  of  his  miscellanies.  They  appeared  accordingly 
in  May  1709  at  the  end  of  the  sixth  volume  of  Tonson's 
Poetical  Miscellanies,  containing  contributions  from  Ambrose 
Philips,  Sheflield,  Garth  and  Rowe,  with  "  January  and  May," 
Pope's  version  of  Chaucer's  "  Merchant's  Tale." 

Pope's  next  publication  was  the  Essay  on  Criticism  {t-Tli), 
written  two  years  earlier,  and  printed  without  the  author's 
name.  "  In  every  work  regard  the  writer's  end  "  (1.  255)  is  one  of 
its  sensible  precepts,  and  one  that  is  often  neglected  by  critics 
of  the  essay,  who  comment  upon  it  as  if  Pope's  end  had  been 
to  produce  an  original  and  profound  treatise  on  first  principles. 


POPE,  ALEXANDER 


83 


His  aim  was  simply  to  condense,  methodize,  and  give  as  perfect 
and  novel  expression  as  he  could  to  floating  opinions  about 
the  poet's  aims  and  methods,  and  the  critic's  duties,  t(?  "  what 
oft  was  thought,  but  ne'er  so  well  expressed  "  (1.  298).  "  The 
town  "  was  interested  in  helles  lettres,  and  given  to  conversing 
on  the  subject;  Pope's  essay  was  simply  a  brilliant  contribution 
to  the  fashionable  conversation.  The  youthful  author  said 
that  he  did  not  expect  the  sale  to  be  quick  because  "  not  one 
gentleman  in  sixty,  even  of  liberal  education,  could  understand 
it."  The  sales  were  slow  until  Pope  caused  copies  to  be  sent 
to  Lord  Lansdowne  and  others,  but  its  success  was  none  the 
less  brilliant  for  the  delay.  The  town  was  fairly  dazzled  by 
the  young  poet's  learning,  judgment,  and  felicity  of  expression. 
Many  of  the  admirers  of  the  poem  doubtless  would  have 
thought  less  of  it  if  they  had  not  believed  all  the  maxims  to 
be  original.  "  I  admired,"  said  Lady  Mary  Wortley  Montagu, 
"  Mr  Pope's  Essay  on  Criticism  at  first  very  much,  because  I 
had  not  then  read  any  of  the  ancient  critics,  and  did  not  know 
that  it  was  all  stolen."  Pope  gained  credit  for  much  that  might 
have  been  found,  where  he  found  it,  in  the  Institutes  of 
Quintihan,  in  the  numerous  critical  writings  of  Rene  Rapin, 
and  in  Rene  le  Boasu's  treatise  on  epic  poetry,  Addison  has 
been  made  responsible  for  the  exaggerated  value  once  set  on 
the  essay,  but  Addison's  paper  {Spectator,  No.  253)  was  not 
unmixed  praise.  He  deprecated  the  attacks  made  by  Pope 
on  contemporary  literary  reputations,  although  he  did  full 
justice  to  the  poet's  metrical  skill.  Addison  and  Pope  became 
acquainted  with  one  another,  ,  and  Pope's  sacred  eclogue, 
"  Messiah,"  was  printed  as  No.  378  of  the  Spectator.  In  the 
Essay  on  Criticism  Pope  provoked  one  bitter  personal  enemy 
in  John  Dennis,  the  critic,  by  a  description  of  him  as  Appius, 
who  "stares,  tremendous,  with  a  threat'ning  eye."  Dennis 
retorted  in  Reflections  . .  upon  a  late  Rhapsody  . .  (17 11),  abusing 
Pope  among  other  things  for  his  personal  deformity.  Pope 
never  forgot  this  brutal  attack,  which  he  described;  in  a  note 
inserted  after  Dennis's  death,  as  late  as  1743,  as  written  "  in 
a  manner  perfectly  lunatic." 

The  Rape  of  the  Lock  in  its  first  form  appeared  in  171 2  in 
Liniot's  Miscellanies;  the  "  machinery  "  of  sylphs  and  gnomes 
was  an  afterthought,  and  the  poem  was  republished  as  we  now 
have  it  early  in  17 14.  William,  4th  Baron  Petre,  had  surrep- 
titiously cut  off  a  lock  of  Miss  Arabella  Fermor's  hair,  and  the 
liberty  had  been  resented;  Pope  heard  the  story  from  his  friend 
John  Caryll,  who  suggested  that  the  breach  between  the 
families  might  be  healed  by  making  the  incident  the  subject 
of  a  mock-heroic  poem  like  Boileau's  Lutrin.  Pope  caught  at 
the  hint;  the  mock-heroic  treatment  of  the  pretty  frivolities  of 
fashionable  life  just  suited  his  freakish  sprightliness  of  wit,  and 
his  studies  of  the  grand  epic  at  the  time  put  him  in  excellent 
vein.  The  Rape  of  the  Lock  is  admitted  to  be  a  masterpiece  of 
airiness,  ingenuity,  and  exquisite  finish.  But  the  poem  struck 
Taine  as  a  piece  of  harsh,  scornful,  indelicate  buffoonery,  a  mere 
succession  of  oddities  and  contrasts,  of  expressive  figures  un- 
expected and  grinning,  an  example  pf  English  insensibility 
to  French  sweetness  and,  refinement.  Sir  Leslie  Stephen 
objected  on  somewhat  different  grounds  to  the  poet's  tone 
towards  women.  His  laughter  at  Pope's  raillery  was  checked 
by  the  fact  that  women  are  spoken  of  in  the  poem  as  if  they 
were  all  like  Belinda.  The  poem  shows  the  hand  of  the 
satirist  who  was  later  to  assert  that  "  every  woman  is  at 
heart  a  rake,"  in  the  epistle  addressed  to  Martha  Blount. 

Windsor  Forest,  modelled  on  Sir  John  Denham's  Cooper's  Hill, 
had  been  begun,  according  to  Pope's  account,  when  he  was 
sixteen  or  seventeen.  It  was  published  in  March  17 13  with  a 
flattering  dedication  to  the  sec^-etary  for  war,  George  Granville, 
Lord  Lansdowne,  and  an  opportune  allusion  to  the  peace  of 
Utrecht.  This  was  a  nearer  approach  to  taking  a  political  side 
than  Pope  had  yet  made.  H's  principle  had  been  to  keep  clear  of 
politics,  and  not  to  attach  himself  to  any  of  the  sets  into  which 
literary  men  were  divided  by  party.  Although  inchned  to  the 
Jacobites  by  his  religion,  he  never  took  any  part  in  the  plots  for 
the  restoration  of  the  Stuarts,  and  he  was  on  friendly  terms  with 


the  Whig  coterie,  being  a  frequent  guest  at  the  coffee-house 
kept  by  Daniel  Button,  where  Addison  held  his  "  little  senate." 
He  had  contributed  his  poem,  "  The  Messiah  "  to  the  Spectator; 
he  had  written  an  article  or  two  in  the  Guardian,  and  he  wrote 
a  prologue  for  Addison's  Cato.  Nevertheless  he  induced 
Lintot  the  bookseller  to  obtain  from  John  Dennis  a  criti- 
cism of  Cato.  On  the  publication  of  Dennis's  remarks,  the 
violence  of  which  had,  as  Pope  hoped,  made  their  author  ridicu- 
lous. Pope  produced  an  anonymous  pamphlet,  The  Narrative 
'  of  Dr  Robert  N orris  concerning  the  .  .  .  Frenzy  of  Mr 
John  Dennis  (1713),  which,  though  nominally  in  defence  of 
Addison,  had  for  its  main  purpose  the  gratification  of  Pope's 
own  hostility  to  Dennis.  Addison  disavowed  any  connivance 
in  this  coarse  attack  in  a  letter  written  on  his  behalf  by  Steele 
to  Lintot,  saying  that  if  he  noticed  Dennis's  attack  at  all  it 
would  be  in  such  a  way  as  to  allow  him  no  just  cause  of 
complaint.  Coolness  between  Addison  and  Pope  naturally 
followed  this  episode.  When  the  Rape  of  the  Lock  was 
published,  Addison,  who  is  said  to  have  praised  the  poem 
highly  to  Pope  in  private,  dismissed  it  in  the  Spectator  with  two 
sentences  of  patronizing  faint  praise  to  the  young  poet,  and, 
coupling  it  with  TickeU's  "  Ode  on  the  Prospect  of  Peace," 
devoted  the  rest  of  the  article  to  an  elaborate  puff  of  "the 
pastorals  of   Mr  Philips." 

When  Pope  showed  a  leaning  to  the  Tories  in  Windsor  Forest, 
the  members  of  Addison's  coterie  made  insidious  war  on  him. 
Within  a  few  weeks  of  the  publication  of  the  poem,  and  when  it 
was  the  talk  of  the  town,  there,  began  to  appear  in  the  Guardian 
(Nos.  22,  23,  28,  30,  32)  a  series  of  articles  on  "  Pastorals."  Not 
a  word  was  said  about  Windsor  Forest,  but  everybody  knew 
to  what  the  general  principles  referred.  Modern  pastoral 
poets  were  ridiculed  for  introducing  Greek  moral  deities,  Greek 
flowers  and  fruits,  Greek  names  of  shepherds,  Greek  sports  and 
customs  and  religious  rites.  They  ought  to  make  use  of  English 
rural  mythology — hobthrushes,  fairies,  goblins  and  witches; 
they  should  give  English  names  to  their  shepherds;  they  should 
mention  flowers  indigenous  to  English  climate  and  soil;  and 
they  should  introduce  English  proverbia,l  sayings,  dress, 
and  customs.  All  excellent  principles,  and  all  neglected  by 
Pope  in  Windsor  Forest.  The  poem  was  fairly  open  to  criticism 
in  these  points;  there  are  many  beautiful  passages  in  it,  show- 
ing close  though  somewhat  professional  observation  of  nature, 
but  the  mixture  of  heathen  deities  and  conventional  archaic 
fancies  with  modern  realities  is  incongruous,  and  the  com- 
parison of  Queen  Anne  to  Diana  was  ludicrous.  But  the 
sting  of  the  articles  did  not  lie  in  the  truth  of  the  oblique 
criticisms.  The  pastorals  of  Ambrose  Phihps,  published  four 
years  before,  were  again  trotted  out.  Here  was  a  true  pastoral 
poet,  the  eldest  born  of  Spenser,  the  worthy  successor  of 
Theocritus  and  Virgil! 

Pope  took  an  amusing  revenge,  which  turned  the  laugh 
against  his  assailants.  He  sent  Steele  an  anonymous  paper 
in  continuation  of  the  articles  in  the  Guardian  on  pastoral 
poetry,  reviewing  the  poems  of  Mr  Pope  by  the  light  of  the 
principles  laid  down.  Osterisibly  Pope  was  censured  for 
breaking  the  rules,  and  Philips  praised  for  conforming  to  them, 
quotations  being  given  from  both.  The  quotations  were 
sufficient  to  dispose  of  the  pretensions  of  poor  Philips,  and  Pope 
did  not  choose  his  own  worst  passages,  accusing  himself  of 
actually  deviating  sometimes  into  poetry.  Although  the 
Guardian's  principles  were  also  brought  into  ridicule  by  bur- 
lesque exemplifications  of  them  after  the  manner  of  Gay's 
Shepherd's  Week,  Steele,  misled  by  the  opening  sentences,  was 
at  first  unwilUng  to  print  what  appeared  to  be  a  direct  attack 
on  Pope,  and  is  said  to  have  asked  Pope's  consent  to  the 
publication,  which  was  graciously  granted. 

The  links,  that  attached  Pope  to  the  Tory  party  were  strength- 
ened,  by  a  new  friendship.  His  first  letter  to  Swift,  who 
became  warmly  attached  to  him,  is  dated  the  8th  of  December 
1713.  Swift  had  been  a  leading  member  of  the  Brothers' 
Club,  from  which  the  famous  Scriblerus  Club  seems  to  have 
been   an   offshoot.     The   leading   members   of   this   informal 


84 


POPE,  ALEXANDER 


literary  society  were  Swift,  Arbuthnot,  Congreve,  Bishop 
Atterbury,  Pope,  Gay  and  Thomas  Parnell.  Their  chief  object 
was  a  general  war  against  the  dunces,  waged  with  great  spirit 
by  Arbuthnot,  Swift  and  Pope. 

The  estrangement  from  Addison  was  completed  in  connexion 
with  Pope's  translation  of  Homer.  This  enterprise  was 
definitely  undertaken  in  1713.  The  work  was  to  be  published 
by  subscription,  as  Dryden's  Virgil  had  been.  Men  of  all 
parties  subscribed,  their  unanimity  being  a  striking  proof  of 
the  position  Pope  had  attained  at  the  age  of  twenty-five.  It 
was  as  if  he  had  received  a  national  commission  as  by  general 
consent  the  first  poet  of  his  time.  But  the  unanimity  was 
broken  by  a  discordant  note.  A  member  of  the  Addison  cKque, 
Tickell,  attempted  to  run  a  rival  version.  Pope  suspected 
Addison's  instigation;  Tickell  had  at  least  Addison's  encourage- 
ment. Pope's  famous  character  of  Addison  as  "  Atticus  "  in 
the  Epistle  to  Br  Arbuthnot  (ii.  193-215)  was,  however,  in- 
spired by  resentment  at  insults  that  existed  chiefly  in  his  own 
imagination,  though  Addison  was  certainly  not  among  his 
warmest  admirers.  Pope  afterwards  claimed  to  have  been 
magnanimous,  but  he  spoiled  his  case  by  the  petty  inventions 
of  his  account  of  the  quarrel. 

The  translation  of  Homer  was  Pope's  chief  employment  for 
twelve  years.  The  new  pieces  in  the  miscellanies  pubhshed  in 
171.7,  his  "  Elegy  on  an  Unfortunate  Lady,"  and  his  "  Eloisa 
to  Abelard,"  were  probably  written  some  years  before  their 
pubhcation.  His  "  Eloisa  to  Abelard "  was  based  on  an 
Enghsh  translation  by  John  Hughes  of  a  French  version  of  the 
Letters,  which  differed  very  considerably  from  the  original 
Latin.  The  Iliad  was  dehvered  to  the  subscribers  in  instal- 
ments in  171S,  1717,  1718  and  1720.  Pope's  own  defective 
scholarship  made  help  necessary.  William  Broome  and  John 
Jortin  supplied  the  bulk  of  the  notes,  and  Thomas  Parnell  the 
preface.  For  the  translation  of  the  Odyssey  he  took  Elijah 
Fenton  and  Broome  as  coadjutors,  who  between  them  trans- 
lated twelve  out  of  the  twenty-four  books.^  It  was  completed 
in  1725.  The  profitableness  of  [the  work  was  Pope's  chief 
temptation  to  undertake  it.  His  receipts  for  his  earlier  poems 
had  totalled  about  £150,  but  he  cleared  more  than  £8000  by  the 
two  translations,  after  deducting  all  payments  to  coadjutors — 
a  much  larger  sum  than  had  ever  been  received  by  an  Enghsh 
author  before. 

The  translation  of  Homer  had  estabUshed  Pope's  reputation 
with  his  contemporaries,  and  has  endangered  it  ever  since  it 
was  challenged.  Opinions  have  varied  on  the  purely  literary 
merits  of  the  poem,  but  with  regard  to  it  as  a  translation  few 
have  differed  from  Bentley's  criticism,  "  A  fine  poem,  Mr  Pope, 
but  you  must  not  call  it  Homer."  His  collaboration  with 
Broome  {q.v.)  and  Fenton  {q.v.)  ^  involved  him  in  a  series  of 
recriminations.  Broome  was  weak  enough  to  sign  a  note  at 
the  end  of  the  work  understating  the  extent  of  Fenton's  assist- 
ance as  well  as  his  own,  and  ascribing  the  merit  of  their  trans- 
lation, reduced  to  less  than  half  its  real  proportions,  to  a 
regular  revision  and  correction — mostly  imaginary — at  Pope's 
hands.  These  falsehoods  were  deemed  necessary  by  Pope  to 
protect  himself  against  possible  protests  from  the  subscribers. 
In  1722  he  edited  the  poems  of  Thomas  Parnell,  and  in  1725 
made  a  considerable  sum  by  an  unsatisfactory  edition  of  Shake- 
speare, in  which  he  had  the  assistance  of  Fenton  and  Gay. 

Pope,  with  his  economical  habits,  was  rendered  independent 
by  the  pecuniary  success  of  his  Homer,  and  enabled  to  live  near 
London.  The  estate  at  Binfield  was  sold,  and  he  removed 
with  his  parents  to  Mawson's  Buildings,  Chiswick,  in  1716,  and 
in  1719  to  Twickenham,  to  the  house  with  which  his  name  is 
associated.  Here  he  practised  elaborate  landscape  gardening 
on  a  small  scale,  and  built  his  famous  grotto,  which  was  really 
a  tunnel  under  the  road  connecting  the  garden  with  the  lawn 
on  the  Thames.  He  was  constantly  visited^  at  Twickenham 
by  his  intimates,  Dr  John  Arbuthnot,  John  Gay,  Bolingbroke 

1  I,  4,  19  and  20  are  by  Fenton;  2,  6,  8,  II,  12,  16,  18,  23,  with 
notes  to  all  the  books,  by  Broome. 

^  The  correspondence  with  them  is  given  in  vol.  viii.  of  Elwin  and 
Courthope's  edition. 


(after  his  return  in  1723),  and  Swift  (during  his  brief  visits  to 
England  in  1726  and  1727),  and  by  many  other  friends  of  the 
Tory  party.  With  Atterbury,  bishop  of  Rochester,  he  was  on 
terms  of  afiectionate  intimacy,  but  he  blundered  in  his  evidence 
when  he  was  called  as  a  witness  on  his  behalf  in  1723. 

In  1717  his  father  died,  and  he  appears  to  have  turned  to  the 
Blounts  for  sympathy  in  what  was  to  him  a  very  serious 
bereavement.  He  had  early  made  the  acquaintance  of  Martha 
and  Teresa  Blount,  both  of  them  intimately  connected  with 
his  domestic  history.  Their  home  was  at  Mapledurham,  near 
Reading,  but  Pope  probably  first  met  them  at  the  house  of 
his  neighbour,  Mr  Englefield  of  Whiteknights,  who  was  their 
grandfather.  He  begun  to  correspond  with  Martha  Blount 
in  1 7 12,  and  after  1717  the  letters  are  much  more  serious 
in  tone.  He  quarrelled  with  Teresa,  who  had  apparently 
injured  or  prevented  his  suit  to  her  sister;  and  although,  after 
her  father's  death  in  1718,  he  paid  her  an  annuity,  he  seems 
to  have  regarded  her  as  one  of  his  most  dangerous  enemies. 
His  friendship  with  Martha  lasted  all  his  fife.  So  long  as  his 
mother  lived  he  was  unwearying  in  his  attendance  on  her,  but 
after  her  death  in  1733  his  association  with  Martha  Blount  was 
more  constant.  In  defiance  of  the  scandal-mongers,  they 
paid  visits  together  at  the  houses  of  common  friends,  and  at 
Twickenham  she  spent  part  of  each  day  with  him.  His  earlier 
attachment  to  Lady  Mary  Wortley  Montagu  was  apparently  a 
more  or  less  literary  passion,  which  perished  under  Lady  Mary's 
ridicule. 

The  yea:r  1725  may  be  taken  as  the  beginning  of  the  third 
period  of  Pope's  career,  when  he  made  his  fame  as  a  moralist 
and  a  satirist.  It  may  be  doubted  whether  Pope  had  the  stay- 
ing power  necessary  for  the  composition  of  a  great  imaginative 
work,  whether  his  crazy  constitution  would  have  held  together 
through  the  strain.  He  toyed  with  the  idea  of  writing  a  grand 
epic.  He  told  Spence  that  he  had  it  all  in  his  head,  and  gave  him 
a  vague  (and  it  must  be  admitted  not  very  promising)  sketch 
of  the  subject  and  plan  of  it.  But  he  never  put  any  of  it  on 
paper.  He  shrank  as  with  instinctive  repulsion  from  the  stress 
and  strain  of  comphcated  designs.  Even  his  prolonged  task 
of  translating  weighed  heavily  on  his  spirits,  and  this  was  a  much 
less  formidable  effort  than  creating  an  epic.  He  turned  rather 
to  designs  that  could  be  accompUshed  in  detail,  works  of  which 
the  parts  could  be  separately  laboured  at  and  put  together  with 
patient  care,  into  which  happy  thoughts  could  be  fitted  that 
had  been  struck  out  at  odd  moments  and  in  ordinary  levels  of 
feeling. 

Edward  Young's  satire.  The  Universal  Passion,  had  just 
appeared,  and  been  received  with  more  enthusiasm  than  any 
thing  published  since  Pope's  own  early  successes.  This  alone 
would  have  been  powerful  inducement  to  Pope's  emulous  tem- 
per. Swift  was  finishing  Gulliver's  Travels,  and  came  over  to 
England  in  1726.  The  survivors  of  the  Scriblerus  Club — Swift, 
Pope,  Arbuthnot,  and  Gay — resumed  their  old  amusement  of 
parodying  and  otherwise  ridiculing  bad  writers,  especially  bad 
writers  in  the  Whig  interest.  Two  volumes  of  their  Mis- 
cellanies in  Prose  and  Verse  were  published  in  1727.  A  third 
volume  appeared  in  1728,  and  a  fourth  was  added  in  1732. 
According  to  Pope's  own  history  of  the  Dunciad,  an  Heroic 
Poem  in  Three  Books,  which  first  appeared  on  the  28th  of  May 
1728,  the  idea  of  it  grew  out  of  this.  Among  the  Miscellanies 
was  a  "  Treatise  of  the  Bathos  or  the  Art  of  Sinking  in  Poetry," 
in  which  pOets  were  classified,  with  illustrations,  according  to 
their  eminence  in  the  various  arts  of  debasing  instead  of  elevating 
their  subject.  No  names  were  mentioned,  but  the  specimens 
of  bathos  were  assigned  to  various  letters  of  the  alphabet,  which, 
the  authors  boldly  asserted,  were  taken  at  random.  But  no 
sooner  was  the  treatise  published  than  the  scribblers  proceeded 
to  take  the  letters  to  themselves,  and  in  revenge  to  fill  the  news- 
papers with  the  most  abusive  falsehoods  and  scurrilities  they 
could  devise.  This  gave  Pope  the  opportunity  he  had  hoped 
for,  and  provided  him  with  an  excuse  for  the  personalities 
of  the  Dunciad,  which  had  been  in  his  mind  as  early  as  1720. 
Among  the  most  prominent  objects  of  his  satire  were  Lewis 


POPE,  ALEXANDER 


85 


Theobald,  Colley  Gibber,  John  Dennis,  Richard  Bentley,  Aaron 
Hill  and  Bernard  Lintot,  who,  in  spite  of  his  former  relations 
with  Pope,  was  now  classed  with  the  piratical  Edmund  Curll. 
The  book,  was  published  with  the  greatest  precautions.  It  was 
anonymous,  and  professed  to  be  a  reprint  of  a  Dublin  edition. 
When  the  success  of  the  poem  was  assured,  it  was  republished 
in  1729,  and  a  copy  was  presented  to  the  king  by  Sir  Robert 
Walpole.  Names  took  the  place  of  initials,  and  a  defence 
of  the  satire,  .written  by  Pope  himself,  but  sighed  by  his  friend 
William  Cleland,  was  printed  as  "  A  letter  to  the  Pubhsher." 
Various  indexes,  notes  and  particulars  of  the  attacks  on  Pope 
made  by  the  diflEerent  authors  satirized  were  added.  To  avoid 
any  danger  of  prosecution,  the  copyright  was  assigned  to  Lord 
Oxford,  Lord  Bathurst  and  Lord  Burlington,  whose  position 
rendered  them  practically  unassailable.  We  may  admit  that 
personal  spite  influenced  Pope  at  least  as  much  as  disinte- 
rested zeal  for  the  honour  of  literature,  but  in  the  dispute  as  to 
the  comparative  strength  of  these  motives,  a  third  is  apt  to  be 
overlooked  that  was  probably  stronger  than  either.  This  was 
an  unscrupulous  elfish  love  Of  fun,  and  delight  in  the  creations 
of  a  humorous  imagination.  Certainly  to  represent  the  Dun- 
ciad  as  the  outcome  of  mere  personal  spite  is  to  give  an  exag- 
gerated idea  of  the  malignity  Of  Pope's  disposition,  and  an 
utterly  wrong  impression  Of  the  character  of  his  satire.  He  was 
not,  except  in  rare  cases,  a  morose,  savage,  indignant  satirist, 
but  airy  and  graceful  in  his  malice,  revengeful  perhaps  and 
excessively  sensitive,  but  restored  to  good  humour  as  he  thought 
over  his  wrongs  by  the  ludicrous  conceptions  with  which  he 
invested  his  adversaries.  The  most  unprovoked  assault  was 
on  Richard  Bentley^  whom  he  satirized  in  the  reconstruction 
and  enlargement  of  the  Dunciad  made  in  the  last  years  of  his 
life  at  the  instigation,  it  is  said,  of  William  Warburton.  In 
the  earlier  editions  the  place  of  hero  had  been  occupied  by 
Lewis  Theobald,  who  had  ventured  to  criticize  7 ope' s  Shake- 
speare. In  the  edition  which  appeared  in  Pope's  Works  (1742), 
he  ■  was  dethroned  in  favour  of  Colley  Cibber,  who  had  just 
written  his  Letter  from  Mr  Cibber  to  Mr  Pope  inquiring  into 
the  motives  that  might  induce  him  in  his  satyrical  writings  to  be 
so  frequently  fond  of  Mr  Gibber's  name  (1742).  Warburton's 
name  is  attached  to  many  new  notes,  and  one  of  the  preliminary 
dissertations  by  Ricardus  Aristarchus  on  the  hero  of  the  poem 
seems  to  be  by  him. 

The  four  epistles  of  the  Essay  on  Man  (1733)  were  also 
intimately  connected  with  passing  controversies.  They  belong 
to  the  same  intellectual  movement  with  Butler's  Analogy — the 
effort  of  the  i8th  century  to  put  religion  on  a  rational  basis. 
But  Pope  was  not  a  thinker  Hke  Butler.  The  subject  was 
suggested  to  him  by  Henry  St  John,  Lord  Bolingbroke,  who 
had  returned  from  exile  in  1723,  and  was  a  fellow-member  of 
the  Scriblerus  Club,  Bolingbroke  is  said — and  the  statement 
is  supported  by  the  contents  of  his  posthumous  works — to 
have  furnished  most  of  the  arguments.  Pope's  contribution 
to  the  controversy  consisted  in  brilliant  epigram  and  illustra- 
tion. In  this  didactic  work,  as  in  his  Essay  on  Criticism,  he 
put  together  on  a  sufficiently  simple  plan  a  series  of  happy 
sayings,  separately  elaborated,  picking  up  the  thoughts  as  he 
f o'und  them '  in  miscellaneous  reading  and  conversation,  and 
trjring  only  to  fit  them  with  perfect  expression.  His  readers 
were  too  dazzled  by  the  verse  to  be  severely  critical  of  the  sense. 
Pope  himself  had  not  comprehended  the  drift  of  the  arguments 
he  had  adopted  from  Bolingbrbke,'  and  was  alarmed  when  he 
found  that  his  poem  was  generally  interpreted  as  an  apology 
for  the  free-thinkers.  Warburton  is  said  to  have  quahfied 
its  doctrines  as  "  rank  atheism,  "  and  asserted  that  it  was  put 
together  from  the  "  w:orst  passages  of  the  worst  authors."  The 
essay  was,  soon  translated  into  the  chief  European  languages, 
and  in  1737  its  orthodoxy  was  assailed  by  a  Swiss  professor, 
Jean  Pierre  de  Crousaz,  in  an  Examen  de  I' essay  de  M.  Pope 
sur  I'homme.  Warburton  now  saw  fit  to  revise  his  opinion 
of  Pope's  abilities  and ,  principles^for  what  reason  does  not 
appear.  In  'any  case  he  now  became  as  enthusiastic  in  his 
praise  of  Pope's  orthodoxy  and'  his  genius  as  he  had  before  been 


scornful,  and  proceeded  to  employ  his  unrivalled  powers  of 
sophistry  in  a  defence  of  the  orthodoxy  of  the  conflicting  and 
inconsequent  positions  adopted  in  the  Essay  on  Man.  Pope 
was  wise  enough  to  accept  with  all  gratitude  an  aUy  who  was 
so  useful  a  friend  and  so  dangerous  an  enemy,  and  from  that 
time  onward  Warburton  was  the  authorized  commentator  of 
his  works. 

The  Essay  on  Man  was  to  have  formed  part  of  a  series  of 
philosophic  poems  on  a  systematic  plan.  The  other  pieces 
were  to  treat  of  human  reason,  of  the  use  of  learning,  wit, 
education  and  riches,  of  civil  and  ecclesiastical  pohty,  of  the 
character  of  women,  &c.  Of  the  ten  epistles  of  the  Moral 
Essays,  the  first  four,  written  between  1731  and  1735,  are 
connected  with  this  scheme,  which  was  never  executed. 

There  was  much  bitter,  and  sometimes  unjust,  satire  in  the 
Moral  Essays  and  the  Imitations  of  Horace.  In  these  epistles 
and  satires,  which  appeared  at  intervals,  he  was  often  the  mouth- 
piece of  his  political  friends,  who  were  all  of  them  in  opposition 
to  Walpole,  then  at  the  height  of  his  power,  and  Pope  chose 
the  object  of  his  attacks  from  among  the  minister's  adherents. 
Epistle  III.,  "  Of  the  Use  of  Riches,"  addressed  to  Allen  Bath- 
urst, Lord  Bathurst,  in  1732,  is  a  direct  attack  on  Walpole's 
methods  of  corruption,  and  on  his  financial  pohcy  in  general; 
and  the  two  dialogues  (1738)  known  as  the  "  Epilogue  to  the 
Satires,"  professedly  a  defence  of  satire,  form  an  eloquent 
attack  on  the  court.  Pope  was  attached  to  the  prince  of  Wales's 
party,  and  he  did  not  forget  to  insinuate,  what  was  indeed  the 
truth,  that  the  queen  had  refused  the  prince  her  pardon  on 
her  deathbed.  The  "  Epistle  to  Dr  Arbuthnot  "  contains  a  de- 
scription of  his  personal  attitude  towards  the  scribblers  and  is 
made  to  serve  as  a  "prologue  to  the  satires."  The  gross  and 
unpardonable  insults  bestowed  on  Lord  Hervey  and  on  Lady 
Mary  Wortley  Montagu  in  the  first  satire  "  to  Mr  Fortescue  " 
provoked  angry  retaliation  from  both.  The  description  of 
Timon's  ostentatious  viUa  in  Epistle  IV.,  addressed  to  the  earl 
of  Burlington,  was  generally  taken  as  a  picture  of  Canons,  the 
seat  of  John  Brydges,  duke  of  Chandos,  one  of  Pope's  patrons, 
and  caused  a  great  outcry,  though  in  this  case  Pope  seems  to 
have  been  innocent  of  express  allusion.  Epistle  II.,  addressed 
to  Martha  Blount,  contained  the  picture  of  Atossa,  which 
was  taken  to  be  a  portrait  of  Sarah  Jennings,  duchess  of 
Marlborough.  One  of  the  worst  imputations  on  Pope's  character 
was  that  he  left  this  passage  to  be  published  when  he  had  in 
effect  received  a  bribe  of  £1000  from  the  duchess  of  Marl- 
borough for  its  suppression  through  the  agency  of  Nathanael 
Hooke  (d.  1763).  As  the  passage  eventually  stood,  it  might 
be  applied  to  Katherine,  duchess  of  Buckingham,  a  natural 
daughter  of  James  II.  Pope  may  have  altered  it  with  the 
intention  of  diverting  the  satire  from  the  original  object. 
He  was  scrupulously  honest  in  money  matters,  and  always  in- 
dependent in  matters  of  patronage;  but  there  is  some  evidence 
for  this  discreditable  story  beyond  the  gossip  of  Horace  Wal- 
pole {Works,  ed.  P.  Cunningham,  i.  cxliv.),  though  not  suffi- 
cient to  justify  the  acceptance  it  received  by  some  of  Pope's 
biographers.  To  appreciate  fully  the  point  of  his  allusions 
requires  an  intimate  acquaintance  with  the  political  and  social 
gossip  of  the  time.  But  apart  from  their  value  as  a  brilliant 
strongly-coloured  picture  of  the  time  Pope's  satires  have  a 
permanent  value  as  literature.  It  is  justly  remarked  by  Mark 
Pattison^  that  "these  Imitations  are  among  the  most  original 
of  his  writings.''  The  vigour  and  terseness  of  the  diction  is 
still  unsurpassed  in  English  verse.  Pope  had  gained  complete 
mastery  over  his  medium,  the  heroic  couplet,  before  he  used 
it  to  express  his  hatred  of  the  political  and  social  evils  which 
he  satirized.  The  elaborate  periphrases  and  superfluous  orna- 
ments of  his  earlier  manner,  as  exemplified  in  the  Pastorals  and 
the  Homer,  disappeared;  he  turned  to  the  uses  of  verse  the 
ordinary  language  of  conversation,  differing  from  everyday 
speech  only  in  its  exceptional  brilliance  and  point.  It  is  in 
these  satires  that  his  best  work  must  be  sought,  and  by  them 
that  his  position  among  English  poets  must  be  fixed.  It  was 
1  In  his  edition  of  the  Satires  and  Epistles  (1866). 


86 


POPE,  ALEXANDER 


the  Homer  chiefly  that  Wordsworth  and  Coleridge  had  in  their 
eye  when  they  began  the  polemic  against  the  "  poetic  diction  " 
of  the  1 8th  century,  and  struck  at  Pope  as  the  arch-corrupter. 
They  were  historically  unjust  to  Pope,  who  did  not  originate 
this  diction,  but  only  furnished  the  most  finished  examples 
of  it.  At  the  beginning  of  the  19th  century  Pope  still  had 
an  ardent  admirer  in  Byron,  whose  first  satires  are  written  in 
Pope's  couplet.  The  much  abused  pseudo-poetic  diction  in 
substance  consisted  in  an  ambition  to  "  rise  above  the  vulgar 
style,"  to  dress  nature  to  advantage — a  natural  ambition  when 
the  arbiters  of  literature  were  people  of  fashion.  If  one  com- 
pares Pope's  "  Messiah  "  or  "  Eloisa  to  Abelard,"  or  an  im- 
passioned passage  from  the  Iliad,  with  the  originals  that  he 
paraphrased,  one  gets  a  more  vivid  idea  of  the  consistence  of 
pseudo-poetic  diction  than  could  be  furnished  by  pages  of  an- 
alysis. But  Pope  merely  made  masterly  use  of  the  established 
diction  of  his  time,  which  he  eventually  forsook  for  a  far  more 
direct  and  vigorous  style.  A  passage  from  the  Guardian,  in 
which  Philips  was  commended  as  against  him,  runs:  "  It  is 
a  nice  piece  of  art  to  raise  a  proverb  above  the  vulgar  style 
and  still  keep  it  easy  and  unaffected.  Thus  the  old  wish,  '  God 
rest  his  soul,'  is  very  finely  turned: — 

"  '  Then  gentle  Sidney  liv'd,  the  shepherd's  friend, 
Eternal  blessings  on  his  shade  attend  !  '  " 

Pope  would  have  despised  so  easy  a  metamorphosis  as  this 
at  any  period  in  his  career,  and  the  work  of  his  coadjutors  in 
the  Odyssey  may  be  distinguished  by  this  comparative  cheapness 
of  material.  Broome's  description  of  the  clothes-washing  by 
Nausicaa  and  her  maidens  in  the  sixth  book  may  be  compared 
with  the  original  as  a  luminous  specimen. 

Pope's  wit  had  won  for  him  the  friendship  of  many  distin- 
guished men,  and  his  small  fortune  enabled  him  to  meet  them 
on  a  footing  of  independence.  He  paid  long  visits  at  many 
great  houses,  especially  at  Stanton  Harcourt,  the  home  of  his 
friend  Lord  Chancellor  Harcourt;  at  Oakley,  the  seat  of  Lord 
Bathurst;  and  at  Prior  Park,  Bath,  where  his  host  was  Ralph 
Allen.  With  the  last  named  he  had  a  temporary  disagree- 
ment owing  to  some  slight  shown  to  Martha  Blount,  but  he 
was  reconciled  to  him  before  his  death. 

He  died  on  the  30th  of  May  1744,  and  he  was  buried  in  the 
parish  church  of  Twickenham.  He  left  the  income  from  his 
property  to  Martha  Blount  tiU.  her  death,  after  which  it  was  to 
go  to  his  half-sister  Magdalen  Rackett  and  her  children.  His 
unpublished  MSS.  were  left  at  the  discretion  of  Lord  Boling- 
broke,  and  his  copyrights  to  Warburton. 

If  we  are  to  judge  Pope,  whether  as  a  man  or  as  a  poet,  with 
human  fairness,  and  not  merely  by  comparison  with  standards 
of  abstract  perfection,  there  are  two  features  of  his  times  that 
must  be  kept  steadily  in  view — the  character  of  political  strife 
in  those  days  and  the  political  relations  of  men  of  letters.  As 
long  as  the  succession  to  the  Crown  was  doubtful,  and  political 
failure  might  mean  loss  of  property,  banishment  or  death, 
politicians,  playing  for  higher  stakes,  played  more  fiercely  and 
unscrupulously  than  in  modern  days,  and  there  was  no  con- 
troUing  force  of  public  opinion  to  keep  them  within  the  bounds 
of  common  honesty.  Hence  the  age  of  Queen  Anne  is  pre- 
eminently an  age  of  intrigue.  The  governrfient  was  almost  as 
unsettled  as  in  the  early  days  of  personal  monarchy,  and  there 
was  this  difference — that  it  was  poHcy  rather  than  force  upon 
which  men  depended  for  keeping  their  position.  Secondly, 
men  of  letters  were  admitted  to  the  inner  circles  of  intrigue  as 
they  had  never  been  before  and  as  they  have  never  been  since.  A 
generation  later  Walpole  defied  them,  and  paid  the  rougher 
instruments  that  he  considered  sufficient  for  his  purpose  in 
solid  coin  of  the  realm;  but  Queen  Anne's  statesmen,  whether 
from  difference  of  tastes  or  difference  of  policy,  paid  their  prin- 
cipal hterary  champions  with  social  privileges  and  honourable 
public  appointments.  Hence  men  of  letters  were  directly  in- 
fected by  the  low  political  morality  of  the  unsettled  time.  And 
the  character  of  their  poetry  also  suffered.  The  most  promi- 
nent defects  of  the  age — the  lack  of  high  and  sustained 
imagination,    the    genteel    liking   for   "  nature  to   advantage 


dressed,"  the  incessant  striving  after  wit — were  fostered,   if 
not  generated,  by  the  social  atmosphere. 

Pope's  own  ruling  passion  was  the  love  of  fame,  and  he  ha,d 
no  scruples  where  this  was  concerned.  His  vanity  and  his 
childish  love  of  intrigue  are  seen  at  their  worst  in  his  petty 
manoeuvres  to  secure  the  pubhcation  of  his  letters  during  his 
lifetime.  These  intricate  proceedings  were  unravelled  with 
great  patience  and  ingenuity  by  Charles  Wentworth  Dilke, 
when  the  false  picture  of  his  relations  with  his  contemporaries, 
which  Pope  had  imposed  on  the  public  had  been  practically 
accepted  for  a  century.  Ehzabeth  Thomas,  the  mistress  of 
Henry  Cromwell,  had  sold  Pope's  early  letters  to  Henry 
Cromwell  to  the  bookseller  Curll  for  ten  guineas.  These 
were  published  in  Curll's  Miscellanea  in  1726  (dated  1727),  and 
had  considerable  success.  This  surreptitious  publication  seems 
to  have  suggested  to  Pope  the  desirability  of  publishing  his  own 
correspondence,  which  he  immediately  began  to  collect  from 
various  friends  on  the  plea  of  preventing  a  similar  clandestine 
transaction.  The  pubhcation  by  Wycherley's  executors  of  a 
posthumous  volume  of  the  dramatist's  prose  and  verse  fur- 
nished Pope  with  an  excuse  for  the  appearance  of  his  own 
correspondence  with  Wycherley,  which  was  accompanied  by  a 
series  of  unnecessary  deceptions.  After  manipulating  his  cor- 
respondence so  as  to  place  his  own  character  in  the  best  light, 
he  deposited  a  copy  in  the  hbrary  of  Edward,  second  earl  of 
Oxford,  and  then  he  had  it  printed.  The  sheets  were  offered, 
to  Curll  by  a  person  calling  himself  P.T.,  who  professed  a  desire 
to  injure  Pope,  but  was  no  other  than  Pope  himself.  The  copy 
was  dehvered  to  Curll  in  1735  after  long  negotiations  by  an 
agent  who  called  himself  R.  Smythe,  with  a  few  originals  to 
vouch  for  their  authenticity.  P.  T.  had  drawn  up  an  adver- 
tisement stating  that  the  laook  was  to  contain  answers  from 
various  peers.  CurU  was  summoned  before  the  House  of  Lords 
for  breach  of  privilege,  but  was  acquitted,  as  the  letters  from 
peers  were  not  in  fact  forthcoming.  Difficulties  then  arose 
between  Curll  and  P.  T.,  and  Pope  induced  a  bookseller  named 
Cooper  to  publish  a  Narrative  of  the  Method  by  which  Mr 
Pope's  Private  Letters  were  procured  by  Edmund  Curll,  Book- 
seller (173s).  These  preliminaries  cleared  the  way  for  a  show 
of  indignation  against  piratical  publishers  and  a  "  genuine  " 
edition  of  the  Letters  of  Mr  Alexander  Pope  (1737,  fol.  and 
4to).  Unhappily  for  Pope's  reputation,  his  friend  CaryU,  who 
died  before  the  pubhcation,  had  taken  a  copy  of  Pope's  letters 
before  returning  them.  This  letter-book  came  to  light  in  the 
middle  of  the  19th  century,  and  showed  the  freedom  which 
Pope  permitted  himself  in  editing.  The  correspondence  with 
Lord  Oxford,  preserved  at  Longleat,  afforded  further  evidence 
of  his  tortuous  deahngs.  The  methods  he  employed  to  secure 
his  correspondence  with  Swift  were  even  more  discreditable. 
The  proceedings  can  only  be  explained  as  the  measures  of  a 
desperate  man  whose  maladies  -seem  to  have  engendered  a. 
passion  for  trickery.  They  are  related  in  detail  by  Elwin  in 
the  introduction  to  vol.  i.  of  Pope's  Works.  A  man  who  is  said 
to  have  "played  the  politician  about  cabbages  and  turnips," 
and  who  "  hardly  drank  tea  without  a  stratagem,"  was  not 
likely  to  be  straightforward  in  a  matter  in  which  his  ruling 
passion  was  concerned.  Against  Pope's  petulance  and  "  general 
love  of  secrecy  and  cunning  "  have  to  be  set,  in  any  fair  judg- 
ment of  his  character,  his  exemplary  conduct  as  a  son,  the 
affection  with  which  he  was  regarded  in  his  own  circle  of 
intimates,  and  many  well-authenticated  instances  of  genuine 
and  continued  kindhness  to  persons  in  distress. 

Bibliography.— Various  collected  editions  of  Pope's  Works 
appeared  during  his  lifetime,  and  in  1751  an  edition  in  nine  volumes 
was  published  by  a  syndicate  of  booksellers  "  with  the  commentaries 
of  Mr  Warburton."  Warburton  interpreted  his  editorial  rights  very 
liberally.  By  his  notes  he  wilfully  misrepresented  the  meaning  of 
the  allusions  m  the  satires,  and  made  them  more  agreeable  to  his 
friends  and  to  the  court,  while  he  made  opportunities  for  the  gratifi- 
cation of  his  own  spite  against  various  individuals.  Joseph  Warton's 
edition  in  1797  added  to  the  mass  of  commentary  without  giving 
much  new  elucidation  to  the  allusions  of  the  text,  which  even  Swift 
with  his  exceptional  facilities,  had  found  obscure.  In  1 769-1 807  an 
edition  was  issued  which  included  Owen  Ruffhead's  Life  of  Alexander 


POPE,  A.— POPE,  SIR  T. 


87 


Pope  (1769),  inspired  by  Warburton.  The  notes  of  many  com- 
mentators, with  some  letters  and  a  memoir,  were  included  in  the 
Works  of  Alexander  Pope,  edited  by  W.  L.  Bowles  (10  vols.,  1806). 
His  Poetical  Works  were  edited  by  Alexander  Dyce  (1856);  by  R. 
Carruthers  (1858)  for  Bohn's  Library;  iDy  A.  W.  Ward  {Globe  Edition, 
1869),  &c.  Materials  for  a  definitive  edition  were  collected  by  John 
Wilson  Croker,  and  formed  the  basis  of  what  has  become  the  standard 
version.  The  Works  of  Alexander  Pope  (10  vols.,  1871-1898),  including 
unpublished  letters  and  other  new  material,  with  introduction  and 
notes  by  W.  Elwin  and  W.  J.  Courthope.  The  life  of  Pope  in 
vol.  V.  was  contributed  by  Professor  Courthope.  The  chief  original 
authority  besides  Pope's  correspondence  and  Ruffhead's_  Life  is 
Joseph  Spence's  Anecdotes,  published  by  S.  W.  Singer  in  1820. 
Samuel  Johnson  gives  a  good  estimate  of  Pope  in  his  Lives  of  (he 
Poets,  The  best  modern  lives  are  that  by  Professor  Courthope, 
already  mentioned ;  and  Alexander  Pope,  by  Sir  L.  Stephen,  in  the 
English  Men  of  Letters  series  (1880).  See  also  George  Paston,  Mr 
Pope:  His  Life  and  Times  (1909).  The  first  check  to  the  admiration 
that  prevailed  during  Pope's  lifetime  was  given  by  the  publication  of 
Joseph  Warton's  Essay  on  the  Writings  and  Genius  of  Pope  (vol.  i., 
1757;  vol.  ii.,  1782).  Warton  had  a  sincere  appreciation  of  Pope's 
work,  but  he  began  the  reaction  which  culminated  with  the 
romantic  writers  of  the  beginning  of  the  19th  century,  and  set  the 
fashion  of  an  undue  disparagement  of  Pope's  genius  as  a  poet  with 
enduring  effects  on  popular  opinion.  Thomas  Campbell's  criticism 
in  his  Specimens  of  the  British  Poets  provoked  a  controversy  to  which 
William  Hazlitt,  Byron  and  W.  L.  Bowles  contributed.  For  a 
discussion  of  Pope's  position  as  one  of  the  great  men  of  letters  in  the 
1 8th  century  who  emancipated  themselves  from  patronage,  see 
A.  Beljame,  Le  Public  et  les  hommes  de  lettres  en  An^leterre  au  dix- 
huitieme  sihcle  (1881) ;  a  section  of  Isaac  D'Israeli's  Quarrels  of 
Authors  is  devoted  to  Pope's  literary  animosities;  and  most  impor- 
tant contributions  to  many  vexed  questions  in  the  biography  of 
Pope,  especially  the  publication  of  his  letters,  were  made  by  C.  W. 
Dilke  in  Notes  and  Queries  and  the  Athenaeum.  These  articles 
were  reprinted  by  his  grandson,  Sir  Charles  Dilke,  in  1875,  as  The 
Papers  of  a  Critic.  (W.  M. ;  M.  Br.) 

POPE,  ALEXANDER  (1763-1835),  Irish  actor  and  painter, 
was  born  in  Cork,  and  was  educated  to  follow  his  father's 
profession  of  miniature  painting.  He  continued  to  paint 
miniatures  and  exhibit  them  at  the  Royal  Academy  as  late  as 
182 1 ;  but  at  an  early  date  he  took  the  stage,  first  appearing 
in  London  as  Oroonoko  in  1785  at  Covent  Garden.  He  remained 
at  this  theatre  almost  continuously  for  nearly  twenty  years, 
then  at  the  Haymarket  until  his  retirement,  playing  leading 
parts,  chieily  tragic.  He  was  particularly  esteemed  as  Othello 
and  Henry  VIII.  He  died  on  the  22nd  of  March  1835.  Pope 
was  thrice  married.  His  first  wife,  Elizabeth  Pope  (c.  1744- 
1797),  a  favourite  English  actress  of  great  versatility,  was  billed 
before  her  marriage  as  Miss  Younge.  His  second  wife,  Maria  Ann 
Pope  (1775-1803),  also  a  popular  actress,  was  a  member  of  an 
Irish  family  named  Campion.  His  third  wife,  Clara  Maria  Pope 
(d.  1838),  was  the  widow  of  the  artist  Francis  Wheatley,  and 
herself  a  skilful  painter  of  figures  and  of  flowers. 

POPE,  JANE  (174  2-1 8 1 8),  Enghsh  actress,  daughter  of  a 
London  theatrical  wig-maker,  who  began  playing  in  a  Lilli- 
putian company  for  Garrick  in  1756.  From  this  she  speedily 
developed  into  soubrette  roles.  She  was  Mrs  Candour  in  The 
School  for  Scandal  at  its  first  presentation  (1777),  and  thereafter 
she  had  many  important  parts  confided,  to  her.  She  was  the 
life-long  friend  of  Mrs  Clive,  and  erected  the  monument  at 
Twickenham  to  the  latter's  memory.  She  was  not  only  an 
admirable  actress,  but  a  woman  of  blameless  life,  and  was 
praised  by  all  the  literary  critics  of  her  day — unused  to  such  a 
combination.     She  died  on  the  30th  of  July  1818. 

POPE,  JOHN  (1822-1892),  American  soldier,  was  the  son  of 
Nathaniel  Pope  (1784-1850),  U.S.  judge  for  the  district  of 
Illinois,  and  was  born  at  Louisville,  Kentucky,  on  the  i6th  of 
March  1822.  He  graduated  at  the  United  States  Military 
Academy  in  1842  and  was  assigned  to  the  engineers.  He  served 
in  the  Mexican  War,  receiving  the  brevets  of  ist  lieutenant  and 
captain  for  his  conduct  at  Monterey  and  Buena  Vista.  Sub- 
sequently he  was  engaged  in  engineering  and  exploring  work, 
mainly  in  New  Mexico,  and  in  surveying  the  route  for  a  Pacific 
railroad.  He  was  commissioned  captain  in  1856.  He  was 
actively  opposed  to  the  Buchanan  administration,  and  a  speech 
which  he  made  in  connexion  with  the  presidential  campaign 
of  i860  caused  him  to  be  summoned  before  a  court-martial. 
Early  in  the  Civil  War  he  was  placed,  as  a  brigadier-general 


U.S. v.,  in  charge  of  the  district  of  Missouri,  which  by  vigorous 
campaigning  against  [jguerrilla  bands  and  severe  administration  of 
the  civil  population  he  quickly  reduced  to  order.  In  1862,  along 
with  the  gunboat  flotilla  (commanded  by  Commodore  A.  H. 
Foote)  on  the  Mississippi,  Pope  obtained  a  great  success  by  the 
capture  of  the  defences  of  New  Madrid  and  Island  No.  10,  with 
nearly  7000  prisoners.  Pope  subsequently  joined  Halleck,  and  in 
command  of  the  Army  of  the  Mississippi  took  part  in  the  siege  of 
Corinth.  He  was  now  a  major-general  U.S.V.  The  repu- 
tation he  had  thus  gained  as  an  energetic  leader  quickly 
placed  him  in  a  high  command,  to  which  he  proved  to  be  quite 
unequal.  The  "  Army  of  Virginia,"  as  his  new  forces  were 
styled,  had  but  a  brief  career.  At  the  very  outset  of  his  Virginian 
campaign  Pope,  by  a  most  Ul-advised  order,  in  which  he  con- 
trasted the  performances  of  the  Western  troops  with  the  failures 
of  the  troops  in  Virginia,  forfeited  the  confidence  of  his  officers 
and  men.  The  feeling  of  the  Army  of  the  Potomac  (which  was 
ordered  to  his  support)  was  equally  hostile,  and  the  short  opera- 
tions culminated  in  the  disastrous  defeat  of  the  second  battle  of 
Bull  Run.  Pope  was  still  sanguine  and  ready  for  another  trial  of 
strength,  but  he  was  soon  compelled  to  reahze  the  impossibility 
of  retrieving  his  position,  and  resigned  the  command.  Bitter 
controversy  arose  over  these  events.  Halleck,  the  general-in- 
chief,  was  by  no  means  free  from  blame,  but  the  public  odium 
chiefly  fell  upon  generals  McClellan  and  Fitz-John  Porter,  against 
whom  Pope,  while  admitting  his  own  mistakes,  made  grave 
charges.  Pope  was  not  again  employed  in  the  Civil  War,  but  in 
command  of  the  Department  of  the  North-West  he  showed  his 
former  skill  and  vigour  in  deahng  with  Indian  risings.  In  1865 
he  was  made  brevet  major-general  U.S.A.  (having  become 
brigadier-general  on  his  appointment  to  the  Army  of  Virginia), 
and  he  subsequently  was  in  charge  of  various  military  districts 
and  departments  until  his  retirement  in  1886.  In  1882  he  was 
promoted  to  the  full  rank  of  major-general  U.S.A.  General 
Pope  died  at  Sandusky,  Ohio,  on  the  23rd  of  September  1892. 

He  was  the  author  of  various  works  and  papers,  including  railway 
reports  {Pacific  Railroad  Reports  vol.  iii.)  and  The  Campaign  of 
Virginia  (Washington,  1865). 

POPE,  SIR  THOMAS  (c.  1507-1559),  founder  of  Trinity  College, 
Oxford,  was  born  at  Deddington,  near  Banbury,  Oxfordshire, 
probably  in  1507,  for  he  was  about  sixteen  years  old  when  his 
father,  a  yeoman  farmer,  died  in  1523.  He  was  educated  at 
Banbury  school  and  Eton  College,  and  entered  the  court  of 
chancery.  He  there  found  a  friend  and  patron  in  the  lord- 
chancellor  Thomas  Audley.  As  clerk  of  briefs  in  the  star 
chamber,  warden  of  the  mint  (i  534-1 536),  clerk  of  the  Crown  in 
chancery  (1537),  and  second  officer  and  treasurer  of  the  court 
for  the  settlement  of  the  confiscated  property  of  the  smaller 
religious  foundations,  he  obtained  wealth  and  influence.  In  this 
last  office  he  was  superseded  in  1541,  but  from  1547  to  1553  he 
was  again  employed  as  fourth  officer.  He  himself  won  by  grant 
or  purchase  a  considerable  share  in  the  spoils,  for  nearly  thirty 
manors,  which  came  sooner  or  later  into  his  possession,  were 
originally  church  property.  "  He  could  have  rode,"  said  Aubrey, 
"  in  his  owne  lands  from  Cogges  (by  Witney)  to  Banbury,  about 
18  miles."  In  1537  he  was  knighted.  The  rehgious  changes 
made  by  Edward  VI.  were  repugnant  to  him,  but  at  the  beginning 
of  Mary's  reign  he  became  a  member  of  the  privy  council.  In 
1556  he  was  sent  to  reside  as  guardian  in  Elizabeth's  house. 
As  early  as  1555  he  had  begun  to  arrange  for  the  endowment  of  a 
college  at  Oxford,  for  which  he  bought  the  site  and  buildings  of 
Durham  College,  the  Oxford  house  of  the  abbey  of  Durham,  from 
Dr  George  Owen  and  William  Martyn.  He  received  a  royal 
charter  for  the  establishment  and  endowment  of  a  college  of  the 
"  Holy  and  Undivided  Trinity  "  on  the  8th  of  March  1556.  The 
foundation  provided  for  a  president,  twelve  fellows  and  eight 
scholars,  with  a  schoolhouse  at  Hooknorton.  The  number  of 
scholars  was  subsequently  increased  to  twelve,  the  schoolhouse 
being  given  up.  On  the  28th  of  March  the  members  of  the 
coUege  were  put  in  possession  of  the  site,  and  they  were  formally 
admitted  on  the  29th  of  May  1556.  Pope  died  at  Clerkenwell 
on  the  29th  of  January  1559,  and  was  buried  at  St  Stephen's. 


88 


POPE-JOAN— POPILIA,  VIA 


Walbrook;  but  his  remains  were  subsequently  removed  to 
Trinity  College,  where  his  widow  erected  a  semi-Gothic  alabaster 
monument  to  his  memory.  He  was  three  times  married,  but 
left  no  children.  Much  of  his  property  was  left  to  charitable 
and  rehgious  foundations,  and  the  bulk  of  his  Oxfordshire 
estates  passed  to  the  family  of  his  brother,  John  Pope  of 
Wroxton,  and  his  descendants,  the  viscounts  DiUon  and  the 
earls  of  Guilford  and  barons  North. 

The  life,  by  H.  E.  D.  Blakiston,  in  the  Diet.  Nat.  Biog.,  corrects 
many  errors  in  Thomas  Warton's  Life  of  Sir  Thomas  Pope  (1772). 
Further  notices  by  the  same  authority  are  in  his  Trinity  College 
(1898),  in  the  "  College  Histories  "  Series,  and  in  the  English 
Historical  Review  (April,  i8g6). 

POPE-JOAN,  a  round  game  of  cards,  named  after  a  legendary 
female  Pope  of  the  9th  century.  An  ordinary  pack  is  used,  from 
which  the  eight  of  diamonds  has  been  removed,  and  a  special 
round  board  in  the  form  of  eight  compartments,  named  respec- 
tively Pope- Joan,  Matrimony,  Intrigue,  Ace,  King,  Queen,  Knave 
and  Game  (King,  Queen  and  Knave  are  sometimes  omitted). 
Each  player — any  number  can  play — contributes  a  stake,  of 
which  one  counter  is  put  into  the  divisions  Ace,  King,  Queen, 
Knave  and  Game,  two  into  Matrimony  and  Intrigue,  and  the 
rest  into  Pope- Joan.  This  is  called  "  dressing  the  board."  The 
cards  are  dealt  round,  with  an  extra  hand  for  "  stops,"  i.e.  cards 
which  stop,  by  their  absence,  the  completion  of  a  suit;  thus  the 
absence  of  the  nine  of  spades  stops  the  playing  of  the  ten.  The 
last  card  is  turned  up  for  trum_ps.  Cards  in  excess  may  be  dealt 
to  "  stops,"  or  an  agreed  number  may  be  left  for  the  purpose,  so 
that  aU  players  may  have  an  equal  number  of  cards.  If  an 
honour  or  "  Pope  "  (nine  of  diamonds)  is  turned  up,  the  dealer 
takes  the  counters  in  the  compartment  so  marked.  Sometimes 
the  turning-up  of  Pope  settles  the  hand,  the  dealer  taking  the 
whole  pool.  The  Ace  is  the  lowest  card,  the  King  the  highest. 
The  player  on  the  dealer's  left  plays  a  card  and  names  it;  the 
player  who  has  the  next  highest  then  plays  it,  till  a  stop  is  played, 
i.e.  a  card  of  which  no  one  holds  the  next  highest.  AU  Kings  are 
of  course  stops,  also  the  seven  of  diamonds;  also  the  cards  next 
below  the  dealt  stops,  and  the  cards  next  below  the  played  cards. 
After  a  stop  the  played  cards  are  turned  over,  and  the  player  of 
the  stop  (the  card  last  played)  leads  again.  The  player  who  gets 
rid  of  all  his  cards  first  takes  the  counters  in  "  Game,"  and 
receives  a  counter  from  each  player  for  every  card  left  in  his 
hand,  except  from  the  player  who  may  hold  Pope  but  has  not 
played  it.  The  player  of  Ace,  King,  Queen  or  Knave  of  trumps 
takes  the  counters  from  that  compartment.  If  King  and  Queen 
of  trumps  are  in  one  hand,  the  holder  takes  the  counters  in 
"  Matrimony  ";  if  a  Queen  and  Knave,  those  in  "  Intrigue  ";  if 
all  three,  those  in  the  two  compartments;  if  they  are  in  different 
hands  these  counters  are  sometimes  divided.  Unclaimed  stakes 
are  left  for  the  next  pool.  Pope  is  sometimes  considered  a 
universal  "  stop." 

POPERINGHE,  an  ancient  town  of  West  Flanders,  12  m.  W.  of 
Ypres.  Pop.  (1904),  ri,68o.  It  contains  a  fine  church  of  the 
nth  century,  dedicated  to  St  Betin.  In  the  14th  century  it 
pro